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Trinity College, Dublin; M.A. of the Exeter College, Oxford; Ph.D. of University of 

Leipzig; Examiner in Hebrew and New Testament Greek, University 

of London; and Grinfield Lecturer on the Septuagint 

in the University of Oxford. 

Rearranged, with an Extended 


Including Index, Concordance, Etc., Etc., 

BY THE AMERICAN EDITOR. /%* . r\P^Rf£fc7 •O' 

AUG 28 1895 . 





Copyright, 1895. 
All rights reserved. 

Bible Readers' Aids. 



The Bible Readers' Aids is designed to present in brief, concise form, yet full enough for 
use, the information needed by Bible readers regarding questions of importance connected with 
the Holy Scripture. Especially is it the desire to present facts and topics not always conveniently 
accessible, and thus to make this a handbook of Bible knowledge for the general reader who 
wishes the information in a condensed form, as well as a ready compendium for the student who 
may have access to good libraries. 

The design has been to give the latest information in matters of biblical research, presenting 
fuily the facts and briefly the best theories, being always conservative, and never in any way 
suggesting any doubts in matters of the inspiration or authority of the Bible, but seeking to 
strengthen the readers' faith through an intelligent knowledge of the truth regarding the Scrip- 
ture. The present Aids has necessarily been confined within defined limits, but it is hoped that 
it will be found to meet all proper requirements. 

Most of the articles in these Aids are based upon contributions originally prepared for and 
used in the Manual issued w T ith other editions of this series of Bibles; but they have been 
rearranged by the editor of the Aids to meet the special plan of this edition. Some of the most 
useful papers, however, have been prepared for this series. 

The articles included in both editions were written by able writers representing the chief 
Protestant churches of Great Britain and America, especially qualified to treat biblical questions 
at once scholarly and popular. Care was taken to secure contributors who are believers in the 
Divine inspiration and the historical truth of the Holy Scriptures, and in the divinity of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. The Table of Contents will show the wide range of writers and 
the high scholarship of those enlisted in this undertaking. 

In this arrangement special care has been taken to avoid repetition, and thus not only to have 
all matters regarding one subject in one place, but also to save valuable space in the Aids. Prefer- 
ence has always been given, in the choice of material, to ascertained facts, though sometimes the 
authors' conclusions are stated, or the arguments of others are given, that the subject may be 
fuily treated as it may be seen to-day. 

The attention of the reader is especially called to the practical character of the topics chosen 
for presentation and to their convenient treatment. These include suggestions on the study of the 
Bible and its use in the church, Sunday-school, and home: articles on questions connected with 
the choice, arrangement, and history of the various books of the Bible; a complete system of 
chronology from the earliest to the latest events of Bible history, including a brief and excellent 
study of the history of the Jews, and of the early Christian church; clear explanations of ques- 
tions connected with the tabernacle, prophecies, sects, etc. ; admirable illustrated articles on the 
Bible as it is related to ancient contemporary peoples and their history, together with studies of 
Jewish antiquities, poetry, and music, and full discussions of the important and interesting sub- 
jects suggested by our knowledge of the land of the Bible. 

In the arrangement of these topics, special care has been taken to group them in convenient 
form for reference, so that any reader, with a few minutes of study, can know exactly where to 
find whatever subjects may be desired. This is independent of the very complete index to all 
important subjects treated found in the Word Book. Not only are the topics carefully grouped, 
but each article is presented in the manner which will make it most easily consulted; divisions 
of the subject, topics of the paragraphs, and important names are all printed prominently so that 
they may be readily seen. 

The publishers are especially gratified with the fact that they first introduced illustrations 
into Bible Helps, the first edition of this Manual containing some of the best illustrations yet 
published. In preparing these, in this edition as in the former, the aim has been to give simply 
a few typical illustrations, rather than to encumber the book with a large number of pictures, 
which increase the thickness without adding material value. These illustrations have been 
chosen with the greatest care by the editor and his assistants, and cover all necessary subjects. 
Some of them are given directly in connection with the text, and therefore are convenient for 



reference to the student. In other cases it was impossible to introduce them into the text, but 
where necessary the proper articles are mentioned. The writers have made frequent references 
to these illustrations in the body of the Aids, and the pictures themselves refer to the articles 
which they illustrate. 

The peculiar features of this edition are the Books of Reference and the Word Book. After each 
topic is given a selected list of books bearing upon that subject, for those who desire to continue 
the study more fully. While these lists are not complete, yet an eftbrt has been made to select 
books of practical value as well as scholarly attainments. 

The Word Book is a new feature in Bible Aids. It includes those words which have been 
usually given in various alphabetical lists, thus often requiring research in several places before 
the information could be obtained. When necessary to give fuller descriptions than possible in 
the Word Book, the index reference will give at once the clue to its page and column in the general 
a . . tales. This Word Hook forms the larger portion of the Aids, and includes Concordance, Index, 
Proper Names, Gazetteer, etc. It will commend itself to all desiring something for ready reference. 

It is confidently believed that this new edition will prove valuable, and that its unique 
features will commend themselves to Bible readers generally. 

The American Editor. 




These tablets, of which about 320 were found, are mostly letters from Phenicia, Syria, Pales- 
tine, Babylonia, etc., to Amenophis III. and IV. of Egypt, and other persons, concerning affairs 
in those countries between 1500 and 14-50 B.C. The Museum of Berlin possesses three in which the 
city Urusalim (Jerusalem) is mentioned. The text of the tablet here reproduced, which is one of 
the best specimens in the British Museum, is a letter sent by Tushratta, king of Mitani, to Mim- 
muria (=Neb-mut-Ra, Amenophis III.), king of Egypt, his son-in-law, concerning their friend- 
ship, etc., and asking for a gift of gold. A list of the gifts sent on this occasion by Tushratta to 
the king of Egypt closes the document. Date about 1500 B.C. 



i„v.J ?^ 0i \ bl ? e ^° ne ' now in the Museum of the Louvre, Paris. It was found at Diban, in the 
iana olMoab, in 1868, and is dedicated to Chemosh (the principal god of the land) by Mesha, king 
2^°ir' wh ° se victory over the Israelites- in the time of Ahab (about 875 B.C.) it records, together 
,^1 •iT?i Ca P4 fc J? r o e . ^ Aterotn > Nebo, and Jahaz, and the restoration of several cities. The stone is 
!S«k o* Y 11 ^ 34 lln , es of inscription in the Phenician character, and measures 3 feet 10 inches 
?o¥ ' £* W1 ?^' and 14 ^ incn es thick. The text has been completed from the paper "squeezes" 
tafcen before the original was broken, the restored places being the smoother portion of the 

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This stone is a slab of black basalt, discovered in 1799 among ruins near the Rosetta mouth of 
the Nile. The British Museum obtained possession of it a little later. It has inscribed upon it a 
decree of the priests of Egypt, at Memphis, in honor of Ptolemy V., Epiphanes, in recognition of 
the benefits conferred by him upon his people. The inscription is first in hieroglyphics, or the 
writing of the priests; second, in demotic, or the writing of the people; and third, in Greek. The 
stone furnished the first clue to the decipherment of the Egyptian hieroglyphics of the monu- 
ments. The Greek inscription was easily read, and it being evident that this was a translation of 
the hieroglyphics, the key was obtained. It was also found that the oval rings or " cartouches " 
contained the royal names, and from these a part of the alphabet was arranged. 




The first row of bas-reliefs shows the tribute of Sua, of the land of the Kirzanaa; the second 
that of " Yaua, mar Khumri" (Jehu, son of Omri) (see also article Ethnology of the Bible, par- 
agraph 6) ; the third row has the tribute of the Musri ; the fourth that of Marduk-abla-usur, of the 
land of the Sukhaa: and the fifth gives the tribute of Garparunda, of the land of the Patinaa. 
Found at Nimroud (Calah). 










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Rameses II. was one of the greatest conquerors among the kings of Egypt. He was famous 
also as a builder of temples and cities, including the treasure-cities of Raamses and Pithom, 
built by the Israelites. He is regarded as the Pharaoh of the oppression. In the illustration 
(from a statue in the British Museum) he is kneeling, holding a table of offerings. 




Mummy in coffin and lid of coffin beside it. 


Shekel of Simon Maccabeus. Silver. 

Half-Shekel. Silver. 

Coin of Augustus, struck at Antioch; known in the New Testament as the Assarion 

or Farthing. Bronze. 

Denarius of Tiberius— the "Penny." Silver. 

Small Jewish Coin of Alexander Jann^us, probably the "Mite." Bronze, b.c. 105-78. 



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This celebrated scroll is in the synagogue of Nablus (ancient Shechem). It is written on 
ram-skins about 15 by 25 inches in size, which are much worn and stained. The text is writ- 
ten in gold, which still preserves its luster. It is kept in a cylindrical silvered case, opened on two 
sets of hinges. The outside of the case is richly embossed to illustrate the tabernacle of the wilder- 
ness, the ark of the covenant, altars, and other sacred implements. 


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The above page begins at Deut. 4: 48, and closes after the first sentence of chap. 5: 14, which 
verse commences the last line. The writing is read from right to left. Points are put between 
the words, but the letters are often separated from the word to which they belong, in order to 
make the lines complete, for in Semitic writing it is not allowed to carry a syllable over to 
the following line. 

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Exodus 19: 24-20: 17, with the Massorah Magna and Parva. 



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I. Tlie Sinaitic Codex was discovered by Tischendorf at Mt. Sinai in 1859, and is now in the 
Imperial Library at St. Petersburg. There are 346% leaves, 13% inches wide and 15 finches long. 
The text is in beautiful uncial letters, and is of the fourth century. 

II. The Alexandrian Codex, now in the British Museum, belongs to the fifth century. It was 
brought from Egypt in 1628. The letters of the text are large and elegant uncials. Each page has 
two columns, each of fifty lines, with about twenty letters to the line. (See p. 25.) 


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1. How to Study tlie Bible. By Rev. James Stalker, D.D., Author of "Imago 

Christi," etc., Glasgow, 5 

2. The Sunday-School Teacher's Use of the Bible. By Rev. John H. Vincent, 

LL.D., Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 7 

3. The Christian Worker and His Bible. By Major D. W. Whittle, Philadelphia, 9 

(1) For General Use as Showing the Plan of Salvation, 9 

(2) Texts for Special Cases, 10 

(3) Forty Questions Answered from the Word of God, 11 

4. Calendar for the Daily Reading of the Bible. By Major D. W. Whittle, - - 12 

5. The Bible and the Christian Church. By Rev. A. E. Dunning, D.D., Boston, 

Secretary of the Congregational Sunday-School Union, ------ 14 

6. The Inspiration of the Bible. By the Late Rev. Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D., 

Professor in the Union Theological Seminary, New York; with Notes by 
Rev. C. H. H. Wright, D.D., Ph.D., - 16 

7. On the Interpretation of Scripture. By Prof. Wilbert W. White, Ph.D., As- 

sociate Director, Biblical Department of the Bible Institute, Chicago, 18 


1. The Canon of the Old Testament. By Rev. Chas. H. H. Wright, D.D., Ph.D., 

Grinfleld Lecturer on the LXX., Oxford, 21 

2. The Canon of the New Testament. By Rev. Alfred Plummer, M.A., D.D., 

Master of University College, Durham, -23 

3. The Languages and Manuscripts of the Bible. By Rev. J. P. Landis, D.D., 

Ph.D., Professor of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis, Union Biblical 
Seminary, Dayton, 24 

4. Ancient Versions of the Bible : 

(1) The Old Testament. By William Rainey Harper, Ph.D., President of the 
University of Chicago, -- 26 

(2) The Old and New Testaments. By William Rainey Harper, Ph.D., - 26 

(3) The New Testament. By Rev. Alfred Plummer, M.A., D.D., 27 

5. The English Versions of the Bible. By Rev. Henry Evans, D.D., H. M. Com- 

missioner of National Education, Ireland, 28 


1. The Old Testament— Summary of the Books. By George J. Spurrell, M.A., 

Balliol College, Oxford, Late Examiner in Hebrew and New Testament 
Greek, University of London; and Rev. Chas. H. H. Wright, D.D., Ph.D., 
Grinfield Lecturer on the LXX., University of Oxford, and Examiner in 
Hebrew and New Testament Greek, University of London, 30 

2. The Apocryphal Books of the Old Testament. By George J. Spurrell, M.A., - 42 

3. The New Testament— Summary of the Books. By Rev. Alfred Plummer, M.A., 

D.D., 43 

4. The New Testament Apocrypha. By Rev. William Heber Wright, M.A., 

Trinity College, Dublin, Rector of St. George's, Worthing, ----- 55 





1. Old Testament Chronology. By Rev. Owen C. Whitehouse, M.A., Professor of 

Hebrew, Chesthunt College, near London, 57 

2. Table of the Prophetical Books. By Jesse L. Hurlbut, D.D., Corresponding 

Secretary of the Sunday-School Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
New York, 64 

3. Chronology of Period Intervening Between the Age of Malachi and the Birth of 

Christ. By Rev. Owen C. Whitehouse, M.A., 65 

4. Jewish History Between the Evening of the Old Testament Dispensation and the 

Morning of the New. By Rev. J. B. Heard, M.A., Caius College, Cambridge; 
Vicar of Queen-Charlton, Bath; Late Hulsean Lecturer in the University of 
Cambridge, 68 

5. The Herodian Family Table in Connection with the New Testament. By Rev. 

A. R. Fausset, D.D., Canon and Prebendary of York; Sometime University 
Scholar and Senior Classical Moderator of the Trinity College, Dublin, - - 69 

6. Brief Chronological Conspectus of New Testament History, Including Roman Em- 

perors and Governors of Palestine. By Rev. Prof. Owen C. White- 
house, M.A., 70 

7. Summary of the Gospel Incidents and Harmony of the Four Gospels. By Rev. 

A. R. Fausset, D.D., 73 

8. Sketch of Apostolic History, Including Paul's Missionary Journeys and the 

Voyage to Rome. By Rev. A. R. Fausset, D.D., 80 

9. The Sub-Apostolic Age. By Rev. Henry Cowan, D.D., Professor of Church His- 

tory, University of Aberdeen, 81 

10. Hebrew Festivals. By Rev. Prof. Owen C. Whitehouse, M.A., 82 

11. Hebrew Calendar. By Rev. Prof. Owen C. Whitehouse, M.A., 85 


1. Politico-Religious Parties Among the Jews in the Time of Christ. By Rev. 

C. R. Blackall, D.D., Editor of Periodicals, American Baptist Publication 
Society, - --------- 86 

2. The Tabernacle and the Temple, Including the Temple of Solomon, of Zerubba- 

bel, and of Herod. By Rev. Chas. H. H. Wright, D.D., Ph.D., - - - - 90 

3. The Messianic Prophecies, Inclusive of the Names, Offices, and Titles of Jesus 

Christ. By Rev. George Adam Smith, D.D., Professor of Hebrew and Old 
Testament Exegesis, Free Church College, Glasgow, 93 

4. New Testament Quotations from the Old. By Rev. Wibeiam Heber Wright, 

M.A., with The Editor, 97 

5. References to the Old Testament Histories in the New Testament. By Rev. 

Wieliam Heber Wright, M.A., with The Editor, 107 

6. Parables and Miracles of the Bible. By Rev. C. H. H. Wright, D.D., Ph.D., - - 108 

7. The Lord's Prayer. By Rev. Hugh Macmilban, D.D., LL.D., F.R.S.E., Greenock, - 111 

8. The Sermon on the Mount. By Rev. Alexander Stewart, D.D., Principal of 

St. Mary's College, University of St. Andrews, - 112 

9. Hebrew Poetry. By Rev. A. B. Davidson, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Hebrew, etc., 

New College, Edinburgh, 113 

10. The Music of the Bible. By Rev. T. K. Abbott, D.Litt., F.T.C.D., Professor of 

Hebrew in the University of Dublin, '- - - - 115 

11. Weights, Money, and Measures. By Rev. Proe. Owen C. Whitehouse, M.A., - 117 



1. Babylonia and Assyria. By Theophiltjs G. Pinches, M.R.A.S., Department of 

Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum, London. 

(1) Babylonia and Assyria: History, ----------- 119 

(2) Babylonia and Assyria : Influence of Their Religion on Israel, - 121 

(3) The Babylonian Story of the Flood, 121 

(4) The Bible and the Literature of Babylonia and Assyria, 122 

(5) Customs of the Israelites Which may be Traced to Babylonia, - 122 

2. Egypt. By Theophieus G. Pinches, M.R.A.S. 

(1) Egyptian History, 123 

(2) Religion of Egypt, 124 

3. Persia. By Theophieus G. Pinches, M.R.A.S. 

(1) Persia and the Jews, 124 

(2) The Jews and the Religion of Persia, - 125 

4. Phenicia and Surrounding States. By Theophieus G. Pinches, M.R.A.S. 

(1) Phenicia, - 125 

(2) The Religion of the Phenicians and the Nations to the North of the 

Israelites, - 126 

(3) The Aramean States, - - - 127 

(4) The Hittites and Hamath, 127 

(5) Commercial Relations of the Israelites, 128 

(6) Influence of the Art of the Nations Around on that of Israel, - - - - 128 


1. Geography of the Bible. By Major Ceaude R. Conder, D.C.L., LL.D., M.R.A.S., 

R.E., Southampton, - 130 

2. The Ethnology of the Bible. By Theophieus G. Pinches, M.R.A.S., Department 

of Assyrian and Egyptian Antiquities, British Museum, London, - - - 137 

3. Geology and Mineralogy of the Land of the Bible. By V. Ball, C.B., LL.D., 

F.R.S., Director, Science and Art Museum, Dublin, - - - - - - - 142 

4. The Animals and Plants of the Bible, 143 

PART VIII.- WORD BOOK, - - - - 145 

The explanations, use of terms, etc., of the Word Book are based principally upon 
articles written by those whose names are given below. 

1. Biblical Antiquities, Customs, Etc. By Rev. Henry Evans, D.D., H. M. Com- 

missioner of National Education, Ireland. 

2. Glossary of Archaic, Obsolete, and Obscure Words in the English Bible. By 

Rev. Henry Evans, D.D. 

3. Alphabetical List of the Proper Names in the Bible ; with Their Meanings in the 

Original Languages, and Their Pronunciation in English. By Rev. C. H. H. 
Wright, D.D., Ph.D. 

4. All Important Words in Other Departments— Hebrew Months, Festivals, Money, 

Musical Terms, Etc. 

5. Animals. By E. Percevae Wright, M.A., M.D., Dublin; M.A., Oxon., etc.; Pro- 

fessor of Botany in the University of Dublin. 

6. Plants. By E. Percevae Wright, M.A., M.D. 

7. Minerals. By V. Baee, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., Director, Science and Art Museum, 


8. Names of Places and Biblical Gazetteer, with References to Maps. 

9. Index to Persons, Places, and Subjects of the Bible. 

10. Concordance. 

11. General Index to the Contents of these AIDS. 




I. Tel-el-Amakna Tablet. 

II. The Moabite Stone. 

III. The Rosetta Stone. 

IV. The Black Marble Obelisk of Shalmaneser II. 
V. The Prism of Sennacherib. 

VI. Cylinder of Cyrus II. 

VII. Rameses II. 

VIII. Egyptian Mummy and Its Coffin. 

IX. Jewish and Other Coins. 

X. The Samaritan Pentateuch (Nablus). 

XI. Page of the Text of the Samaritan Pentateuch. 

XII. Page of Hebrew Manuscript. 

XIII. Facsimiles of Greek New Testament Manuscripts. 

(By permission of American Tract Society, from Barrows' Companion to the Bible.) 

XIV. Early English Manuscript Bible, Etc. 

(By permission of American S. S. Union, from Our Sixty-Six Sacred Books,) 

XV. Tyndale's New Testament. 

(From same as above.) 

XVI. View of Nazareth. 


The Rosetta Stone as it Appears in the British Museum, - - - - - - - 20 

Specimen of Anglo-Saxon Version, - 29 

Men and Horses of King Assur-nasir-apli Crossing a River, ------ 59 

Babylonian Brick Inscription, _-._ 64 

Egyptian Mummy and Its Sepulcher,- - - - - 72 

The Mosaic Tabernacle, --- -------- 90 

Plan of the Tabernacle and Its Enclosure, 91 

Elamite Musicians Coming to Welcome the New Ruler, - - - - - - - 116 

assur-bani-apli hunting llons, - 119 

The Babylonian Account of the Flood. A Fragment, 122 

Tiberias and the Sea of Galilee, 129 

Jewish Tribute-Bearers (Black Obelisk), 139 

Head from a Statue from Tel-Loh (Akkadian), ,---140 

Elamite Soldiers and an Official, ----140 




THE best preparation for the successful study 
of the Bible is deep devotion to Him who 
is its Author, and to the Saviour of whom it 
speaks. But only second to this is a good method 
of study, which will conduct the mind natural- 
ly into the subject, and lead it on from attain- 
ment to attainment. Love quickens study; and 
study, pursued in the right way, increases love. 


The way in which, as children, we are taught 
to read the Bible is to take a chapter, or per- 
haps a smaller portion, daily, or perhaps twice 
a day— in the morning and at night; and, when 
those who may have dropped the habit of 
Bible-reading take it up again, during some sea- 
son of religious impression, this is usually the 
way they begin. Perhaps they go through a 
book, reading a chapter every day ; or they may 
take a chapter of the Old Testament in the 
morning and one of the New in the evening. 

When this mode of reading is followed, that 
which the reader generally gets is a verse here 
and there which warms his heart at the mo- 
ment and remains for a shorter or longer period 
in the memory. Now and then, indeed, the 
chapter may be such a connected whole— like 
the fifty-third of Isaiah or the thirteenth of I. 
Corinthians— that it goes into the mind entire ; 
and sometimes a few verses are so connected 
that they can scarcely help making a united 
impression; but in general the profit of this 
kind of reading lies in the impression made by 
isolated and striking verses. 

The division of the Bible into chapters and 
verses facilitates this kind of study, and, in- 
deed, was invented for the purpose. But these 
divisions do not belong to the original book. 
On the contrary, they are a comparatively mod- 
ern device. 

Of all modes of Bible reading, the most un- 
profitable and deadening is to read a daily 
chapter and then lay the book aside without 
attempting to retain any definite impression. 
Means, therefore, require to be taken to over- 
come this tendency. It is a good plan, as we 
read, to pick out the choicest verse in the chap- 
ter—the one most attractive in itself or most 
adapted to our circumstances— and, before clos- 
ing the book, commit it to memory. Then let 
it be kept in the mind till the next reading. In 
this way the memory is gradually stored with 
a collection of choice texts, and, almost una- 
wares, the reader becomes the possessor of spir- 
itual wealth. 

The selected text may be imprinted still more 
deeply on the mind by writing out a few lines 
of reflection on it. Something thus to awaken 
the mind and concentrate the attention should 
be devised by every one; because it is not mere 
reading, but meditation, which extracts the 
sweetness and power out of Scripture. 


There are many who never all their days ad- 
vance beyond the method of reading the Scrip- 
tures which I have called the study of texts. 
But it is a more masculine and advanced 
method to study the books of the Bible as 
connected wholes. 

The advantages of this method are here indi- 
cated. In the first place, it makes you feel the 
impression of the book as a whole. Nearly 
every book of the Bible may be said to be a 
discussion of some particular theme. For ex- 
ample, Job is on the Problem of Evil, Ecclesi- 
astes is on the Highest Good, Romans is on 
Righteousness, Timothy and Titus on the Pas- 
toral Office, and so on. It has pleased God thus 
to give in his Word full statements on a num- 
ber of the greatest subjects; and to master the 
contents of these books is to fill the mind with 
the great thoughts of God. 

The other advantage is, that the different 
parts of a book are much more intelligible 
when read in the light of the whole. It is sur- 
prising how clear the meaning of obscure verses 
sometimes becomes when they are seen in their 
place in the entire structure to which they be- 
long; and verses which have been impressive 
by themselves sometimes receive an entirely 
new importance when they are seen to be the 
keystones of an argument whose strength de- 
pends upon their truth. 

Some may think this method of studying 
whole books to be above them, because de- 
manding too much time. But few know how 
limited the Bible literature is. Even a long 
book, like Job, can be read without haste in 
a couple of hours; and many books scarcely 
take longer than ordinary letters. In fact, they 
are j ust letters. 

Of course, the Bible is not to be always read 
as quickly as this. But to read rapidly is a 
great advantage when what you wish is to 
catch the drift of a book as a whole. When this 
has been done, it is a good thing to note some- 
where, say at the top of the book in your Bible, 
what the theme is and where the chief hinges 
of the story or argument come in; because, 
in the subsequent reading of chapters of the 
same book, you can refer to this scheme and see 
in what portion of the whole you are. 

A more serious impediment will sometimes 
be encountered in the difficulty of making out 
what the drift of a book is. The articles on the 
different books in any Bible dictionary, or in Dr. 
Wright's Introduction to the Old Testament, or 
Dr. Dods' Introduction to the New Testament, will 
help (see also list of books below) ; and the use 
of the Revised Version along with the Author- 
ized will clear away many obstacles. 

The best help to the understanding of any 
book of the Bible is knowledge of the time and 
circumstances in which it was composed. If 


you know in what circumstances the author 
was when he was writing, and what was the 
condition of those he was writing to, there is 
generally little difficulty in understanding what 
he says. Id this way some of the Bible hooks 
throw light on one another. The histories of 
the kings, for example, in t lie Old Testament, 
explain the prophets who wrote in the reigns 
of those kings; and the life of St. Paul in the 
Acts of the Apost les throws light on his epistles. 
Some modern hooks make excellent use of the 
same method, among which there is no better 
example than Conybeare and Howson's Life of 
St. /'an/, which thus casts a flood of light oh 
the apostle's writings. 

Yet let it always he remembered that, what- 
ever assistance may be derived from these and 
similar sources, the most serviceable division 
for every one will be that which he has made 
for himself. 


This is a method of study more advanced 
than that of which we have just spoken, but 
following naturally upon it; and it is one 
which at the present time is proving to many 
so fascinating as almost to make the Bible a 
new book. 

When the books of the Bible are carefully ex- 
amined, it is found that not only is each book a 
connected whole, but sometimes several books, 
either on account of their chronological prox- 
imity, or from being penned by the same hand, 
or for other reasons, all bear the impress of the 
same type of thought. It is advantageous to 
study them together; because they cast light on 
one another arid produce on the mind a united 
impression or effect. In the Old Testament there 
are three outstanding groups — the historical, 
the poetical, and the prophetical books; and in 
the New Testament we may distinguish four 
great groups— first, the synoptic Gospels and the 
Acts; secondly, the writings of St. Peter, and 
along with them, Hebrews, St. James, and St. 
Jude; thirdly, the epistles of St. Paul; and, 
fourthly, the writings of St. John. Within these 
large groups smaller ones may be formed. 

The principal charm of this mode of study is 
the perception of the growth of revelation. 
When the books of the Bible are thus arranged, 
and the groups placed in chronological succes- 
sion, it becomes manifest at once that there is 
in them a gradual unfolding of the truth. Even 
in the career of a single writer, like St. Paul, 
this is perfectly manifest. The ideas of his ear- 
lier epistles are much simpler than those of the 
later ones. 

The scientific name given to the results of 
this method of study is Biblical Theology. The 
following books are helpful: Oehler'sOtd Tes- 
tament Theoloc/i/, and The Theology of the New 
Testament by Reuss, Weiss, or Van Oosterzee. 


The three methods of study already spoken of 
inevitably lead on to a fourth, which is more 
advanced than any of them. This is the study 
of the doctrine of Scripture. 

The study of verses and chapters yields us the 
truth contained in separate morsels of Holy 
Writ; and the study of whole books or groups 
of books gives the mastery of larger portions of 
the divine revelation. But it is inevitable to 
t liose who go so far to ask, What is the message 
conveyed by God to man in the Bible as a 
whole? Though the Bible is a large collection 
of separate books, each of which contains its 
own leading thought, it is, in another aspect, 
one book, conveying to the sinful children of 
men the mind of the loving and redeeming 
God. What, then, is this message? As we ascer- 
tain the meaning of the verses and the messages 
of the books, we arc collecting fragments of it ; 

but what is it as a whole? The catechisms, the 
creeds, and the doctrinal systems of thechurehes 
are attempts to answer this question. 

if we, grasping the message conveyed by all 
the books taken together, express it in our own 
words, we are doing what the other methods 
of study, which every one applauds, have made 

In like manner, to avail ourselves, in this 
study, of the help and guidance of the great 
and good who in the past have devoted them- 
selves to the same task, is only to do what is 
done in every other department of knowledge. 
A good catechism or manual of Christian doc- 
trine serves to the student of Scripture the 
same purpose as is served to the tourist in Switz- 
erland or Norway by his Murray or Baedeker. 
He will be ill-advised indeed if he does not use 
and trust his own eyes and allow the Scriptures 
to make on him their own natural impression, 
just as the traveler, if he has any wisdom, will 
not wait to see what the guide-book says before 
enjoying a lake or a mountain or a sunset, if it 
happen to be beautiful. But the catechism will 
direct him to the most important statements of 
Scripture, and acquaint him with the relation 
of the different parts of truth to one another, 
in the very same way as the guide-book con- 
ducts the tourist to the best points of view 
and shows him, in the map, the relation to 
each other of the different parts of the country. 
Nor is it wiser to scorn such assistance from 
the thinkers of the past, and act as if the study 
of the Bible had begun with us, than it would 
be to go to a foreign country without a guide- 
book on the ground that every one should see 
the world with his own eyes. 

Here, however, as before, the principle holds 
good that the truth most valuable to us will 
be that which, whether with assistance from 
others or not, we have appropriated by our own 
thinking and confirmed by our own experience. 

A simple plan is to take a single doctrine at a 
time, such as the love of God, the person of 
Christ, or the destiny of man, and collect from 
the different books or groups of books in chron- 
ological order the most important passages 
bearing on the subject. This will frequently 
be found to yield surprising results, disclosing 
unexpected points of view, and producing on 
the mind an overwhelming total impression; 
and, applied to truth after truth round the circle 
of doctrine, it will supply to any diligent student 
a comprehensive and scriptural theology. 

It has pleased God to give us the whole Bible; 
and it ought to be the ambition of the Christian 
mind to take complete possession of it. The 
volume of our joy throughout eternity may 
depend on the faithfulness and diligence with 
which we now make use of this precious herit- 

It will be observed that these different modes 
of study do not exclude, but supplement, one 
another. The simpler lead on to the more elab- 
orate; but it is not less true that the attempt 
to cultivate the more difficult kinds of study 
will lend new interest to the daily reading of 
brief portions of the Word, which must always 
for the great majority of Christians be the com- 
mon way of using this means of grace. 

Books of Reference: In addition to the books 
mentioned above are, Bishop Ellicott's Plain Intro- 
ductions to the Books of the Bible; Dr. W. G. Moore- 
head's Outline Studies in the Books of the Old Testament; 
Farrar's Messages of the Books; Fraser's Synoptical Lec- 
tures on the Books of the Bible; The Cambridge Bible for 
Schools; the article on the Bible in Chambers's Encyclo- 
jxvdia; Angus' Bible Handbook; D. L. Moody's How to 
Study the Bible; Boy oe^s Abstract of Systematic. Theology; 
Pope's Higher Catechism of Theology; Bernard's Prog- 
ress of Doctrine in the New Testament; Nicholls' Help 
to the Reading of the Bible; Moody ^ Pleasure and Profit 
in Bible Study; Hodge's Outlines of Theology; Mill- 
ion! 's Lejmblic of God; also books under various special 


By REV. JOHN H. VINCENT, LL.D., Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 


1. The Bible is the one text-book of the Sun- 
day-school teacher. 

2. The Bible becomes exceedingly important 
when we find its relation to the work of the 
Holy Spirit in the salvation of men. It enlight- 
ens, quickens, converts, sanctifies, edifies, etc. 
No wonder it is in itself compared to "seed," 
"word," "fire," "manna," "silver," "gold," etc. 

3. The Bible is to be used by the whole church 
—the ministry and the laity. 

4. The teacher's use of the Bible, to be effect- 
ive, requires the aid of the Holy Spirit. 

5. The teacher's use of the Bible must, how- 
ever, be in harmony with the true, natural, and 
human laws of teaching. 

6. The teacher's use of trie Bible is twofold- 
personal and professional. 

7. The teacher must use the Bible to find 
Christy since Christ the Word is in his Word. 

8. The teacher must also seek the indwelling 
of Christ, that he may say, "I live; yet not I, 
but Christ liveth in me." 

9. The teacher thus finding Christ in the 
Word, and having Christ in his own soul, will be 
earnest, will love his pupils, and will be patient 
with them and in his work. 

10. Certain important facts' are to be recog- 
nized by the teacher in his use of the Bible: (1) 
The Bible is a human as well as a divine book. 
(2) The Bible presents many difficulties to the 
student of it. (3) The Bible difficulties may be 
obviated by the observance of certain sugges- 

11. Certain rules will aid the teacher in the 
use of the Bible: (1) He should make much of 
the spiritual and ethical aim in his work. (2) 
He should study the examples of teaching- work 
wmich abound in the Bible. (3) He should study 
the Bible independently. (4) He should study it 
systematically. (Guide-questions to exhaustive 
analysis.) (5) He should study every lesson from 
a pupil's point of view. (6) He should illustrate 
fully and wisely. (7) He should use the art of 
conversation and questioning. (8) He should 
secure home work by his scholars. 

12. The teacher's real work and his true prep- 


1. The Sunday school is a school with one 
text-book— the Holy Scriptures; therefore, the 
Sunday-school teacher must use the Bible. 
Whatever other works he consults, his final 
authority is the Bible. Whatever helps he em- 
ploys, they must be, in every case, helps to the 
better understanding and use of the Word of 

2. This is the more evident when one con- 
siders the relation of the truth as revealed in 
the Holy Scriptures to the work of the Holy 
Spirit in the hearts and lives of men. No man 
can say in what way or how far the Spirit of 
God acts immediately upon the human spirit 
without the intervention of revealed truth, nor 
to what extent other truth not found in the 
Bible, but set forth in nature and in the consti- 
tution of man, has its influence in promoting the 
gracious work of God in the human soul; but 
this much is plainly set forth in the book of 
divine revelation: The processes of divine 
grace in the life of man are performed through 
the truth of God as contained in the written 
Word of God. 

It is the w-ord of God that "quickens" the 
soul (Ps. 119: 50). It is the "entrance" of the 

word of God that giveth "light" (Ps. 119: 130). 
The word is the "sword of the Spirit" (Eph. 6: 
17) which Christ used with the adversary in the 
wilderness (Matt. 4:4, 7, 10). It is the "law of 
the Lord " that is "perfect, converting the soul " 
(Ps. 19: 7). It is the "word of God which 
effectually worketh also in you that believe " (I. 
Thes. 2: 13). It is the word of God which is 
able to build up believers, and to give them "an 
inheritance among all them which are sancti- 
fied" (Acts 20: 32). Through the "exceeding 
great and precious promises " of the Word, be- 
lievers are made "partakers of the divine na- 
ture" (II. Pet. 1: 4). Spiritual enlargement 
comes from running in the way of God's com- 
mandments (Ps. 119: 32). 

If God's Word be so goodly and mighty a thing 
as these scriptures, declare, no wonder that they 
who knew best its source and mission should 
account the truth it contains like "seed" 
(Luke 8: 11), like a "sword" (Heb. 4: 12), like a 
" fire " and a " hammer " ( Jer. 23 : 29), like " rain " 
and "dew" (Deut. 32: 2). like "honey" and the 
"honey-comb" (Ps. 19: 10), like "silver" (Ps. 12: 
6), like "gold" (Ps. 19: 10), like "thousands of 
gold and silver" (Ps. 119: 72), and, finally, like 
"all riches" (Ps. 119: 14). No wonder that the 
Psalmist made it his song in the house of his 
pilgrimage (Ps. 119: 54), and that his delight was 
in the law of the Lord, in which he meditated 
day and night (Ps. 1: 2). No wonder that we are 
exhorted to take earnest heed what we hear 
(Mark 4: 24), and how we hear (Luke 8: 18). No 
wonder that earnest Jews searched the Scrip- 
tures (John 5: 39), and that the Bereans were 
commended as being " more noble than those in 
Thessalonica, in that they received the word 
with all readiness of mind, and searched the 
Scriptures daily" (Acts 17: 11). 

3 . It is this wonderful Word which the Sunday- 
school teacher, as one of the servants and officers 
of the church, must use in all his work. Parents 
at home, like the mother of Timothy (II. Tim. 
1: 5; 3: 15); men like Aquila; women like Pris- 
cilla, in their own places of abode (Acts 18: 26), — 
all church members, from apostles and prophets 
to deacons and unofficial disciples, are to set 
forth the word of life. Here among divinely 
called and appointed teaching-disciples stand 
the Sunday-school teachers. 

4. But since it is the "church of the living 
God" (I. Tim. 3: 15) in which the teacher serves, 
he may trust in divine aid. "Not by might, nor 
by power, but by my Spirit, saith the Lord of 
hosts" (Zech. 4: 6). And the best use to which 
the Sunday-school teacher can put his Bible is 
to find in it doctrine and promise on which he 
can rest. 

5. In the use of his Bible the Sunday-school 
teacher must remember that while his work is 
spiritual, and dependent upon divine coopera- 
tion, he is to observe all natural laws of teaching 
which are based upon a wise human psychol- 
ogy. By the best processes of instruction, which 
represent the most advanced thought of modern 
educators, the Sunday-school teacher must use 
his text-book in gaining access to his pupils, 
winning and holding their attention, exciting 
curiosity, eliciting questions and statements of 
their own, training memory, encouraging rigid 
analysis, developing self-activity and self-appli- 
cation. In the use of his Bible the Sunday- 
school teacher should seek to be at his human 
best in his personal qualifications and in his 
method of work. 

6. It will, therefore, easily appear that there 


is a twofold use to be raade of the Bible by 
the Sunday-school teacher, the one personal and 
the other professional. He must know, and be 
possessed by, the truth; and he must be able 
rightly to divide and wisely to apply it. The 
first is necessary to the second. 

7. As a means to this the teacher must under- 
stand the relation of the personal Christ to the 
Scriptures. Are they not the "word of Christ"? 
(Col. 3: 16.) Old Trapp says: u The Babe of Beth- 
lehem is wrapped up in the swathing bands of 
both Testaments." The whole book is full of 
him. lie is the keystone of the arch; the heart 
of the Holy Scriptures; the Sun of righteous- 
ness among the planets that shine in Psalms, 
Prophets, Gospels, and Epistles. The teacher 
begins the proper use of Scriptures when he 
begins with Christ. Since the teacher rightly 
1 Kindling the Word is bringing Christ to his 
pupils, with what loving tenderness, what scru- 
pulous care, what holy reverence, should he 
use it! 

8* There is another feature of the divine rev- 
elation to man which the Sunday-school teacher 
must remember. Not only does Christ dwell in 
the Word whieh the teacher is to use, but Christ 
may dwell in the heart of the teacher himself. 
He may sit before his class with the Word of 
Christ in his hand, and with the very life and 
personal force of Christ in his heart. Here is 
the Sunday-school teacher's best preparation for 
using his Bible. He not only knoivs, he is. 

9. Among the effects of such use of the Bible 
as one makes who rinds Christ in it and draws 
Christ from it into his own life, will be a pecu- 
liar earnestness; an ardent love for the pupil, a 
love for the very soul life, regardless of social 
position, personal attraction, or intellectual gifts; 
so that no stone will be left unturned, no page or 
text will be left unexamined, no device unem- 
ployed, for the bringing of Christ and the re- 
deemed soul together. 

10. Certain important facts are to be remem- 
bered by the teacher, lest he be too easily dis- 
heartened in his great work. 

(1) The Bible is in one sense a human book, 
and there are many human marks about it. The 
divine treasure has been given to us in earthen 
vessels. God has revealed himself through hu- 
man eyes and ears, intellect and hearts, tongues 
and pens. The book is God's book, but he has 
used men in the making and completing of it, 
and by this process man is immensely helped, 
and is still further to be helped, as the original 
gift of God in the most ancient tongues is grad- 
ually unveiled and set forth through human 
investigation and scholarship. 

(2) The Bible is full of difficulties— the ancient 
languages, the references to almost obsolete 
usages, the idiosyncrasies of the Bible writers, 
the Oriental imagery employed, the divine in- 
terpositions in miraculous deeds, the mysteries 
of divine providence, the severities and appar- 
ent cruelties of the divine administration, the 
gross inconsistencies of certain Scripture char- 
acters, whose lives are recorded, and who, in 
spite of their sins, receive proof in words and 
in official promotion of the divine commenda- 
tion. Again, the Bible is, in fact, a book so 
different from the ideal revelation. It is not 
at all a systematic and carefully classified series 
of plain and applied principles. It is a book of 
ancient history, full of hard names, indefinite 
chronologies, unattractive genealogies, bloody 
battles and transactions, some of which it is 
painful and almost impossible to read to little 
children. The Snnday-school teacher, in his 
casual and professional reading, in his conver- 
sation in parlor and class, must meet these em- 
barrassments. He cannot refuse to consider 
them as unworthy of his notice. What shall 
he do? 

(3) The old commentator Trapp says, con- 
cerning the difficulties of Scripture, " Plain 

places therein are for our nourishment, hard 
places for our exercise." The Bible as a true 
history of rugged times must reflect the features 
of the ages it represents. It was not meant to be 
"an easy book." To the man who really desires 
to know, love, and obey the truth, there are 
no insurmountable obstacles in the Holy Scrip- 
tures. Difficulties that there appear speedily 
vanish before his spirit of surrender to the will 
of God. "If any man will do his will," saith the 
Christ, "he shall know of the doctrine, whether 
it be of God, or whether I speak of myself" 
(John 7: 17). 

11. Let us therefore present certain rules to 
govern the teacher in his use of the Bible: 

(1) It will at once appear that the most im- 
portant work of the teacher is to present to his 
pupils, with much urgency, the spiritual and 
ethical claims of the book. They must accept 
Christ as their righteousness, but they them- 
selves for this reason must be righteous. 

(2) The teacher may rind in the Bible abun- 
dant illustrations of the true principles and 
methods of teaching; processes adopted by pa- 
triarchs, prophets, .and apostles, in the' pro- 
claiming, upholding, applying, and enforcing 
of truth; plans for arresting and riveting atten- 
tion; for illuminating doctrine and ethics; for 
answering objections; for enlightening and 
quickening the conscience; for exciting fear, 
kindling desire, and bringing to decision. Every 
fundamental teaching process finds clear and 
attractive illustration somewhere in this great 
text-book, so "profitable for doctrine, for re- 
proof, for correction, for instruction in right- 
eousness " (II. Tim. 3: 16). In Jesus we have the 
perfection of teaching. To understand him, to 
master his methods, to possess his spirit, is to 
become a teacher of the highest order. There- 
fore let the Sunday-school teacher use his Bible 
to gather from it lessons in teaching, and espe- 
cially from the great Model. Study carefully 
every word he used, every conversation he 
conducted, every figure of speech, every method 
of arresting attention, every argument, every 
reference to his own times, and every quota- 
tion w T hich he made from the Old Testament. 

(3) The teacher must study his Bible inde- 
pendently, going to it alone before consulting 
commentaries or other human helps. The ap- 
petite for the truth will be whetted, intellectual 
freshness and vigor increased, and with en- 
larged capacity he will turn to the library for 
the help which other men have provided. 

(4) The teacher must study his Bible systemat- 
i cally. He must, first of all, collate every passage 
from the entire book bearing upon the subject 
in hand, all parallel accounts of the same events, 
miracles, conversations, sermons, with all inci- 
dental references. This will form his body of 
biblical authority. He should then critically 
analyze the text material thus provided, by 
some such series of questions as the following: 

First. Some person here writes, and he writes 
to or for some other person or persons. Who 
writes? To whom? He writes concerning some 
person or persons, meaning or referring to them. 
Who are they? What do we know about them? 

Second. Tliese persons speaking, acting, writ- 
ing, or written to, named, or simply referred to, 
must have lived in some country, city, or other 
locality named or implied. Where are the places 
of this lesson—the topographical elements of it? 
Can we find them on the map? What can we 
find out about them — their connection with 
other biblical events, and the accounts given 
of them by travelers? 

Th ird. All persons who here sustain a relation 
to place, also sustain a relation to time. There- 
fore we ask: When did these people in these 
places do or say the things here recorded? Or 
when were they recorded? What references do 
we find here to days, hours, seasons, festivals, 
months, years? 


Fourth. And now we come to the historical 
questions. What things are here written con- 
cerning these persons, in these places, at these 
times? What did they do? What did they say? 
Who had the most to say or do? How far did 
the words or acts of one person or class of per- 
sons influence the words or acts of other persons 
introduced in this scripture? 

Fifth. Through this passage, biographical, his- 
torical, didactic, runs a divine thought. There 
are some direct teachings or truths to be in- 
ferred, concerning God, man, sin, personal 
character, the past, the present, the future. 
What are these teachings or doctrines ? 

Sixth. All this history, biography, doctrine, 
has an ethical significance and design. It is 
intended in some way to lay down laws of 
practical life. There are here some duties 
specifically stated or easily inferred, which 
every student of Scripture should be able to 
know and obey. What are these duties? For 
the teacher? For the pupil? 

Seventh. All ancient history, especially that 
which records an extinct civilization, is sure to 
contain many things which are obscure and 
which perplex the student— references to ob- 
solete customs, to eccentricities of conduct and 
government, to relations of individuals, and to 
administration of divine government. There 
occur verbal and grammatical difficulties in the 
text, apparent discrepancies of various kinds, 
affecting the very foundations of faith. What 
are these difficulties? What added difficulties 
are likely to present themselves to the youthful 
student, who, hearing of them from irreverent 
skeptics, may come to his teacher at any time 
with his hard questions ? 

(5) The teacher having then analyzed his 
lesson, and having transferred the whcle sub- 
ject to his own mind, that he may have it well 
in hand for further study, should again and 
again look at it from the point of view occupied 
by his pupils. A vivid conception of their con- 
dition and necessities will present the subject to 
his own mind in a new light. He should there- 
fore form the habit of thinking intently and 
sympathetically upon each scholar in his class, 
his home life, hindrances, faults, perils, most 
immediate need, and then review the already 
carefully prepared lesson with this thought 
burning in his heart: "How shall I make this 
lesson most profitable to this pupil? " 

(6) The teacher must employ the illustrative 
element in his class work. The open eyes of 
wide-awake youth must be arrested, the imagi- 
nation stimulated. Objects, incidents, compari- 
sons, similes, metaphors, parables, facts of this 

busy everyday world, historical anecdotes, 
mental pictures, must be employed to place the 
truth vividly and attractively before the learner. 

(7) The Sunday-school teacher, like all success- 
ful teachers, must master the art of questioning. 
This is necessary to find out what the scholar 
knows; to stimulate his desire to know more; 
to give him knowledge by making him seek it; 
and finally, to test the teacher's own work. 
Attention is necessary to success in teaching 
and in learning, and attention which is simply 
the stretching of the pupil's mind with desire 
and purpose, will break out into numberless 
questions. When this end is attained, the suc- 
cess of the teacher is assured. 

(8) The teacher should awaken within the pupil, 
first, an interest in the subject matter of the 
lesson for the ensuing Sabbath, an interest suf- 
ficient to secure some advance preparation ; and 
second, an interest in his own spiritual and 
eternal welfare, that he may apply to his heart 
and life the truths which he finds. 

12. To save his scholars from all evil, by 
leading them to know Christ, in whom abides 
all good; to develop within them, through the 
divine grace and truth, the love of God and the 
love of men; to make conscience tender and 
intelligent, faith simple and strong, the will 
prompt and firm, and the outward life consist- 
ent and useful,— this is the varied and divine 
mission of the Sunday-school teacher. That he 
may do his work well the teacher must be a 
Christian in experience as well as in profession ; 
a consistent Christian in life and deportment; 
a Christian teacher in life and tact, and a Chris- 
tian friend in sympathy and helpfulness. What 
he is and does will be a living proof of the truth 
he teaches, and he may then say in all sincerity 
and humility to those who are under his care, 
" Follow me as I follow Christ." 

"Blessed Lord, who hast caused all Holy 
Scriptures to be written for our learning, grant 
that we may in such wise hear them, read, 
mark, learn, and inwardly digest them, that 
by patience and comfort of thy Holy Word we 
may embrace and ever hold fast the blessed 
hope of everlasting life which thou hast given 
us in our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen." 

Books of Eepeeence: H. C. Trumbull's Teaching 
and Teachers, Yale Lectures on the Sunday School, and 
Principles and Practice; Boy n ton's The Model Sunday 
School; Bishop J. H. Vincent's The Modern Sunday 
School and A Study in Pedagogy; Lyon's The Sunday 
School; Gregory's Seven Laws of Teaching; Holborn's 
The Bible: The Sunday-School Text-Book; Hurlbut's 
Revised Normal Outlines and Studies in Old Testament 



Arranged by D. W. WHITTLE, Philadelphia. 

"He that winneth souls is wise." — Pro v. 11: 30. 
" The entrance of thy words giveth light."— Ps. 119: 130. 



Ruin by sin, Isa. 53: 6; Ps. 53: 2, 3. 
Redemption by Christ, John 3: 16. 
Regeneration by the Spirit, John 1: 12, 13. 


Under the curse, Gal. 3: 10. 

A Saviour provided, Gal. 4: 4, 5. 

What he has done, Gal. 3: 13. 

How he is received, Gal. 3: 1, 2. 


Man guilty, Rom. 3: 19. 
Cannot be justified by law, Rom. 3: 20. 
Justification provided by grace, Rom. 3: 24. 
The death of Christ the procuring cause, Rom. 

3: 24, 25. 
Justified by faith, Rom. 5: 1. 




What you are, Rom. 3: 23. 

Where you are, John 3: 18. 

Whose you are, Eph. 2: 2. 

Jesus a Saviour, Matt. 1: 21. 

God laid our sins upon him, Isa. 53: 6. 

He bore them, I. Pet. 2: 24. 

Our sins removed, Ps. 103: 12. 

Confession of sin, Luke 18: 13. 
Confession of helplessness, Rom. 7: 18. 
Invited to call on the Lord, Rom. 10: 13. 
Invited to come to the Lord, Matt. 11: 28. 


No power but of God, Rom. 13: 1. 
God's power in the gospel, Rom. 1: 16. 
Self must die to know this power, Gal. 2: 20. 
Power to live as a child of God, Col. 1: 10, 11. 
Power to preach Christ, Rom. 15: 19. 


Under power and penalty of sin, Eph. 2: 1-3, 12. 
Grace in God the source of redemption, Eph. 

2: 8, 9. 
The death of Christ the fact of redemption, 

Eph. 1: 7. 
When Christ is trusted we have redemption, 

Eph. 1: 12, 13. 
Fruit of faith, Eph. 5: 1, 18-20. 


False: Based on ignorance, Luke 12: 16-20. 
Based on self-righteousness, Luke 18: 9. 
Based on a seared conscience, I. Tim. 4: 2. 
True: Based on sin judged and forgiven, Eph. 
2: 14, 17; Col. 1: 20; John 20: 19-22. 
Maintained by confession to God, confidence, 
and communion, I. John 1: 9; Isa. 26: 3, 4; 
Phil. 4: 4-9. 


A sinner under law, Jas. 2: 10; Rom. 2: 3. 

A disobedient child, Mai. 1: 6. 

A rebellious subject, Luke 19: 14. 

A despiser of grace, John 5: 40. 

Christ exalted to give repentance, Acts 5: 31. 

GROUP 10. 

Salvation needed, Rom. 3: 9, 10. 
Salvation provided, Rom. 5: 8. 
Salvation proffered, Acts 13: 38, 39. 
Salvation rejected, Acts 13: 45, 46. 
Salvation accepted, Acts 13: 48. 

GROUP 11. 

Heart wrong, Matt, 22: 37-39. 
Life wrong, Rom. 2: 1-3. 
Consequences, Rom. 2: 8, 9. 
Present need, Ps. 51: 10. 
Present duty, Isa. 1: 16-18. 
God's present offer, Isa. 43: 24-26. 

GROUP 12. 

Christ's invitation, Matt. 11: 28. 
Who are invited? Rev. 22: 17. 
Who will come? John 0: 44, 65. 
What is it to come? Rom. 10: 9, 10. 
What will Christ do? John 6: 37. 

GROUP 13. 

Salvation a gift, Rom. 5: 15. 

Through Jesus Christ, Rom. 6: 23. 

Ask him for it, John 4: 10; Luke 11: 13; 18: 13. 

Receive by faith, Mark 2: 5; 11: 24. 

GROUP 14. 

Christ exalted to give repentance, Acts 5: 31. 
Christ preached in order to lead to repentance* 

Luke 24: 47. 
Repentance secured by Christ's being accepted, 

Acts 9: 6. 

GROUP 15. 

Where Christ finds us, Gal. 3: 22, 23. 

Personal contact through the word, John 17: 20; 

Rom. 10: 17. 
The Spirit of God from Christ. John 7: 39; 10: 10. 
Where Christ takes us, Eph. 2: 6-8. 
How Christ keeps us, John 10: 27-29. 

GROUP 16. 

The Natural Man, Gen. 5:1-3; 6: 5, 13: Ps. 43: 1-3; 

Matt. 15: 18, 19; Gal. 5: 19-21; Rom. 8: 7, 8; 

I. Cor. 2: 14. 
The Spiritual Man, I. Cor. 15: 47-50; John 3: 3, 5; 

1: 14, 16, 12, 13; Jas. 1: 18; I. Pet. 1: 3, 23, 25; 

Gal. 4: 4-7; I. John 5: 1, 4, 5. 
The Two Natures in One Man, John 3: 6; Rom. 

7: 21-23; Gal. 5: 16, 17; I. John 1: 8-10; 3: 9, 1. 

Cor. 9: 27; 10: 11-13: II. Cor. 12: 7-9; Acts 

15: 37-39; II. Cor. 4: 10, 11; Phil. 3: 20, 21; I. 

Cor. 15: 51-54; Rom. 8: 21-23; Rom. 13: 14. 


Where the Deity of Christ is Doubted. 

John 1: 1-3, 14, 18, 34, 49; I. John 1: 1-3; 5: 10-13. 20; 
Acts 4: 10-12; Rom. 1:1-4; Matt. 22: 42-45; 
John 12: 38-41, with Isa. 6; John 9: 35-38; 
14: 9; 19: 7; Mark 14: 61-64. 

Where Christ's Substitutionary Work as the Sac- 
rifice for Sin is Rejected. 

Isa. 53: 12, with Luke22: 37; Matt. 26: 27,28; Mark 
10:45; Luke 24: 44-48; Johnl:29; 6:51; 10:15- 
IX; Acts <S: 30-35; Rom. 4: 25; 7: 4; 8: 3; 10:4; 
I. Pet. 1: 18, 19; 2:24; 3:18; Rev.l:5,6. 

Where the Divine Authority of the Word of 
God in Holy Scripture is Questioned. 

John 5: 39; 15: 26, 27; 20: 30, 31: 1. John 1:1-4; John 
17: 20; II. Tim. 3: 13-17; II. Pet. 1: 21; 3: 15, 16. 

How to Believe. 

Rom. 10: 17; I. John 5: 9-13; II. Tim. 1: 12; Heb. 
11: 1-6; Eph. 1: 12, 13; Luke 24: 27; John 
4: 50: 9: 11; 7: 17; Acts 8: 35-37; 10: 43; 16: 14, 
31; Rom. 10: 8-11; I. Cor. 15: 1-4; John 20: 

Commands to Forsake Sin. 

Isa. 55: 7; 5£: 1-3; Luke 3: 8' John 5: 14; Acts 
19: 18, 19; 20: 21; 26: 20; I. Tim. 1: 5; Matt. 
5: 23, 24; 6: 15; Ezek. 33: 11-15; Mic. 6: 8. 

Encouragement for Great Sinners. 

Isa. 43: 22, 26; I. Tim. 1: 11-16; Luke 7:44-50; I. 
Cor. 6:9-11; Eph. 2: 3-10; Isa. 44:22; John 
10: 9-11; II. Chr. 33: 9, 12, 13; Ps. 116: 1-6; 
Luke 19: 10; 18: 13, 14; 15: 18-20; Mark 16: 15; 
Matt. 9: 12, 13. 



How to be Kept. 
I. Pet. 1: 5; Isa. 41: 10: 40: 27-31; 45: 22, 24; I. 
Pet. 2: 2; Col. 3: 16; John 15: 4, 7; I. John 
2: 24-29. 

For Dark Days. 
Isa. 50: 10; Job 13: 15-18; Mic. 7: 7, 8; Ps. 37: 1-11 
Nah. 1: 7; Heb. 10: 35-37; 13: 5, 6; I. Pet. 4 
12-14; 5: 4, 7-11; II. Cor. 4: 16-18; Rom. 8 
22, 23; I. Thes. 4: 13-18; Hab. 3: 17-19. 

For Backsliders. 

(Let such go carefully through with the texts of 
Group 2, and see if they have ever truly 
trusted Christ, and understood redemp- 
tion.) Mai. 3: 10; Mic. 2: 7; Hos. 14: 1-4; 

Jer. 31: 18-20; Ps. 32, 51; Luke 22: 61, 62; 
Mark 16: 7; I. John 1: 7-9; 2: 1, 2. 

For Those Who Look to Feeling for Faith. 

1. Feeling not to be trusted, Jer. 17: 9; Luke 

18: 11, 12. 

2. God speaks to us through his word, not 

through our feelings, Jer. 23: 25-30; Ps. 
119: 113-117: John 5: 24; Rom. 10: 12-17. 

3. The witness of the Holy Spirit is received by 

our receiving his testimony to Christ in 
the written word, I. John 5: 9-13; Eph. 1: 12- 
14; Rom. 16: 25, 26, with Rom. 8: 1-4, 15, 16. 

4. Feelings fluctuate, but God's word is un- 

changeable, Rom. 3: 3, 4; 4: 20, 21; II. Tim. 
1: 12; Rom. 8: 23, with 34-39; I. Pet. 1: 7, 23- 
25; John 3: 34-36. 


1. How may I know that there is a G-odf John 

1:14, 18; 14:9-14; 20:29-31; Rom. 1:20; Ps. 
19: 1; Isa. 43: 9, 10; Hos. 3: 4, 5; John 8: 47. 

2. How can I know that the Bible is true? John 

5: 39, 40; John 7: 17; Acts 17: 11, 12. 

3. How can I understand the Bible? I. Cor. 

2: 9-14; John 16: 13; Luke 11: 13. 

4. If a man does the best he can, will he not go to 

heaven? John 3: 5, 6, 36; Rom. 3: 19, 20; Gal. 
3: 10. 

5. If a man honestly thinks he is on the right road, 

will he be condemned? Prov. 14: 12; Rom. 
3:3, 4; Acts 17:30. 

6. Can't a man be a Christian without believing 
that Christ was the Son of God? I. John 5: 9- 
13, 20; John 20: 28-31; Matt. 16: 13-18. 

7. Why was the death of Christ needed to save 
men? Rom. 8: 3; Gal. 3: 10; Rom. 5: 12, 19. 

8. What is the first thing to do in becoming a 

Christian? Matt. 11: 28; John 6: 29, 37; Acts 
16: 31. 

9. What is the next thing? Matt. 10: 32; Rom. 
10: 9, 10; Heb. 13: 15, 16. 

10. Must I not feel my sins before I can come to 

Christ? How can I do this? Rom. 7: 13; 
John 16: 8, 9; Acts 2: 36, 37; Zech. 12: 10. 

11. Must I not repent? What is repentance? How 
can I repent? Luke 24: 46, 47; Acts 5: 30, 
31; Acts 20: 21; Luke 15: 17, 18. 

How do I come to Christ? Isa. 55: 7; I. John 
1:1-3; Rom. 10: 8-17; Mark 10: 49, 50. 
What is it to accept of Christ? John 1: 11, 
12; Rom. 6: 23; John 4: 10; Eph. 2: 8. 
How may I get faith? Rom. 10: 17; Eph. 1: 12, 
13; Luke 16: 29-31; John 5: 39, 46, 47; John 
4:50; Luke 17: 5. 

How can I know that my sins are forgiven ? 
Mark 2: 5; Luke 7: 48-50; Acts 13: 38, 39; I. 
Johnl: 9. 

How can I tell that I love God? I. John 
4: 10, 19; Rom. 5: 5-8; Eph. 2: 4-8. 
Why will not the Lord shoiv himself to me, and 
speak to me, as he did to Paid? I. Tim. 
1: 16; John 17: 20; John 20: 29; I. Pet. 1: 8; 
John 14: 16-18. 

How may I know that the Spirit of God has 
come to me? John 16: 8; I. Cor. 12: 3; Gal. 
5: 22,23; I. John 3: 14. 

Wliy do church members do wrong? Phil. 
3: 18, 19; I. Tim. 4: 1, 2; II. Tim. 3: 1-5; Gal. 
5: 17; 6:1. 
Why are there so many different churches? 

I. Cor. 3: 1-5; I. Cor. 12: 12-14; I. Cor. 11: 19; 

II. Pet. 2: 1, 2; Eph. 1: 17-23. 
Must I join the church to be a Christian ? Matt. 
28: 18-20; Acts 2: 38-42, 47; Heb. 10: 25. 

22. Are dancing, card-playing, and theater-going 

wrong for Christians? I. John 2: 15-17; John 
17: 14-19; I. Pet. 4: 2-5. 

23. How shall I overcome the world? Col. 3: 1-6; 

I. John 5: 4, 5; Gal. 1: 4. 

24. Why do good Christians have so much trouble 
in the world? I. Cor. 11: 32; Ps. 94: 12, 13; 
Heb. 12: 6-11; I. Pet. 4: i2-19. 

25. How shall I find deliverance from the power of 
sins that I have practiced ? Rom. 6 : 9-14 ; Epli. 
6: 10-18; I. Pet. 5: 6-10. 

26. If I sin after I become a Christian, will God 
forgive me ? Rom. 13 : 14 ; I. John 2:1,2; Heb. 
4: 14-16; Jas. 5: 16; Matt. 18: 21, 22. 

27. What is the sin against the Holy Ghost? Mark 
3: 28-30; Heb. 10: 28, 29; Acts 8: 18-23. 

28. How ivill I know that I am one of the elect? 

John 3 : 16 ; John 6 : 37 ; John 10 : 9 ; Rev. 22 : 17. 

29. Must I forgive my enemies in becoming a Chris- 

tian? Matt. 5: 23, 24; Matt. 6: 12, 14, 15; Eph. 
4: 31, 32. 

30. Must I make restitution? Mark 12: 31; Rom. 

12: 17; Luke 19: 8; II. Cor. 8: 21. 

31. Must I not wait until I understand the Bible 

better before I become a Christian ? Acts 8 : 
12, 35-37; Acts 16: 30-33: I. Cor. 2: 1-5. 

32. Must I not become a better man before I become 
a Christian? Matt. 9: 12, 13; Matt. 17: 15-18; 
Rom. 7: 23-25; Gal. 2: 16. 

33. When I try to pray it seems unreal to me. How 
can I overcome this? Luke 11: 1-4; John 1: 18; 
John 17: 6,25,26. 

34. Are you sure so great a sinner as I am can 

be saved? Isa. 55: 6-9; Isa. 43: 24-26; I. Tim. 
1 : 15, 16. 

35. Should I make any start to confess that I want 

to be a Christian while I have no feeling? Matt. 
12: 10-13; Ezek. 36: 26, 27; Eph. 2:4-6. 

36. What is the greatest sin? I. John 5 :10; John 5 : 
38; Num. 23:19. 

37. If I become a Christian, ivhat ought I to seek for 

most earnestly ? John 14: 16-18; John 20: 22; 
Acts 1:8; Acts 2: 39; Eph. 5: 17-21. 

38. What will be my greatest difficulty in the Chris- 
tian life? Phil. 2:3-5; Rom. 12: 3, 16; John 

39. How can I be sure of holding out? Isa. 41 : 10; 

I. Cor. 10 : 13 ; II. Cor. 9:8; II. Cor. 12 : 9 ; Heb. 
7: 25; Jude 24; John 10: 27-29. 

40. I do not feel like becoming a Christian now; can 

I not put this off" until some other time ? II. Cor. 

6:2; Heb. 3: 7, 8; Heb. 4:7; James 4: 13-17. 
Books of Reference: Drury's Handbook for 
Worker's and At Hand; Whittle's /Sword of the Lord 
and Thus Saith the Lord; Torrey's Vest Pocket Com- 
panion; Munhall's Furnishing for Workers; Yatman's 
.Lessons for ChrHstian Workers. 




By Which the Bible May be Finished in One Year, 
Arranged by D. W. WHITTLE, Philadelphia. 













1, 2, 3 

Matt. 1 



Matt. 21 : 1-22 

Num. 23, 24, 25 

Mark 7:14-37 



4, 5, 6 

Matt. 2 



Matt. 21:23-46 

Num. 26. 27 

Mark 8: 1-21 



7, 8, 9 

Matt. 3 


31, 32, 33 

Matt. 22: 1-22 

Num. 28, 29, 30 

Mark 8:22-38 



10, 11, 12 

Matt. 4 


34, 35 

Matt. 22:23-46 

Num. 31, 32, 33 

Mark 9: 1-29 



13, 14, 15 

Matt. 5: 1-26 


36, 37, 38 

Matt. 23: 1-22 

Num. 34, 35, 36 

Mark 9:30-50 



16, 17 

Matt. 5:27-48 



Matt. 23:23-39 

Deut. 1, 2 

Mark 10: 1-31 



18, 19 

Matt. 6: 1-18 


1, 2, 3 

Matt. 24: 1-28 

Deut. 3, 4 

Mark 10: 32-52 



20, 21, 22 

Matt. 6:19-34 


4, 5 

Matt. 24:29-51 

Deut. 5, 6, 7 

Mark 11 : 1-18 




Matt. 7 


6, 7 

Matt. 25: 1-30 

Deut. 8, 9,10 

Mark 11: 19-33 




Matt. 8: 1-17 


8, 9,10 

Matt. 25:31-46 

Deut. 11, 12, 13 

Mark 12: 1-27 




Matt. 8:18-34 


11, 12 

Matt. 26: 1-25 

Deut. 14, 15, 16 

Mark 12:28-44 




Matt. 9: 1-17 



Matt. 26:26-50 

Deut. 17, 18, 19 

Mark 13: 1-20 




Matt. 9:18-38 



Matt. 26:51-75 

Deut. 20,21,22 

Mark 13: 21-37 



33, 34, 35 

Matt. 10: 1-20 



Matt. 27: 1-26 

Deut. 23, 24, 25 

Mark 14: 1-26 



36, 37, 38 

Matt. 10:21-42 


17, 18 

Matt. 27:27-50 

Deut. 26,27 

Mark 14: 27-53 




Matt. 11 



Matt. 27:51-66 

Deut. 28,29 

Mark 14: 54-72 




Matt. 12: 1-23 



Matt. 28 

Deut. 30,31 

Mark 15: 1-25 



43, 44, 45 

Matt. 12:24-50 



Mark 1: 1-22 

Deut. 32,33,34 

Mark 15: 26-47 



46, 47, 48 

Matt. 13: 1-30 



Mark 1:23-45 

Josh. 1, 2, 3 

Mark 16 




Matt. 13:31-58 



Mark 2 

Josh. 4, 5, 6 

Luke 1: 1-20 



1, 2, S 

Matt. 14: 1-21 


. 1, 2 

Mark 3: 1-19 

Josh. 7, 8, 9 

Luke 1:21-38 



4 5 6 

Matt. 14:22-36 


. 3, 4 

Mark 3:20-35 

Josh. 10,11,12 

Luke 1:39-56 



7, 8 

Matt. 15: 1-20 


. 5, 6 

Mark 4: 1-20 

Josh. 13,14,15 

Luke 1:57-80 



9, 10, 11 

Matt. 15:21-39 


. 7| 8 

Mark 4:21-41 

Josh. 16,17,18 

Luke 2: 1-24 




Matt. 16 


. 9, 10, 11 

Mark 5: 1-20 

Josh. 19,20,21 

Luke 2:25-52 




Matt. 17 

Num.12, 13, 14 

Mark 5:21-43 

Josh. 22,23,24 

Luke 3 



16, 17, 18 

Matt. 18: 1-20 


.15, 16 

Mark 6: 1-29 

Judg. 1, 2, 3 

Luke 4: 1-30 




Matt. 18:21-35 

Num.17, 18, 19 

Mark 6:30-56 

Judg. 4, 5, 6 

Luke 4:31-44 




Matt. 19 


.20, 21, 22 

Mark 7: 1-13 

Judg. 7, 8 

Luke 5: 1-16 




Matt. 20: 1-16 

Judg. 9,10 

Luke 5: 17-39 




Matt. 20:17-34 

Judg. 11, 12 

Luke 6: 1-26 

Note.— When February has but twenty-eight days, read the portion for the 29th with that for the 28th. 












Judg. 13,14,15 

Luke 6:27-49 

I. Ki. 10, 11 

Luke 21: 20-38 

11. Ch 


John 12: 27-50 


Judg. 16,17,18 

Luke 7: 1-30 

I. Ki. 12, 13 

Luke 22: 1-20 

11. Ch 


John 13: 1-20 


Judg. 19,20,21 

Luke 7:31-50 

I. Ki. 14, 15 

Luke 22:21-46 

II. Ch 


John 13: 21-38 


Ruth 1,2,3,4 

Luke 8: 1-25 

I. Ki. 16, 17, 18 

Luke 22:47-71 

II. Ch 


John 14 


I. 8a. 1, 2, 3 

Luke 8:26-56 

I. Ki. 19,20 

Luke 23: 1-25 

II. Ch. 23, 24 

John 15 


I. Sa. 4, 5, 6 

Luke 9: 1-17 

1. Ki. 21,22 

Luke 23: 26-56 

II. Ch 


John 16 


I. 8a. 7, 8, 9 

Luke 9:18-36 

II. Ki. 1, 2, 3 

Luke 24: 1-35 

II. Ch 


John 17 


I. Sa. 10,11,12 

Luke 9:37-62 

II. Ki. 4, 5, 6 

Luke 24:36-53 

II. Ch. 30, 31 

John 18: 1-18 


I. 8a. 13, 14 

Luke 10: 1-24 

II. Ki. 7, 8, 9 

John 1: 1-28 

II. Ch. 32, 33 

John 18: 19-40 


1.8a. 15,16 

Luke 10:25-42 

II. Ki. 10,11,12 

John 1:29-51 

II. Ch. 34, 35, 36 

John 19: 1-22 


I. Sa. 17,18 

Luke 11: 1-28 

II. Ki. 13, 14 

John 2 


1, 2 

John 19: 23-42 


I. 8a. 19, 20, 21 

Luke 11:29-54 

11. Ki. 15, 16 

John 3: 1-18 


3, 4, 5 

John 20 


I. Sa. 22, 23, 24 

Luke 12: 1-31 

II. Ki. 17, 18 

John 3: 19-36 


6, 7, 8 

John 21 


I. Sa. 25,26 

Luke 12:32-59 

11. Ki. 19,20,21 

John 4: 1-30 



Acts 1 


I. Sa. 27,28,29 

Luke 13: 1-22 

II. Ki. 22, 23 

John 4:31-54 


1, 2, 3 

Acts 2: 1-21 


I. Sa. 30,31 

Luke 13:23-35 

II. Ki. 24, 25 

John 5: 1-24 


4, 5, 6 

Acts 2: 22-47 


11. Sa. 1, 2 

Luke 14: 1-24 

I. Ch. 1, 2, 3 

John 5:25-47 


7, 8, 9 

Acts 3 


II. Sa. 3, 4, 5 

Luke 14:25-35 

I. Ch. 4, 5, 6 

John 6: 1-21 



Acts 4: 1-22 


II. Sa. 6, 7, 8 

Luke 15: 1-10 

I. Ch. 7, 8, 9 

John 6:22-44 



Acts 4: 23-37 


II. Sa. 9,10,11 

Luke 15: 11-32 

I. Ch. 10,11,12 

John 6:45-71 


1, 2 

Acts 5: 1-21 


II. Sa. 12, 13 

Luke 16 

I. Ch. 13, 14, 15 

John 7: 1-27 


3, 4, 5 

Acts 5: 22-42 


II. Sa. 14, 15 

Luke 17: 1-19 

I. Ch. 16, 17, 18 

John 7:28-53 


6, 7, 8 

Acts 6 


II. Sa. 16,17,18 

Luke 17:20-37 

I. Ch. 19, 20, 21 

John 8: 1-27 



Acts 7: 1-21 


II. Sa. 19,20 

Luke 18: 1-23 

I. Ch. 22, 23, 24 

John 8:28-59 


1, 2 

Acts 7: 22-43 


II. Sa. 21, 22 

Luke 18:24-43 

I. Ch. 25,26,27 

John 9: 1-23 


3, 4 

Acts 7: 44-60 


II. 8a. 23, 24 

Luke 19: 1-27 

I. Ch. 28,29 

John 9:24-41 


5, 6, 7 

Acts 8: 1-25 


I. Ki. 1, 2 

Luke 19: 28-48 

II. Ch. 1, 2, 3 

John 10: 1-23 


8, 9,10 

Acts 8: 26-40 


I. Ki. 3, 4, 5 

Luke 20: 1-26 

II. Ch. 4, 5, 6 

John 10:24-42 


11, 12, 13 

Acts 9: 1-21 


I. Ki. 6, 7 

Luke 20:27-47 

II. Ch. 7, 8, 9 

John 11: 1-29 


14, 15, 16 

Acts 9: 22-43 


I. Ki. 8, 9 

Luke 21: 1-19 

II. Ch. 10, 11, 12 

John 11:30-57 


17, 13, 19 

Acts 10: 1-23 


II. Ch. 13, 14 

John 12: 1-26 















20, 21 

Acts 10:24-48 


57, 58, 59 

Rom. 4 

Ps. 135, 136 

I. Co. 12 



22, 23, 24 

Acts 11 


60, 61, 62 

Rom. 5 

Ps. 137, 138, 139 

I. Co. 13 



25, 26, 27 

Acts 12 


63, 64, 65 

Rom. 6 

Ps. 140, 141, 142 

I. Co. 14: 1-20 



28, 29 

Acts 13: 1-25 


66, 67 

Rom. 7 

Ps. 143, 144, 145 

I. Co. 14:21-40 



30, 31 

Acts 13: 26-52 


68, 69 

Rom. 8: 1-21 

Ps. 146, 147 

I. Co. 15: 1-28 



32, 33 

Acts 14 


70, 71 

Rom. 8: 22-39 

Ps. 148, 149, 150 
Prov. 1, 2 

I. Co. 15:29-58 



34, 35 

Acts 15: 1-21 


72, 73 

Rom. 9: 1-15 

I. Co. 16 



36, 37 

Acts 15: 22-41 


74, 75, 76 

Rom. 9: 16-33 

Prov. 3, 4, 5 

II. Co. 1 



38, 39, 40 

Acts 16: 1-21 


77, 78 

Rom. 10 

Prov. 6, 7 

II. Co. 2 



41, 42 

Acts 16: 22-40 


79, 80 

Rom. 11: 1-18 

Prov. 8, 9 

II. Co. 3 



1, 2, 3 

Acts 17: 1-15 


81, 82, 83 

Rom. 11: 19-36 

Prov. 10, 11, 12 

II. Co. 4 



4, 5, 6 

Acts 17: 16-34 


84, 85, 86 

Rom. 12 

Prov. 13, 14, 15 

II. Co. 5 



7, 8, 9 

Acts 18 


87, 88 

Rom. 13 

Prov. 16, 17, 18 

II. Co. 6 



10, 11, 12 

Acts 19: 1-20 


89, 90 

Rom. 14 

Prov. 19, 20, 21 

II. Co. 7 



13, 14, 15 

Acts 19: 21-41 


91, 92, 93 

Rom. 15: 1-13 

Prov. 22, 23, 24 

II. Co. 8 



16, 17 

Acts 20: 1-16 


94, 95, 96 

Rom. 15: 14-33 

Prov. 25, 26 

II. Co. 9 



18, 19 

Acts 20: 17-38 


97, 98, 99 

Rom. 16 

Prov. 27, 28, 29 

II. Co. 10 



20, 21, 22 

Acts 21: 1-17 


100, 101, 102 

I. Co. 1 

Prov. 30, 31 

II. Co. 11: 1-15 



23, 24, 25 

Acts 21: 18-40 


103, 104 

I. Co. 2 

Eccl. 1, 2, 3 

II. Co. 11: 16-33 



26, 27, 28 

Acts 22 


105, 106 

I. Co. 3 

Eccl. 4, 5, 6 

II. Co. 12 



29, 30 

Acts 23: 1-15 


107, 108, 109 

I. Co. 4 

Eccl. 7, 8, 9 

II. Co. 13 



31, 32 

Acts 23: 16-35 


110, 111, 112 

I. Co. 5 

:Eccl. 10, 11, 12 

Gal. 1 



33, 34 

Acts 24 


113, 114, 115 

I. Co. 6 

Song 1, 2, 3 

Gal. 2 



35, 36 

Acts 25 


116, 117, 118 

I. Co. 7: 1-19 

Song 4, 5 

Gal. 3 



37, 38, 39 

Acts 26 


119: 1-88 

I. Co. 7: 20-40 

Song 6, 7, 8 

Gal. 4 



40, 41, 42 

Acts 27: 1-26 


119: 89-176 

I. Co. 8 

Isa. 1, 2 

Gal. 5 



43, 44, 45 

Acts 27:27-44 


120, 121, 122 

I. Co. 9 

Isa. 3, 4 

Gal. 6 



46, 47, 48 

Acts 28 


123, 124, 125 

I. Co. 10: 1-18 

Isa. 5, 6 

Eph. 1 



49, 50 

Rom. 1 


126, 127, 128 

I. Co. 10: 19-33 

Isa. 7, 8 

Eph. 2 



51, 52, 53 

Rom. 2 


129, 130, 131 

I. Co. 11: 1-16 

Isa. 9, 10 

Eph. 3 



54, 55, 56 

Rom. 3 


132, 133, 134 

I. Co. 11: 17-34 
















Eph. 4 

Jer. 24, 25, 26 

Titus 2 

Ezek. 40, 41 

II. Pet. 3 






Eph. 5: 


Jer. 27, 28, 29 

Titus 3 

Ezek. 42, 43, 44 

I. John 1 






Eph. 5: 


Jer. 30, 31 


Ezek. 45, 46 

I. John 2 






Eph. 6 

Jer. 32, 33 

Heb. 1 

Ezek. 47, 48 

I. John 3 






Phil. 1 

Jer. 34, 35, 36 

Heb. 2 

Dan. 1, 2 

I. John 4 





Phil. 2 

Jer. 37, 38, 39 

Heb. 3 

Dan. 3, 4 

I. John 5 





Phil. 3 

Jer. 40, 41, 42 

Heb. 4 

Dan. 5, 6, 7 

II. John 





Phil. 4 

Jer. 43, 44, 45 

Heb. 5 

Dan. 8, 9, 10 

III. John 





Col. 1 

Jer. 46, 47 

Heb. 6 

Dan. 11,12 







Col. 2 

Jer. 48, 49 

Heb. 7 

Hos. 1, 2, 3, 4 

Rev. 1 





Col. 3 

Jer. 50 

Heb. 8 

Hos. 5, 6, 7, 8 

Rev. 2 





Col. 4 

Jer. 51, 52 

Heb. 9 

Hos. 9, 10, 11 

Rev. 3 





I. Thes. 


Lam. 1, 2 

Heb. 10: 1-18 

Hos. 12, 13, 14 

Rev. 4 





I. Thes. 


Lam. 3, 4, 5 

Heb. 10: 19-39 

Joel 1, 2, 3 

Rev. 5 





I. Thes. 


Ezek. 1, 2 

Heb. 11: 1-19 

Amos 1, 2, 3 

Rev. 6 






I. Thes. 


Ezek. 3, 4 

Heb. 11: 20-40 

Amos 4, 5, 6 

Rev. 7 






I. Thes. 


Ezek. 5, 6, 7 

Heb. 12 

Amos 7, 8, 9 

Rev. 8 






II. Thes 


Ezek. 8, 9, 10 

Heb. 13 


Rev. 9 






II. Thes 


Ezek. 11, 12, 13 

Jas. 1 

Jon. 1,2, 3, 4 

Rev. 10 






II. Thes 


Ezek. 14, 15 

Jas. 2 

Mic. 1, 2, 3 

Rev. 11 






I. Tim. 


Ezek. 16, 17 

Jas. 3 

Mic. 4, 5 

Rev. 12 





I. Tim. 


Ezek. 18, 19 

Jas. 4 

Mic. 6, 7 

Rev. 13 





I. Tim. 


Ezek. 20, 21 

Jas. 5 

Nah. 1, 2, 3 

Rev. 14 






I. Tim. 


Ezek. 22, 23 

I. Pet. 1 

Hab. 1, 2, 3 

Rev. 15 





I. Tim. 


Ezek. 24, 25, 26 

I. Pet. 2 

Zeph. 1, 2, 3 

Rev. 16 






I. Tim. 


Ezek. 27, 28, 29 

I. Pet. 3 

Hag. 1, 2 

Rev. 17 






II. Tim. 


Ezek. 30, 31, 32 

I. Pet. 4 

Zee. 1,2,3,4 

Rev. 18 






II. Tim. 


Ezek. 33, 34 

I. Pet. 5 

Zee. 5,6,7,8 

Rev. 19 





II. Tim. 


Ezek. 35, 36 

II. Pet. 1 

Zee. 9,10,11,12 

Rev. 20 





II. Tim. 


Ezek. 37, 38, 39 

II. Pet. 2 

Zee. 13, 14 

Rev. 21 







Mai. 1,2,3,4 

Rev. 22 

Books foe. Devotional Reading: Thomas a Kempis' Imitation of Christ; Bogatsky's Golden Treasury; 
Cuyler's Heart Life; Havergal's Kept for the Master's Use, and others; Macduff's Mind and Wo r rds of Jesus and 
Brighter Than the Sun; Phelps' The Still Hour; Taylor's Holy Living and Holy Dying; Tholuck's Hours of 
Christian Devotion; Smith's Christian's Secret of a Happy Life; Farrar's Truths to Live By; Matheson's Moments 
on the Mount; Murray's With Christ in the School of Prayer, Abide in Christ, Like Christ, and others; Meyer's 
Present Tenses, Future Tenses, Key Words, and others; Daily Strength for Daily Needs; Bates' Between the 
Lights; Mrs. Bottome's Crumbs from the King's Table; Mead's The Wonderful Counselor; Keble's Christian 
Year; AdLucem; Larcom's^ the Beautiful Gate; Palgrave's Treasury of Sacred Poetry and Song. 




By REV. A. E. DUNNING, D.D., Boston, Secretary of the Congregational 

Sunday-School Union. 

The purpose of the Bible was to give to man- 
kind the record of the manifestation of God in 
Jesus Christ, and through him to create and 
develop the Christian church for the salvation 
of the world. That purpose began to manifest 
itself in the Jewish church, which was coinci- 
dent with the Jewish kingdom. It was consti- 
tuted by a king who was Jehovah, a law whose 
basis was the Ten Commandments, a covenant 
conditioned on obedience to thorn and faith in 
him, a ritual through which worship found ex- 
pression, and civil institutions, which formed 
the framework of the church. 

The Jewish church disclosed within itself an 
expectation of a coming Redeemer, which was 
created and intensified by revealed promises of 
God growing more positive and definite as the 
nation passed through its various stages of or- 
ganization, development, and decline, till, when 
at last the visible church decayed and crumbled 
into fragments, the Redeemer appeared in the 
person of Jesus Christ. 

The person of Jesus Christ is the central fact 
of God's revelation of himself, and the center of 
all history. The Christian church was created 
by the love he disclosed for men, the principles 
he taught, and the rites of baptism and the 
Lord's Slipper which he established. Upon him 
as the foundation it was built through the labors 
of the apostles, and of those whom they won to 
be his disciples, the accounts of which are given 
in the Acts and the Epistles; and its glorious 
consummation is foretold in the book of Reve- 

We may trace the growth of the church from 
the beginning of Bible history, which shows: 

I. The Jewish Church.— The first stejis toward 
it began with the revelation of God to men as 
Creator and Provider, claiming man's obedience 
(Gen. 1: 27-29); as Lawgiver, testing man's obedi- 
ence (Gen. 2: 16, 17); as Judge, rewarding obedi- 
ence and inflicting punishment for disobedience 
(Gen. 3: 10-24); and as Father, promising redemp- 
tion (Gen. 3: 15). The development of this pur- 
pose to found the church appears in the creation 
of Adam in the image of God, to be the father of 
a race of God's children (Gen. 1: 2G, 27); after his 
fall, in Abel, who was fitted to be the father of a 
holy nation, but was killed by his brother (Gen. 
4: 3-8); in Seth, an appointed seed instead of 
Abel, who begat a praying people (Gen. 4: 25, 20), 
which became corrupted by evil alliances (Gen. 
6: 1), and were all destroyed by the flood except 
one family (Gen. G: IS); in Noah, through whom 
God entered into a new relation with men by 
means of a covenant established with sacrifice 
(Gen. 8: 20-22); and in Abraham, with whom 
God enlarged his covenant so that it embraced 
the promise that he should be the father of a 
chosen nation (Gen. 15: 1-6). 

The principles on which the Jewish church 
was founded appear with increasing distinct- 
ness from the time of Abraham's leaving his 
country and emigrating to Palestine by the 
command of God. These principles were faith 
in one God, separation from the world (Gen. 24: '■'>, 
4), and a covenant (Gen. 15: 1-21; 17: 1-14; 22: 
3-18). which became a family covenant, till God 
led them forth out of Egypt to be a people by 
themselves, so beginning 

The organization of the church, the chief steps of 
which are described in the book of Exodus. 
First, Moses was prepared, called, and guided to 
be the leader of the people (Ex. 2-4) ; second, they 

were led out of Egypt (Ex. 5-12) ; third, they were 
conducted to Sinai, and a covenant was made with 
them as a nation, based on the Ten Command- 
ments with accompanying laws (Ex. 24: 1-8). 

To this moral law, whose center was the Ten 
Commandments, was added a law of religious 
worship, which centered around the tabernacle, 
and which is found in the book of Leviticus. 

The church, as thus organized, was cemented 
together as a nation by the appointment of sub- 
ordinate leaders and the development and ap- 
plication of the law as a civil code through the 
life in the wilderness. 

The church thus planted was the nation itself, 
a sawed congregation, chosen and set apart from 
other nations, governed by an unseen yet present 
and sovereign God. During the first period of 
its growth it was a theocracy, a direct govern- 
ment of the people by Jehovah himself, through 
officers whom he appointed. 

The book of Joshua gives the account of the 
introduction of the chosen nation into Canaan 
and its establishment there. (1) The enemies of 
Israel were conquered. (2) The promised land was 
divided among the twelve tribes (Josh. 13-19). 
(3) The throne of Jehovah ivas established at Shiloh, 
in the tabernacle (Josh. 18: 1). 

The book of Judges records the testing of the 
nation through judgments and deliverances by 
the Angel of the Covenant. 

The government of the church then became 
a monarchy, the accounts of which are given 
in the books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles. 
The development of the church during this 
period centers around persons, institutions, and 
events, which may be grouped under five heads: 
(1) David, the founder of the monarchy. (2) The 
temple, which became the center of sacrifice 
and worship, and with which were connected 
the laws, the authority of rulers, and all great 
public events. (3) The order of the prophets, which 
became the conscience of the nation. (4) The 
union of the state and the church, which deter- 
mined the constitution of the kingdom. (5) The 
division of the kingdom, which was the beginning 
of its downfall. 

The further biblical history of the Jewish 
church is the record of the destruction of both 
kingdoms, the removal of the people into cap- 
tivity, and the restoration of the remnant to 
their own land. During the four centuries pre- 
ceding the Christian era, the Jews became scat- 
tered throughout the world, while the temple 
service was still maintained at Jerusalem as 
the center of religious influence. Synagogues 
related to the temple and its worship sprang 
up in heathen nations where the Jews lived 
in exile. Prayer in them became a substitute 
for tlie morning and evening sacrifice, and the 
study of the books of the Law became universal. 
Heathen religions decayed before the influence 
Of the Jewish worship of one God. The Jewish 
system itself, both civil and religious, gradually 
crumbled into fragments, thus preparing the 
world for the new Christian church. 

AVith this historical development of the de- 
vine religion through the Jewish church, the 
Bible also unfolds its growth in the devotional life 
of the people. This is found in the six poetical 
books and in those of the prophets. 

The prophetic books belong with the historical, 
as showing the development 'Of the life of the 
church through obedience to God, and its declen- 
sion and decay through disobedience to him. 



II. The Coming Messiah.— While the structure 
of the Jewish church was growing feeble, and 
the old covenant on which it was based drew 
near the time when it should vanish away 
(Heb. 8: 13), the coming One who was to be the 
foundation and source of life to the Christian 
church grew more distinct and commanding in 
prophecy. The purpose of God from the begin- 
ning, as Paul expressed it, was "that in the 
dispensation of the fulness of times he might 
gather together in one all things in Christ" 
(Eph. 1: 10). This purpose appears in the Old 
Testament with steadily increasing distinctness 
along four lines : 

1. The Sacrifices.— These came gradually to 
mean, in the ancient church, salvation from death 
through sacrifice ivith blood; and found fulfillment 
in Christ (I. Cor. 5: 7; John 1: 29). The new cov- 
enant in Christ's blood interpreted the meaning 
of the old covenant. (Compare Ex. 24 : 3-8 with 
Heb. 9: 18-28.) 

2. Types.— Old Testament types exhibit in infe- 
rior forms truths, principles, and laws which are 
to be fulfilled in the dispensation which Christ 
introduced, and of which he is the life. Promi- 
nent examples are the tabernacle and temple, 
which represent the Christian church — the body 
of believers (Eph. 2: 19-22; I. Peter 2: 4, 5). 

3. The Jewish Kingdom, which is represented 
in the Old Testament not as a spontaneous de- 
velopment of humanity, but a redeeming power 
coming down from God, pointing to a kingdom 
whose essential idea was the spiritual rulership 
of the Messiah over redeemed souls. It was by the 
proclamation of this kingdom that Christ began 
his ministry (Matt. 4: 17). 

4. Prophecy.— This includes institutions and 
ordinances pointing to Christ and the Christian 
church, as the sacrifices and the priesthood; 
prophetic types, as the tabernacle and temple ; 
the law of the kingdom, since all education is 
prophetic of the ends aimed at; history leading 
to a declared end; persons related to the king- 
dom, as Abraham, Moses, and David; and dis- 
tinct utterances, as found in the sayings and 
books of the prophets. 

Thus we see that the Messianic idea of an 
everlasting kingdom under the reign of a spirit- 
ual and supreme King is the fundamental idea 
of the Old Testament. This Messianic idea grew 
with the Jewish kingdom till it reached the 
height of its prosperity; but as the kingdom 
declined and crumbled away the idea of the 
coming Messiah grew brighter and clearer till 
it was realized in Jesus Christ. 

III. The Messiah the Foundation of the Church. 
—Jesus Christ became the corner-stone of the 
Christian church when viewed as a building 
(compare Isa. 28: 16 with I. Peter 2: 6; Eph. 2: 20). 
He became its head and its life when viewed as 
a living organism (Eph. 1:22, 23; 5:23, 30), the 
source of its power (Eph. 4: 16). He originated 
the Christian church through his works, by 
which he created the gospel ; through his teach- 
ings, by which he proclaimed it; and through 
his person, which is the gospel. 

His fundamental doctrine was the kingdom 
of God, created through the allegiance of indi- 
vidual souls to himself as supreme Lord (Mark 
1: 14, 15; Luke 14: 26, 33), maintained by doing 
the will of God (Matt. 6: 10), and certified by the 
overthrow of the kingdom of Satan in the soul 
(Luke 11: 21, 22). Like the Jewish kingdom, it is 
based on a covenant in Christ's blood (Ex. 24: 8; 
Luke 22: 20). It does not come with display, for 
it is the enthronement of Christ in the individ- 
ual life (Luke 17:20, 21; John 14:23). Its con- 
summation will be the perfect love and perfect 
obedience of all redeemed souls to God. 

Jesus taught that the way of salvation is the 
way of entrance into his kingdom, which is 
entered through confidence in himself and self- 
surrender to him (Mark 8: 34; 10:15), through 
repentance and renunciation of sin (Matt. 4 : 17), 

and appropriation of himself as the sacrifice for 
sin (John 3: 14, 15; 12: 32). He taught that the 
new birth through the Holy Spirit is the con- 
dition of entrance into his kingdom (John 3:3); 
for the unrenewed heart is the source from 
which all evils spring (Matt. 12: 35). But who- 
ever renounces his sin and chooses God as the 
supreme object of worship, obedience, and love 
is renewed by the Holy Spirit (John 6: 37; 3: 16). 

He taught that the law of love is the law of his 
kingdom (Mark 12: 29-31), and that such love 
centers in him (John 14: 23; Luke 14: 26). He 
presented himself as the King of the kingdom 
(Matt. 16: 28), to whose sway all nations must 
finally yield (Matt. 25: 31-46), who demanded the 
same devotion to himself (Luke 14: 33) as is 
demanded by the Father (Luke 10: 27), and the 
same honor (John 5: 23). 

He taught that his kingdom grows through 
God's providential care over ail his children (Matt. 
5: 45), who ought therefore to trust him with- 
out anxiety (Matt. 6: 31-34); that prayer is direct 
address to God as our Father (Matt. 6: 9), who 
will answer (Matt. 6: 32; 7: 7, 8). He encouraged 
united petitions (Matt. 18:19); declared that 
prayer should be offered in faith (Matt. 21 : 22), 
in submission to the divine will (Matt. 6: 10), in 
sincerity (John 6: 23-26), with right feeling to- 
ward men (Mark 11: 25, 26), and in the name of 
Christ (John 14: 13, 14). 

He was begotten by the Holy Spirit (Luke 1 : 35), 
baptized in the Holy Spirit (Luke 3: 21, 22), 
taught (Luke 4: 14, 15) and wrought miracles 
(Matt. 12: 28) by the power of the Spirit. He 
declared that the Holy Spirit would guide his 
disciples into all the truth concerning himself 
(John 16: 13, 14), would convict sinners (John 
16: 8-11), would be given to believers in ansAver 
to prayer (John 14: 16), and would abide in them 
forever (John 14: 16, 17). 

He taught the resurrection from death (Luke 
20: 37, 38) for all men (John 5: 28, 29), that he had 
power to raise himself (John 10: 18), and was 
himself the power that would raise others to 
life (John 11: 25). He taught that there is to be 
a final judgment, to occur at a definite time (John 
12: 48), and that he would be the Judge (Matt. 
25:31); that he would come in the majesty of 
the Son of God (John 5: 25), but that he holds 
the position of Judge because he is the Son of 
man (John 5: 27). This final judgment includes 
(1) the future punishment of the wicked (Matt. 
7: 19, 23; John 5: 29). The basis of judgment will 
be the deeds they have done (Matt. 16: 27; 13: 
40-42). (2) The future blessedness of the saints 
(Matt. 25: 34), which includes the constant pres- 
ence with them of Christ in glory (John 14: 3; 
17:24). The separation between the righteous 
and the wicked is to be formally declared (Matt. 
25: 32, 33), and final (Matt. 25: 46). 

IV. The Christian Church, the issue of the 
divine life in the world, as recorded in the Bible. 
Having taught these truths as the laws of his 
kingdom, the processes of its development and 
its final consummation, he left as his permanent 
instruction to his disciples that they should go 
into all the world and teach all nations what he 
had commanded as the law of their life, baptiz- 
ing them into the one name of the Father, Son, 
and Holy Spirit (Matt. 28: 18-20). In this way 
the Christian church began, as a union of believers 
in Christ, who, through faith and love, are members 
of the kingdom of God. It is supernatural in its 
origin, and sustained by life imparted to it from 
God (Eph. 2: 22). 

It is contrasted ivith, yet is, the outgrowth of the 
Jewish church. 

The essential elements of the Christian church 
are (1) repentance for sin, (2) supreme allegiance to 
Christ, (3) the gift of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2: 33), 
(4) the covenant of believers, established by bap- 
tism and the Lord's Supper (I. Cor. 11:23-26). 
The history of the Christian church is given in 
the Acts and the Epistles. 



Its birthday was at Pentecost (Acts 2: 1-4), and 
all its first members were Jews. The first act in 
founding it was the gift of the Holy Spirit to believ- 
ers, which Christ had promised to them before his 
ascension (Acts 1: 4, 5). Next followed the offer 
of salvation through Jesus Christ to those who 
would repent of sin and believe in him as the 
Messiah (Acts 2: 38-40). Believers were baptized 
and formed into a distinct community (Acts 2: 41), 
which took the character of a family (Acts 2: 44-47). 

The new church soon began to antagonize Juda- 
ism. Next it spread through the nations. A church 
was organized at Samaria, and Peter preached 
to the heathen Cornelius. The gospel was 
preached to Gentiles at Antioch in Syria, where 
Paul began his career as an apostle, and here 
Gentiles were first admitted to equal piHvilegcs with 
Jews in the Chi^istian church. Henceforth the 
keynote of Paul's preaching was, "Christ for the 
world and the world for Christ." 

The leaders in the churches in conference at 
Jerusalem formally decided, under the declared 
guidance of the Holy Spirit, that Gentiles could 
become Christians without observing Jewish ceremo- 
nial laws (Acts 15: 1-20). With the refusal of the 
Jews of Jerusalem to acknowledge Paul's com- 
mission to the Gentiles, the gospel was finally 
rejected by the Jews (Acts 22). 

So, through the long ages of the history of the 
chosen people, the Jewish church was formed 
on the ancient covenant, and nourished within 
itself the idea and promise of the coming Mes- 
siah, till the covenant and the organization it 
sustained waxed old and disclosed within itself 
the shining glory of the only begotten Son. He 
manifested God, preached his truth, gave him- 
self in the new covenant by which his church 
was organized. It grew in Judaism till it burst 
its bonds, and its members, in obedience to his 
command, went into all the world and preached 
the gospel to all the nations, baptizing them 
into the name of the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Spirit. Thus the Christian church is 
spreading to-day through all lands, preparing 
for that perfect society, "the holy city, new 
Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from 
God, made ready as a bride adorned for her 
husband" (Rev. 21: 2, R.V.). 

Books of Reference: Frey's Scripture Types; 
Fairbairn's The Typology of Scripture; H, C. Trum- 
bull's The Blood Covenant; W. H. Thomson's The Great 
Argument; or, Christ in the Old Testament; Breed's 
History of the Preparation of the World for Christ; 
Westcott's The Bible in the Church; Oehler's or Weid- 
ner's Biblical Theology of the Old Testament. See article 
on Messianic Prophecies, and all of Part IV. 


By the Late REV. PHILIP SCHAFF, D.D., LL.D., Professor in the Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, New York, with Notes by Key. C. H. H. Wright. 

The Bible a Divine-human Book.— The Bible, 
which contains the written word of God, is a 
divine-human book ; as Jesus Christ, who is the 
living Word or revealer of God, is a divine- 
human person. The Word became flesh; the 
divine truth was embodied in human thought 
and speech. This is the keynote of the doctrine 
of inspiration. 

The Bible Like and Unlike Other Books.— In 
one respect the Bible is like any other book or 
literary production, and must be interpreted 
according to the laws of human thought and 
human speech. In another aspect it is different 
from all other books, and must be handled with 
peculiar care and reverence. It has a double 
origin and double character melted into one. It 
has a truly human soul and body, but the ani- 
mating spirit is the eternal truth of God. 

Mistakes of the Mechanical and Rationalistic 
Theories.— The mechanical theory of a literal 
inspiration (verbal inspiration) ignores or mini- 
mizes the human element- it confounds inspi- 
ration with dictation, and reduces the sacred 
writers to passive organs, or clerks of the Holy 
Spirit, contrary to the dealings of God with 
men as free and responsible agents. The ration- 
alistic theory ignores or minimizes the divine 
clement, and obliterates the specific distinction 
between biblical inspiration and extra-biblical 
illumination. The former ruled in the seven- 
teenth century, the latter in the eighteenth, and 
was a natural reaction against hyper-orthodoxy. 

The Reformers (Luther, Zwingli, Calvin) had 
a more free and rational view of the form of 
the Bible than their scholastic followers, and yet 
had all the more reverence for, and sympathy 
with, its contents. "The letter killeth, but the 
spirit giveth life." "The words that I speak 
unto you, they are spirit, and they are life." 

The Relationship of the Two Elements.— As to 
the relationship of the two elements, we must 
avoid a confusion on the one hand, and a me- 
chanical separation on the other. The Bible is 
both divine and human all through, but with- 
out mixture, and without separation. 

Hence we may say of the Bible, with Origen, 

iravra &ela kou avd-puiniva iravra (" all are divine and 

all are human"). 

We cannot say that the thoughts only are 
divine, while the words are altogether human. 
Both thoughts and words, contents and form, 
are divine, and human as well. They constitute 
one life, which kindles life in the heart of the 
believing reader. The Spirit of God dwelt in 
the prophets and apostles, and directed them 
in the process of meditation and composition, 
but in a free way, and through the medium of 
the ordinary mental faculties. Every biblical 
writer has not 011I5' his own style, but also his 
own conception of divine truth, his own mode 
of reasoning, and used his memory and judg- 
ment and all available means of information 
as much as any ordinary writer (compare the 
preface to Luke 1: 1-4) ; and yet it is equally true 
that the prophets "spake from God, being 
moved by the Holy Spirit " (II. Pet, 1: 21, R. V., 
margin). The more we study James, Peter, Paul, 
and John, and the four Evangelists, the more 
we find the prevailing variety of human indi- 
vidualities and the pervading unity of divine 
truth in all of them, and in their thoughts as 
well as in their style. 

The Fact of Inspiration, and the Mode of In- 
spiration.— The fact of inspiration, that is, the 
action of the divine mind upon the prophets 
and apostles, is as clear and undeniable as 
the action of the human soul upon the human 
body; but the mode of inspiration is as myste- 
rious as the mode of the soul's operation upon 
the body. The Christian creeds and confessions 
assert or assume the fact, but wisely refrain 
from defining the mode, of inspiration, and 
leave that an open question for theological 

The Swiss Consensus Stands Alone in Teaching 
the Literal Inspiration of the Scriptures.— The 
only exception is the Helvetic Consensus .Formula 
(1675), which teaches the literal inspiration of the 
Scriptures, and the integrity of the Masoretic 
text of the Old Testament, including vowels 
and consonants; but that document had only 
local and ephemeral authority in Switzerland. 



Inspiration and Biblical Criticism.— Biblical 
criticism investigates the human form of the 
Bible and does not interfere with its divine con- 
tents. It is twofold: (1) Verbal or textual (also 
called lower) criticism aims to restore the original 
text of the Scripture from the existing sources 
(manuscripts, ancient versions, and patristic 
quotations). (2) Literary or historical (also called 
hie/her) criticism investigates the authorship, 
time and place, historical environments and 
fortunes, of the several books of the Old and 
New Testaments. 

The Doctrine of Inspiration Similar to the 
Doctrine of the Person of Christ.— The doctrine 
of inspiration, as we have intimated, runs par- 
allel with the doctrine of the person of Christ, 
and the false theories correspond to the various 
Christological errors, which must be carefully 
avoided. These errors are: (1) Ebionism, which 
denies the divine nature of Christ; (2) Gnosticism 
and Docetism, which deny his human nature; 
(8) Apollinarianism, which admits only a partial 
incarnation, and denies that Christ had a 
juman spirit (the divine Logos taking the place 
of reason) ; (4) Nestorianism, which admits both 
natures, but separates them abstractly; (5) 
Eutychianism and Monophysitism, which con- 
found and mix the two natures, or absorb the 
human in the divine ; (6) the modern Kenosis 
theory, which suspends or paralyzes the divine 
nature of Christ during the state of humiliation. 


It is necessary, for the use of general readers, 
to explain what is meant by the terms used in 
the last paragraph. We therefore explain them 
from Dr. SchafT's own works. 

1. Ebionism was the doctrine of the Ebionites, 
a sect of heretical Jewish Christians in the first 
and second centuries of Christianity. 

The doctrine of the common Ebionites as to 
the person of Christ was as follows : 

" Jesus is indeed the promised Messiah, the son 
of David, and the supreme lawgiver, yet a mere 
man, like Moses and David, sprung by natural 
generation from Joseph and Mary. The sense 
of his Messianic calling first arose in him at his 
baptism by John, when a higher spirit joined 
itself to him. Hence Origen compared this sect 
to the blind man in the Gospel, who called to 
the Lord, without seeing him, 'Thou Son of 
David, have mercy on me.'" — SchafT's History 
of Christianity, vol. ii., p. 433. 

The rationalistic theory of the Bible, ;\vhich 
empties it of its divine contents, corresponds to 
the Ebionitic Christology. 

2. Gnosticism was the rationalism of the 
ancient church, and was mainly of heathen 
origin— partly Greek, partly Eastern. It was a 
combination of "Oriental mysticism, Greek 
philosophy, Alexandrian, Philonic, and Cabal- 
istic Judaism, and Christian ideas of salvation, 
not merely mechanically compiled, but, as it 
were, chemically combined." 

Christ, according to the Gnostics, was an ema- 
nation from the unfathomable abyss of the 
Godhead, an emanation for the purpose of lib- 
erating " the light-spirit from the chains of dark 
matter. . . . Reduced to a clear philosophical 
definition, the Gnostic Christ is really nothing 
more than the ideal spirit of man himself."— 
SchafT, as above, p. 455. 

" The Docetists taught that the body of Christ 
was not real flesh and blood, but merely a de- 
ceptive transient phantom, and consequently 
that he did not really suffer and die and rise 
again. . . . Docetism was a characteristic fea- 
ture of the first anti-Christian errorists, whom 
St. John had in view (I. John 4:2; II. John 7)."— 
SchafT, as before, p. 497. 

3. Apollinaris, bishop of Laodicea in Syria, 
died a.d. 390. "In his zeal for the true deity of 


Christ, and his fear of a double personality, he 
fell into the error of denying his integral 
humanity. . . . He attributed to Christ a 
human body and a human (animal) soul, but 
not a human spirit or reason; putting the di- 
vine Logos [Word] in the place of the human 
spirit. . . . He held the union of a full 
divinity with full humanity in one person, 
therefore of two wholes in one whole, to be 
impossible. He supposed the unity of the per- 
son of Christ, and at the same time his sinless- 
ness, could be saved only by the excision of 
the human spirit."— SchafT, History of Post- 
Nicene Christianity, vol. iii., pp. 710-712. Apol- 
linarianism was condemned in the Second Gen- 
eral Council, that of Constantinople, in a.d. 
381. The First General Council, that of Nicsea, 
held in a.d. 325, condemned the doctrine of 
Arius, which denied the divinity of Christ. 

4. Nestorius was originally a monk, then 
presbyter in Antioch, and after a.d. 428 patriarch 
of Constantinople. Whether Nestorius was in 
reality a heretic is still a matter of some dis- 
pute. He objected to "the certainly very 
bold and equivocal expression, Mother of God 
[d-eoToicos, theotokos], which had been already 
sometimes applied to the Virgin Mary by Ori- 
gen . . . and others, and which, after the Arian 
controversy, and with the growth of the wor- 
ship of Mary, passed into the devotional lan- 
guage of the people. 

" It was of course not the sense, or monstrous 
nonsense, of this term, that the creature bore 
the Creator, or that the eternal Deity took its 
beginning from Mary, which would be the most 
absurd and most wicked of all heresies, and a 
shocking blasphemy; but the expression was 
intended only to denote the indissoluble union 
of the divine and human natures in Christ, 
and the veritable incarnation of the Logos, who 
took the human nature from the body of Mary, 
came forth God-man from her womb, and as 
God-man suffered on the cross. ..." 

Nestorianism " substituted for the idea of the 
incarnation the idea of an assumption of 
human nature, or rather of an entire man, into 
fellowship with the Logos, and an indwelling of 
Godhead in Christ. Instead of God-man we 
have here ths idea of a mere God-fearing man; 
and the personal Jesus of Nazareth is only 
the instrument, or the temple in which the 
divine Logos dwells. The two natures form, 
not a personal unity, only a moral unity, an in- 
timate friendship or conjunction. They hold 
an outward, mechanical relation to each other, 
in which each retains its peculiar attributes."— 
SchafT, Post-Nicene Christianity, vol. iii., pp. 716, 
717, 719. The heresy was condemned in the 
Third General Council, that of Ephesus, a.d. 431. 

5. Eutyches, an aged and respected presbyter, 
an archimandrite, or head of a cloister, of three 
hundred monks at Constantinople, was the 
representative but not the author of the Mo- 
nophysite heresy, so called from its assertion of 
one nature only in Christ. " Eutyches, like 
Cyril [patriarch of Alexandria, who died a.d. 
444], laid chief stress on the divine in Christ, 
and denied that two natures could be spoken of 
after the incarnation. . . . Hence it may and 
must be said : God is born, God suffered, God was 
crucified and died. He asserted, therefore, on the 
one hand, the capability of suffering and death 
in the Logos-personality, and on the other hand 
the deification of the human in Christ. "—Schaff, 
Post-Nicene Christianity, vol. iii., pp. 736, 737. This 
heresy was finally condemned in the Fourth 
General Council, that of Chalcedon, in a.d. 451. 

6. The expression Kenosis (Greek KeVtoo-i?, 
emptying) is taken from St. Paul's expression in 
Phil. 2: 7 (eavrbv eicevcoaev), and the doctrine of the 
Kenosis, as explained by Hilary of Pictavium, 
a.d. 350, means that the divine Logos in Christ 
did not all at once in its fullness enter into his 
humanity, but, being in the man Christ Jesus, 



remained in a stale of humiliation until the 
exaltation of the Redeemer. Hilary, however, 

distinctly maintained that the Son himself 
remained the same all throughout, and pos- 
sessed the latent power to take up and use this 
full power if he so willed it, so that the exinani- 
tion, as it is termed, was all along not merely 
an aet of self-humiliation on the part of the 
God-man, but also an act of divine power 
(cf. John 10: 18). See Dorner on The Person of 
Christ, English translation, div. i., vol. ii., pp. 
406 11'. The older Protestant divines held that 
< Jhrist laid aside merely the divine majesty, but 
not the conscious possession of the divine na- 
ture. But the modern theory of the Kenosis 
supposes Christ to have been subject to the in- 
firmities and shortcomings of human knowl- 
edge, such as might at least be exhibited by a 

sinless man. In its extreme form, it teaches 
a complete suspension or paralysis of the divine 
nature of Christ (and of the trinitarian process) 
during the whole state of humiliation, that is, 
from the birth to the resurrection. See Schaff, 
Christ and Christianity, pp. 107-119. 

Books of Reference: An interesting essay may 
be found in a volume of essays entitled New Wine in 
did Bottles, by Rev. J. B. Heard, M.A. ; Schaff's Creeds 
of Christendom; Ellicott's Treatise on the Inspiration of 
the Holy Scriptures; Gaussen's Theopneustia; Pattern's 
Inspiration of the Scriptures; Jamieson's Insf)i ration of 
the Holy Scriptures.; F. B. Hobertson's Sermons, Inspi- 
ration; H. B. Smith's Sermons, Inspiration of the Holy 
Scriptures; W. E. Gladstone's Impregnable Rock of 
Holy Script-lire; Wright's Divine Authority of the JJible; 
Schaff's History of the Christian Church, vols, i., ii., and 
hi.; Schaff's Christ and Christianity. 


By WILBERT W. WHITE, Ph.D., Associate Director, Biblical Department of 

The Bible Institute, Chicago. 

Introductory.— To interpret is to explain; to 
make clear the meaning; to give the sense. 
Back of interpretation lies examination. In 
the study of the Bible the first question to ask 
is, What does it sai/f Then only may we ask 
the second, What does it mean? If more atten- 
tion were given to the first, there would often 
be less difficulty in answering the second ques- 
tion. Who has not heard persons attempt to 
explain what the Bible means by what, on 
closer examination, they have found the Bible 
does not say. Perhaps no more practical advice 
can be given on this subject than to be always 
first sure of what the Bible says. This demands 
study. Familiarity with the contents of the 
Bible, secured by hard study, is the prime requi- 
site of the interpreter. AVhile it is doubtless 
true that the principle that the Bible should be 
studied like any other book has been abused, 
there is a truth here which needs emijhasis in 
many minds. Many omit to study the Bible 
with vigor and by the most approved methods 
because of supposed reverence lor it. They feel 
that it is so unlike other books that its meaning 
is to be sought by special means, which are 
often no means at all. The Bible is not written 
in cipher, nor will any wonderful revelation 
come to the one who reads it backwards or up- 
side down. AVhile the Bible is unique and with- 
out a peer in literature, one should never for- 
get that it is literature. It is so like other books 
that it must be read and studied in the same 
way as other books are studied to be under- 
stood. It requires more than other books, and 
because it requires more it requires as much. 
There is a helpful analogy between the incar- 
nate Word and the written Scriptures. Both are 
really human and divine. The glory of the 
divine is emphasized when we allow for the full 
and perfect human element. The reality and 
truth of both are by this means put within the 
reach of our own testing. It is argued that the 
Bible is true because it is divine. Its truth may 
also be argued from the fact that it is human. 

The Bible should not, on the other hand, be 
regarded as a book which only a scholar may 
understand. It is true that it challenges the 
most profound study. It is inexhaustible, be- 
cause it contains the revelation of the only wise 
God, who is ever revealing himself, yet is never 
wholly revealed. But the plain, everyday per- 
son may, with ease, discover from the Word 
what God intended he should find. Many 
trouble themselves much to find in the Bible 
what God never intended to reveal in it. The 
Bible was not written lor an intellectual aristoc- 

racy. The message of love to mankind from a 
gracious God and Saviour is not hid in enig- 
matic phrase or profound philosophical state- 
ment. In attestation of this, consider the pro- 
portion of the Bible which is purely biograph- 
ical. Truth in the concrete is here found in 
very large measure. We meet men, women, 
and children under circumstances well defined, 
and hear what they said, how they thought and 

Suggestions.— 1. The Bible should be interpreted in 
the light of the central fundamental teachings of Jesus 
Christ. The Gospels may be denominated the 
heart of the Bible. The Gospel by John we may 
call the heart of the heart. We may expect to 
feel the beat of the heart in the extremities. 
Changing the figure, we may expect outlying 
districts to be dominated by the capital city. 
Jesus, of all interpreters who ever lived, was 
capable of explaining Scripture. We should be 
on guard here against assuming that what is re- 
corded of the teaching of Jesus is more trust- 
worthy than that of apostles and prophets. 
Those in whom the Spirit of Jesus testified are 
of equal authority with Jesus. Where, however, 
there is difficulty in determining the meaning 
of any of these messengers, we are bound to in- 
terpret in the light of the unquestioned, lumi- 
nous teaching of Jesus Christ. 

2. TJie Bible should, be interpreted in the light of 
its oi vn statement of the object of its existence. Paul 
to Timothy writes: "The sacred writings . . . 
are able to make thee wise unto salvation 
through faith which is in Christ Jesus. . . . Scrip- 
ture ... is also profitable . . . that the 
man of God may be complete, furnished com- 
pletely unto every good work" (II. Tim. 3: 15, 
10, R. V.). That man may live and know how 
to live more abundantly is the purpose of God 
in giving the Bible. Redemption is the word of 
all words which, with propriety, might be writ- 
ten in large letters over the pages of the sacred 
volume. The Bible is neither unhistorical nor 
unscientific, but its purpose primarily is to 
teach neither history nor science. It is sure 
enough of its facts to trust itself sometimes to 
a partial statement of details. It is so much oc- 
cupied with informing man how to go to heaven 
that it does not stop to explain how the heavens 
go. The key to the Gospel by John is the key to 
the Bible. " Many other signs therefore did Jesus 
. . . which are not written in this book; but 
these are written, that ye may believe that Jesus 
is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing 
ye may have life in his name" (John 20: 30, 31, 
R. V.). We should not omit to note that in accom- 



plishing the second part of its purpose the Bible 
records many things of which it does not ap- 
prove. " These things were our examples to the 
intent we should not lust after evil things, as 
they also lusted." . . . "Now these things 
happened unto them by way of example, and 
they were written for our admonition " (I. Cor. 
10: 6, 11, R.V.). 

3. In interpreting the Bible, the natural meaning 
of words should be sought. In discovering this, 
one must consider the words in themselves, 
and as used in the language of the times, and by 
the writer. One must be on guard against press- 
ing the etymological meaning of a word where 
such was not intended. The etymological mean- 
ing of such words as lunatic and enthusiasm are 
not usually thought of by writers and speakers 
to-day. When such is the case, it is in some 
way indicated. In studying a translation, such 
as the Authorized Version, the meaning of 
words current when the translation was made 
should be sought; e.g., thought, in Matt. 6: 25-34; 
careful, in Phil. 4: 6. 

4. The grammatical construction of sentences 
should be consulted in interpreting the Bible. We 
must believe that it says what it means, and 
means what it says, according to real and 
natural modes of thought and expression. 

5. The immediate context of a passage should be 
consulted in seeking its meaning ; e.g., I. Cor. 2: 9 
is frequently interpreted as referring to things 
to be revealed after this life in heaven. Verse 
10 shows conclusively that the apostle refers to 
what has been already revealed to himself and 
his fellow Christians by the Spirit. 

6. An over emphasis of the immediate context in 
interpretation should be guarded against; e.g., some 
interpreters allow the figure of the shepherd in 
Ps. 23: 1-4 to lead them to force the meaning of 
the verses 5, 6. The natural method is to allow 
the two figures of the shepherd and the host to 
stand side by side. Fanciful interpretations of a 
portion of Eccl. 12 have resulted from forcing 
the figure of the aged man into all the verses in- 
stead of allowing for a mixture of this figure 
with others. 

7. The remote context of a passage should be 
consulted in seeking its meaning. This may be under- 
stood to include: (1) The character of the lan- 
guage employed in the paragraph, or section, 
or book. Such questions as: Is this poetry? 
Is this allegory? Is this parable? are proper. 
(2) The object and plan of the book. Such diffi- 
culties as the one connected with the use of 
the words faith and works by Paul and James 
would be thus explained. (3) The time and cir- 
cumstances of the writing. (4) The person or 
persons addressed in the writing. (5) The place of 
the book in the scheme of revealed truth. 

To interpret correctly the remote context, the 
historical imagination should be cultivated. By 
this is meant the ability to reproduce vividly 
the circumstances and enter largely into the 
spirit of the situation. The seeker for the true 
meaning of a passage should ask himself: 
What thought did the writer evidently intend 
to convey to the one addressed? What meaning 
would the one addressed naturally gather from 
these words? Of one interpreter it is said, 
" He lives in every person who comes forward, 
either speaking or acting, in the wicked as well 
as the good; and explains every discourse from 
the circumstances, and from the soul of him 
who speaks." 

8. What has been already ivritten involves the fact 
that to compare scripture ivith scripture is a princi- 
ple of sound biblical interpretation. The Bible is 
its own interpreter. When two passages appear 
to contradict each other, as a rule a third may 
be found which will indicate that harmony 

9. A true interpretation of a passage will be in 
harmony with the first principles of morals. " As 
the end of all Scripture is that we should love 

God and our neighbor, any interpretation of 
Scripture which does not tend to promote these 
feelings cannot be true." 

10. A true interpretation of Scripture will not con- 
tradict scientific truth. Truth cannot be more true 
than itself. My interpretation may be wrong, 
or the conclusion of the scientist unfounded. If 
both are correct and understood they will har- 
monize. One has well said: "To find the truth 
and the will of God as expressed in it, to stay by 
it, love it, make it our own, defend it to the 
death— that is the common goal of religion and 
of all true science. If one man study the Bible 
religiously, and another study it scientifically, 
still they are friends and allies, unless the one's 
religion or the other's science is somehow at 
fault. Indeed, why should your religion ex- 
clude my science even here, or my science your 
religion, if both science and religion possess the 
teachableness and the sweet humility of the lit- 
tle child, to which was made the promise of the 

11. A true interpretation of Scripture will not 
always result in the removal of all difficulties. There 
will sometimes remain apparent contradictions. 
We are to accept the plain historico-grammat- 
ical sense of a passage, and not to attempt to 
evade its plain meaning for the purpose of se- 
curing harmony with another passage, or one's 
own idea of what is truth. There may be a plain 
contradiction between two statements so far as 
we can discern, and yet both may be true; e. g., 
"Before Abraham was, I am." "Jesus was born 
in Bethlehem of Judea, in the days of Herod 
the king." One of the most unreasonable de- 
mands is made by the human reason, viz., that 
all things should appear to it reasonable. More- 
over, some difficulties of interpretation must 
remain because of the fragmentary character of 
the record, uncertainty as to the meaning and 
use of certain words, variations in readings, and 
the like. It is readily admitted, however, by all 
that these are of minor importance and do not 
affect the body of vital saving truth revealed in 
the Scriptures. 

12. A real Christian experience is necessary on 
the part of one who would understand the Scriptures 
fully. The Bible contains the record of actual 
experience of hundreds of believers and unbe- 
lievers of the past. It is intensely human. It 
was not written in heaven and sent sailing 
down through the air, leaf by leaf; nor did its 
writers sit down and listen to dictation by some 
angelic messenger, or by God himself. God en- 
tered into the real life of the prophets and 
apostles, and in them, and in his Son, our 
brother, he spoke. As one progresses in the 
Christian life, will one grow in appreciation and 
understanding of the Bible. We read it, and 
find it reflected in us, as well as ourselves re- 
flected in it. No experience is possible to saint 
or sinner which is not recorded in the Bible. It 
is plain that some portions may be understood 
only by the saint, and he of the most advanced 
type. Of one eminent interpreter it is written, 
" His exegesis breathes everywhere a most lively 
religious feeling, indicating that his own per- 
sonal experience enabled him to penetrate, as 
by intuition, into the depths of meaning treas- 
ured in the oracles of God." 

13. The successful interpreter of the Bible must be 
following the truth wherever it leads. Obedience is an 
organ of spiritual knowledge. "He revealeth 
his secret unto his servants the prophets." "He 
that willeth to do his will shall know." The 
Bible thus becomes the most difficult book in 
the world to study scientifically. It deals with 
morals. When one comes to it to know truth it 
will not yield its treasures unless he is deter- 
mined to do the truth. The illiterate obedient 
person will therefore be a better interpreter of 
the Bible than the profound scholar who is a 

14. TJie true interpreter will, in childlike humility, 



depend upon the illuminating influence of the Holy 
Spirit. God must be looked to to interpret his 
own message. Here is a great advantage which 
the student of the Bible may have, that he may 
enjoy the presence of the Author to explain the 
meaning of his own words. He is not depend- 
ent on commentaries, or the church, for inter- 

pretation. He has not need that any man 
teach him. He may consult the Holy Spirit 
himself and receive illumination. His constant 
prayer will be, " Open thou mine eyes, that I may 
behold wondrous things out of thy law." 

Books of Reference: Farrar's History of Inter- 
pretation; Terry's Biblical Hermeneutics. 

As it appears mounted in the British Museum. Consult Plate III. 



By KEV. C. H. H. WRIGHT, D.D., Ph.D., Grinfield Lecturer on 
the LXX., Oxford. 

The Editor.— The careful reader of the Old 
Testament will not fail to observe that a reg- 
ular chain of quotations of the earlier Scrip- 
tures can be shown to pervade the Scriptures 
of later date, extending from the days of Joshua 
to the days of Malachi. The number of ref- 
erences to the Pentateuch and the Prophets 
found in that last book of the Old Testament is 
peculiarly instructive. It cannot, however, be 
distinctly proved, though it is probable, that 
Ezra, after the return from the Babylonish 
captivity, made a complete collection of the 
sacred writings then extant among the Jews, 
authoritatively separating the divinely inspired 
writings from all other books. 

Early Evidence.— There is, however, very early 
evidence to prove that there was such a 
" canon " or rule in existence centuries, perhaps, 
prior to the time of our Lord. It is spoken of 
in the prologue to the book of Ecclesiasticus (a 
name which must be carefully distinguished 
from that of Ecclesiastes). That book in its 
present form is assigned by most modern critics 
to B.C. 120, and the period at which the editor's 
grandfather lived cannot have been later than 
B.C. 170, that is, shortly before the great Macca- 
bean struggle. It is quite possible even that 
those dates may be put back forty or fifty years 
earlier, for various different opinions have 
been held as to the two notes of time given in 
the book in question. The prologue or preface 
referred to relates how "my grandfather Jesus, 
having given himself up more and more to the 
reading of the Law and the Prophets and the 
other books of our fathers," was at last led 
himself to become an author. This allusion to 
the Jewish Scriptures as forming a well-known 
collection divided into three parts, afterwards 
distinguished as the Law, the Prophets, and 
the Writings, is perfectly clear. The third 
division of the sacred books did not receive 
a distinct name until centuries later. That 
third part is possibly alluded to in Luke 24 : 44 
under the name of the book which stands first 
in the collection, namely, the Psalms. 

The arguments of some modern scholars that 
certain books were added to the Jewish canon 
between the times of the Maccabean struggle 
and the days of our Lord, do not rest upon any 
historical basis, but solely on critical conjec- 
tures. It may be safely asserted that the con- 
tests between the great Jewish sects, the Phari- 
sees and the Sadducees, which came into exist- 
ence at the close of the Maccabean revolt, and 
the suspicious jealousy with which those sects 
watched one another, rendered it absolutely 
impossible to attempt to introduce any new 
books into the Jewish canon of Holy Scripture. 

At the Synod of Jamnia. a.d. 90, an attempt 
was made to strike out of ihe canon the books 
of Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs, and also 
the book of Ezekiel, because certain passages in 
it were supposed to contradict the books of 
Moses. It is well to note this fact, for some 
scholars have drawn conclusions therefrom un- 
favorable to the idea of the closing of the 
Jewish canon before that time. Prior to that 
date, our Lord had, by his teaching, endorsed 
as a whole the Jewish canon known to us ; and 

Josephus' testimony (see below) on the point, 
and that of Philo (probably born B.C. 20, and 
died after a.d. 41), are perfectly conclusive on 
that matter. 

Contents.— In II. Maccabees 2 mention is made 
also of the threefold division of the sacred 
writings. In that chapter, in verses 2 and 3, the 
Law, or the Pentateuch, is spoken of, and later, 
in verses 13 and 14, the other two divisions are 
alluded to. The third division of the Jewish 
Scriptures is alluded to in II. Maccabees as "the 
(writings) of David," so called, as in Luke 24: 
44, from the Psalms having been placed first in 
that division. 

Josephus' statement in relation to the Jewish 
canon is clear. It is contained in his work 
Against Apion, book i., sec. 8, which was written 
about a.d. 100. He says: "We have not myr- 
iads of books differing with and opposing one an- 
other, but twenty-two books only, containing 
the history of all past time, which are justly be- 
lieved to be divine, and of These five are those of 
Moses, which contain the laws and the tradition 
concerning the generation of men down to his 
own death. This period of time embraces nearly 
3,000 years. But from the death of Moses to the 
reign of Artaxerxes, the king of the Persians 
after Xerxes, the prophets who came after 
Moses wrote the events which occurred in their 
time in thirteen books ; but the four remaining 
contain hymns to God, and precepts of life for 
man. But from the time of Artaxerxes down 
to our own time all events have indeed been 
written; but they (the books) are not deemed 
worthy of the same credit as those before them, 
because there was not the exact succession of 
the prophets." 

The thirteen books referred to by Josephus are 
(1) Joshua, (2) Judges, with Ruth, (3) I. and II. 
Samuel, (4) I. and II. Kings, (5) Job, (6)Isaiah, (7) 
Jeremiah and the Lamentations, (8) Ezekiel, (9) 
the twelve Minor Prophets, always counted as 
one book by the Jews, (10) Daniel, (11) Ezra and 
Nehemiah, also counted as one, (12) I. and II. 
Chronicles, (13) Esther. This was the Alexan- 
drian method of reckoning. The four books of 
hymns and ethics are Psalms, Proverbs, Eccle- 
siastes, and Canticles. 

Arrangement.— The ordinary arrangement of 
the Hebrew Bible is as follows : (1) The Penta- 
teuch or "the Law" {Torah). . (2a) Joshua, 
Judges, Samuel, and Kings. The title given to 
this first part of the second division is "the 
Former Prophets." (26) Isaiah, Jeremiah, and 
Ezekiel, with the Minor Prophets, form the 
second portion of the second division, which is 
entitled "the Later Prophets." The division of 
the books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles, 
each into two books, is of comparatively late 
date. The twelve Minor Prophets were origi- 
nally regarded as one volume (Ecclesiasticus 
49:10). The title "Greater or Lesser Prophets" 
alludes to the size of the books and not to any 
inferiority in authority. The designation 
"Former and Later Prophets" only points to 
the position in the canon. (3) The Kethubim 
( Writings), more commonly termed Hagiographa 
in Latinized Greek, meaning "holy writings." 
These are Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Solo- 




mon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, 
Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles. Of 
these, the Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamenta- 
tions, Ecclesiastes, Esther, are termed the rive 
Megilloth, or Molls, and are appointed to be pub- 
licly read in the synagogue on certain special 
occasions in the year. 

The Old Testament in the English Bible is 
composed of thirty-nine books: The Penta- 
teuch, 5; the historical books, 12, commencing 
with Joshua and ending with the book of 
Esther; the poetical, 5— Job, Psalms, Proverbs, 
Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon ; the prophetical, 
16— Isaiah. Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, with the 
twelve Minor Prophets; and Lamentations, 1, 
which follows Jeremiah. The order of the 
books in our English Bible follows in the main 
the order adopted in the old Greek version 
(Tilled the Septuagint (and generally known as 
the LXX.). That order has no claim whatever 
to be regarded as authoritative, although the 
claim has sometimes been strangely put for- 
ward. In the LXX. version, Isaiah, Jeremiah, 
Lamentations, Ezekiel, and Daniel are placed, 
however, after the twelve Minor Prophets, and 
the apocryphal books are dispersed among the 
other books (see Old Testament Apocrypha), The 
arrangement in the Latin Vulgate is practically 
the same as in the English, with the exception 
of the apocryphal books, regarded by the 
Roman Church as canonical. In the LXX. and 
Vulgate, the books of Samuel and of Kings are 
designated the "four books of Kings." 

In the Talmud the order of the Greater 
Prophets is: Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah* but 
the reason assigned for that order in the Talmud 
is more ingenious than convincing. It is, how- 
ever, probable that Isaiah's original place in 
the canon may have been after Ezekiel, and 
that the book was afterwards placed, for chron- 
ological reasons, in its present position. In the 
Talmud, Ruth, as the first book of the Hagiog- 
rapha, is mentioned as if it stood before the 
Psalms. The place, however, assigned to Ruth 
in the LXX., Vulgate, and English version is 
probably its proper position, although it was 
afterwards placed, as one of the Megilloth, 
among the Hagiographa. The number of books 
in the Old Testament is variously given in 
ancient authorities. The Talmud and the 
Palestine Jews reckon twenty-four books, 
Samuel. Kings, Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemio h, 
and the twelve Minor Prophets, being each 
regarded as forming one book ; Josephus, Origen, 
and others give the number as twenty-two, 
uniting Ruth with Judges, and Lamentations 
with Jeremiah. The number of books thus 
corresponds with the number of letters in the 
Hebrew alphabet, and some assume from this 
fact that the shorter enumeration is older than 
the longer. Jerome mentions both methods of 
numbering the books, but states that the num- 
ber twenty-two was the more usual. 

The triple division of the Jewish Scriptures, 
which has already been mentioned, is generally 
thought to have been referred to by our Lord 
under the name of "the Law of Moses, and the 
Prophets, and the Psalms" (Luke 24: 44). It is, 
however, by no means certain that all the books 
of the third division in general are necessarily 
included under the heading "Psalms." Our 
Lord may have referred to the book of the 
Psalms as the most important book of the 
third division, and the one in which the most 
numerous Messianic prophecies are found. It 
should also be noted that in the New Testament 
the Jewish Scriptures as a whole are usually 
spoken of as the " Law and the Prophets," or as 
"Moses and the Prophets," even in cases in 
which quotations arc made from the book of the 
Psalms, which are included in the third divi- 
sion, or Hagiographa (Matt. 5: 17; 7: 12; 11: 13; 
22: 40; Luke 16: hi, 29, 31; John 1: 45; Acts 13: 15, 
39, 40 ; 24 : 14 ; 28 : 23 ; Rom. 3 : 21). All the books of 

the Old Testament are also sometimes spoken 
of under the title of "the Law" (John 10:34; 
12: 34; 15:25; I. Cor. 14:21), although the Mosaic 
writings are usually referred to by our Lord as 
the sayings of that great lawgiver. 

Preservation.— In the Old Testament distinct 
statements are made as to the preservation of 
the sacred books from the earliest period. Moses 
directed "the book of the Law" to be placed in 
the side of the ark (Deut. 31:26), probably in 
some chest attached thereto. Joshua is said to 
have added to that book (Josh. 24: 26). It is 
not at all surprising that in the terrible perse- 
cution of Manasseh (II. Ki. 21: 1G; 24: 4) it 
should have been found necessary to conceal 
the sacred books; so there is nothing whatever 
improbable in t lie book of the Law of the Lord, 
or some portion of the same, being rediscovered 
in the house of the Lord in the days of Josiah 
(II. Ki. 22: 8 ff.). Prior to that reign, mention 
is made of "the men of Hezekiah," a body who 
appear to have had the duty of the editing of 
the sacred writings, and who added consider- 
ably to the book of the Proverbs (Pro v. 25: 1). 
The references in the Talmud and elsewhere 
to that body of scribes are numerous. 

Transmission.— "The men of the Great Syna- 
gogue" form an important link in the trans- 
mission of the sacred books from the time of 
Ezra down to the period of the Maccabees. They 
are spoken of as such a link in the well-known 
treatise of the Talmud termed Aboth, or Pirke 
Aboth (Chapters of the Fathers). JNo doubt the 
later legends ascribed much to them which can- 
not be sustained. But the story of "the men of 
the Great Synagogue " is not to be wholly 
relegated to the region of fable. The statements 
with regard to their numbers being 120 or 85 can, 
indeed, be traced to an erroneous interpretation 
of passages in Ezra and Nehemiah. But the 
commission given by Artaxerxes to Ezra (Ezra 
7 : 25) authorized him to establish some such body. 
It was the real governing body of the Jews, and 
corresponded to the seventy elders appointed by 
Moses. They not only took care of the preserva- 
tion of the sacred books, but probably drew up 
petitions and eulogies, which are still retained 
in the Jewish liturgy. They were the civil and 
ecclesiastical authorities which corresponded to 
the Sanhedrin of later days, which seems, indeed, 
to have been a re-formation of, the old arrange- 
ment introduced later— after the irregularities 
consequent upon the tyranny of Antiochus 
Epiphanes and the Maccabean revolt. 

The "Great Synagogue," important as was its 
work, left behind no distinct record of its ac- 
tions. This evidently was because it was strictly 
forbidden to commit to writing religious laws 
and ordinances not contained in the Scriptures. 
Even in later days, it was long before such a scru- 
ple was overcome. The Talmud itself was only 
by degrees committed to writing. The existence 
and authority of "the men of the Great Syna- 
gogue" were none the less important. 

Books of Reference: Dr. C. H. H. Wright's 

Ecclesiastes in Relation to Modern Criticism and Modern 
Pessimism (1883) (regarding the questions of the testi- 
mony of the Talmud to the Old Testament Scriptures 
and of the men of the Great Synagogue); Davidson's 
Canon of the Bible; Byle's Canon of the Old Testament; 
Alexander's Canon of the Old and New Testament 
Ascertained; Stuart's Old Testament Canon. 

On Part II. in General Consult: Barrows' Com- 
panion to the Bible; Briggs' Biblical Study; S. Green's 
Introduction to the Knowledge of the Holy Scripture; 
Harman's Introdiuiion to the Study of the Holy Scrip- 
tures; Blake's The Book: When and by Whom the Bible 
Was Written; Home's Introduction; Dean Alford's 
Greek Testament; Scrivener's Plain Introduction to the 
Criticism of the New Testament; Warfield's Introduction 
to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament; Schaff ' s 
Propa'dcutic; Bice's Our Sixty-Six Sacred Books; Book 
by Book, by Archdeacon Farrar and others; Merrill's 
The Parchments of the Paith. See 'articles on How to 
Study the Biele and Books of the Bible, 



By REV. A. PLUMMER, D.D., Master op University College, Durham. 

Definition. — By the canon of Scripture, or the 
canon of the Scriptures, is meant the measure 
of the contents of the Bible. " Canon " is a rod 
which has been measured and tested, and which 
then becomes a standard for measuring and 
testing other things. The word is easily applied 
in a figurative sense to any kind of standard. 
In the case of Scripture those books are called 
canonical which have been tested and admitted 
by rule, and then have themselves become a 
rule or standard by which to test doctrine and 
practice. A list of the inspired books was called 
a canon, and then the word canon was applied 
to the collection of books included in the list. It 
thus comes to mean the collection of books 
which forms the original rule of Christian 
life and belief. 

Origin,— The early history of the canon, both 
of the Old Testament and the New Testament, 
is involved in obscurity. We know very little 
about the way in which the books of the New 
Testament were gradually collected into one 
volume; but what we do know is satisfactory 
and reassuring ; for it was done cautiously and 
jealously by the testing experience of the 
churches, and not by external authority. St. 
Paul knows nothing of written Gospels, but ap- 
peals to tradition (I. Cor. 15:3). Barnabas (c. 
a.d. 70-100) is the first to quote from the Gospels 
with the formula, " It is written." Papias (c. 130) 
is the first to speak of " books " from which the 
teaching of the Lord may be known. In Justin 
Martyr (c. 140-160) the "Memoirs of the Apos- 
tles " are primitive historical documents, prob- 
ably identical with our four Gospels, which 
were read in the Sunday services of the church, 
as an alternative to the Old Testament Prophets, 
and as a substitute for the living voice of an 
apostle. Justin shows no knowledge of a canon 
even of the Gospels, although he quotes them 
as of final and perhaps exclusive authority. 
But about the same time as Papias and Justin, 
the heretic Marcion had formed a canon to 
suit his own views, consisting of the Gospel of 
St. Luke, much abbreviated, and ten epistles of 
St. Paul; i.e., he excluded the Pastoral Epistles 
and the Epistle to the Hebrews. It is unlikely 
that he was the first to form a collection of 
Pauline writings. During the third quarter 
of the second century we have very little evi- 
dence ; but from near the end of it to the close of 
the century (a.d. 170-200), the evidence becomes 
full, and the gradual formation of the canon is 
a process which is approaching completion, as 
is shown by the testimony of the Syriac version 
in the East, of the Muratorian Canon in the 
West, and of the writings of Irenseus, Clement 
of Alexandria, Tertullian, and others in very 
different parts of Christendom. 

Independent Decisions,— All this testimony 
tends to show that Christians of that age had 
almost the same New Testament that we have 
now, and regarded it as divinely inspired, and 
equal in authority to the Old Testament. But it 
must be carefully noticed that they had not 
quite the same New Testament that we have; 
and that different parts of Christendom at that 
period had not quite the same New Testament 
that other parts had. Not only did some 
churches accept as authoritative certain books 
of our New Testament which other churches 
rejected or did not as yet know, although they 
were afterwards accepted by all, but some 
churches accepted a few books which, two 
hundred years later, were rejected by all. This 
want of unanimity respecting a portion of the 

books to be admitted to the New Testament is 
an unquestionable fact in the history of primi- 
tive Christianity, and at first sight we are in- 
clined to lament it. We should have liked to 
know that from the first all Christians through- 
out the world were absolutely agreed as to 
what documents were inspired and what were 
not. But, in reality, the partial disagreement 
which prevailed for two or three centuries is 
an immense advantage, for which we ought to 
be very thankful. It proves the great inde- 
pendence with which the different churches 
acted in this matter. Each settled its New 
Testament for itself, and accepted or rejected 
books according to the evidence for or against 
them. In each center of Christian activity 
there was a tribunal, which decided, independ- 
ently of other tribunals, what writings were to 
be regarded as Scripture. When, therefore, 
these independent tribunals agreed in their 
decisions, the force of their cumulative testi- 
mony was overwhelming: and from the first 
they agreed about two-thirds of our New Testa- 
ment. The fact that for a time they differed 
somewhat respecting the remaining third, 
proves that their separate decisions were inde- 
pendent. The consensus of opinion which we 
find towards the close of the second century 
respecting the greater part of the books in the 
New Testament, is a fact of the greatest im- 
portance, and gives us all the security that we 

The Books Accepted.— Out of twenty-seven 
books which form our New Testament, the 
whole of Christendom was quite agreed about 
twenty, and probably no church rejected, or 
was doubtful about, or was ignorant of, all the 
remaining seven ; but as yet there was no unan- 
imous decision respecting them. If we reckon 
the contents of the books, then the churches were 
agreed about more than five-sixths of the 
whole, and doubtful about less than one-sixth. 
Moreover, it was precisely the most important 
books, viz., the four Gospels, the Acts, the 
thirteen epistles of St. Paul, with I. John and I. 
Peter, that were universally accepted. There 
is reason for believing that the epistles of St. 
Paul were collected into one volume at an early 
date: and this collection was commonly called 
"the' Apostle." Similarly the four Gospels 
were spoken of collectively as "the Gospel." 
With these two collections, the Acts, I. Peter, 
and I. John soon became associated. 

The doubts which were felt in some quarters 
respecting some of the remaining seven books 
(Hebrews, James, II. Peter, II. and III. John, 
Jude, Revelation) prove how jealously the first 
Christians watched the growth of the New Tes- 
tament, and how unwilling they were to admit 
any writing to the position of Scripture, to give 
the rule in matters of doctrine and discipline, 
until its claims to such a position were made 
good. In those centuries there were many 
spurious gospels, which soon were rejected. Be- 
fore the close of the fifth century all question 
respecting any of the present books had ceased, 
and doubts Avere not revived until the Refor- 
mation ; indeed, long before the fifth century all 
of th em were accepted by most Christians. And 
it is not difficult to see how doubts arose in the 
first instance. Owing to their brevity and want 
of general interest, such books as Jude and II. 
and III. John would circulate very slowly, and 
a church which had never heard of such a writ- 
ing until long after its author was dead would 
naturally be suspicious. The Epistle of St. James 



is addressed to Jewish Christians, and for that 
reason would remain comparatively unknown 
in Gentile churches. Moreover, with regard to 
all four of these documents, the writers did not 
seem t<> be apostles; and, if they were not apos- 
tles, what authority did they possess ? The same 
doubt could be raised respecting the Epistle to 
the Hebrews, the author of which gave no clue 
to his identity. Respecting II. Peter and the 
Revelation there was doubt, not only as to their 
apostolic authority, but as to their genuineness. 
They were both of them so unlike the other 
works of t he apostle whose name they bore, that 
they looked like forgeries. Revelation was in 
some quarters charged with being heretical, so 
extravagant were some of the doctrines which 
certain teachers professed to deduce from it, espe- 
cially respecting the millennium. Hebrews and 
Revelation almost form a class by themselves, 
for they seem to have been generally received 
before any serious doubts arose, in the West 
about Hebrews, in the East about Revelation. 
But in both cases the doubts led to the book's 
being more thoroughly accepted than before. 

The Books Rejected.— The books which were 
for a time regarded in some parts of Christen- 
dom as inspired, and treated as Scripture by 
being read in public worship and quoted as of 
authority, were principally the following: The 
Epistle of Barnabas, the Epistle of Clement 
(with Avhich an ancient homily became asso- 
ciated under the erroneous title of the Second 
Epistle of Clement), and the Shepherd of 
Hernias, with perhaps the Gospel according to 
the Hebrews and the Revelation of Peter. 
Nevertheless, no one can read these venerable 
documents without feeling that the church has 

been rightly guided in excluding them from 
the canon of Scripture. Edifying as they are, 
the difference between them and the books 
of the Bible is immense; but their partial recog- 
nition in certain churches is a fact of great 
value, as showing how general agreement was 
reached at last. Agreement was not the out- 
come of subservience to one central authority, 
but of independent investigations, gradually 
ending in one and the same result. 

Final Decisions.— A loyal Christian, therefore, 
who desires to " know the certainty concerning 
the things wherein " he has been "instructed," 
may rely with confidence upon the judgment 
which was so patiently reached towards the 
end of the fourth centurv, when the Coun- 
cils of Hippo (A.n. 393) and of Carthage (397) 
summed up the results of all this concurrent 
testimony and investigation and published the 
list of books which form our New Testament. 
This list was in the next century universally 
adopted, not because the Councils had drawn it 
up, but because all Christians were satisfied 
that it was correct; and we must remember 
that in that age very important evidence was 
in existence which has not come down to us. 
Therefore this final decision is entitled to the 
very highest respect; all the more so, because 
the subsequent experience of Christendom has 
shown that the books thus selected surpass all 
other literature in spiritual power and inex- 
haustible adaptability to the needs and aspira- 
tions of human nature. 

Books of Reference: Charteris' Canonicity; West- 
cott's History of the Canon in the New Testament. Con- 
sult article on Summary of Books of the New Tes- 


By REV. J. P. LANDIS, D.D., Ph.D., Professor of Old Testament Theology and 
Exegesis, Union Biblical Seminary, Dayton, Ohio. 


The languages of the world are classified under 
three great families: (1) The Aryan, or Indo- 
European; (2) the Semitic; (3) the Turanian. 
The Semitic, or Shemitic, with which we are 
here concerned, includes most of the languages 
spoken by the descendants of Shem and part 
of those of the descendants of Ham; namely, 
Hebrew, Aramaic or Chaldee, Syriac, Phenician, 
Assyrian, Arabic, Himyaritic, Ethiopic, and 
Samaritan, the last three being less important 
dialects. These languages are probably all sisters 
of one common mother tongue, now lost, as the 
Italian, French, Spanish, and Portuguese are 
descendants from the Latin. There is remark- 
able similarity among these tongues, both in 
the grammar and the vocabularies. They all 
read from right to left excepting the Assyrian, 
which reads from left to right. They have a 
considerable number of guttural letters, there 
being at least six in the Arabic and four in 
the Hebrew, Aramaic, and Syriac. The entire 
body of the words consists of consonants, no 
vowels being originally written, certain vowels 
being indicated by certain consonants when 
there was liability of confusion without them. 
Later, marks to denote the vowels were invented 
and placed under or over the consonants — in the 
Hebrew and Aramaic nine, in the Syriac five, 
and in the Arabic three, which number is 
doubled by what is called nunation. The root 
words consist throughout of three consonants. 
There are but two genders, masculine and femi- 
nine, and two tenses, the perfect, to denote com- 
pleted action, the imperfect, to denote incomplete 
action. In pronouns the oblique cases are des- 

ignated by short forms (suffixes) appended to 
other words. There are almost no case endings, 
and scarcely any compound words (except in 
proper names), the genius of these tongues being 
averse to long words. 

Hebrew.— Almost the whole of the Old Testa- 
ment was written in Hebrew. The name is often 

derived from the word ^D> > to pass over, contain- 
ing a reminiscence of Abram's passing over the 
Euphrates in going to Canaan. Others derive it 
from Eber, or Heber, the great-grandson of 

Shem. Abraham is called ^DJ/H (Gten. 14: 13), 

which almost all the ancient and modern ver- 
sions translate " the Hebrew," excepting the Sep- 
tuagint, which gives it " the passer," and Luther, 
who translates it "the foreigner." It is now 
pretty generally held by scholars that Hebrew 
was not the language which Abram brought 
with him, but that he and his descendants 
adopted the language of the Canaanites, among 
whom they sojourned. We no doubt have but 
a fragment of the literature of the ancient 
Hebrews, and thus the full wealth and capacity 
of their language have not come down to us, 
but quite enough to reveal the genius of the 
language. The Hebrew, like the other Semitic 
languages, is not adapted to science and philos- 
ophy, but well suited to the expression of emo- 
tional, poetic, and religious sentiment. The 
languages of Europe have borrowed from the 
Hebrew a number of religious terms for which 
they had no equivalents. What the Hebrew 
lacks in grace it makes up in grandeur. While 
far less adapted than the Greek for the more 



philosophical and dialectical discussions of the 
doctrinal epistles, it was well adapted by its 
simplicity, directness, and grandeur to be the 
vehicle and repository of the earlier revelations 
of God to mankind. It is natural, childlike, 
picturesque, poetical, forcible, and majestic. Its 
sentences are never long and involved. There 
is but little of transposition, of involution. The 
learned Herder said of it, "The Hebrew lan- 
guage is full of the soul's breath; it does not 
resound like the Greek, but it breathes, it lives." 
" It is more simple, indeed, than others, but 
majestic and glorious, direct and of few words, 
which, however, involve much that is below 
the surface; so that none other is capable of 
imitating it." It enshrines the most important 
of the literatures of the world; it surpasses all 
others in that unique species of literature, pro- 
phetic oratory. 

The Hebrew was spoken by the Jews until the 
destruction of Jerusalem, when it became greatly 
tinged with Aramaic, and presently was super- 
seded by that tongue, though it continues to 
this day to be the sacred language, and the Law 
and Prophets are still read, as also their prayers, 
and the Psalms are chanted in the synagogue 
services, in the original Hebrew. In some places 
the language is still spoken by learned Jews, 
and some periodicals are printed in that tongue. 
For the thorough exposition of both Testaments 
a knowledge of Hebrew is essential. 

Aramaic— In the Old Testament Dan. 2: 4- 
7: 28; Ezra 4: 8-6: 18; 7: 12-26, and Jer. 10: 11, are 
written in Aramaic, formerly called Chaldee. 
After the Babylonian captivity the Aramaic 
displaced the Hebrew in Palestine, and contin- 
ued to be the language of the Hebrews until 
their final national overthrow. It was the 
native language of the Saviour and his apostles. 
A few Aramaic expressions are found in the 
New Testament, where it is called "Hebrew." 
(Matt. 5:22; 6:24; Luke 16:9, 13; Matt. 16:17; 
Matt. 27 : 46 ; Mark 5 : 41 ; 7 : 34 ; 14 : 36 ; John 1 : 43 ; 
19: 13; Acts 1: 19; I. Cor. 16: 22.) This language 
was spoken in Mesopotamia, Syria, and later in 

The New Testament Greek.— With the con- 
quest of Alexander the Great, about 332 B.C., the 
Greek language began to be spoken over all the 
East as far as Babylon. The Jews extensively 
used it. The writings known as the Jewish 
Apocrypha, and the works of the two eminent 
Jewish writers, Philo and Josephus, were com- 
posed in Greek, and the Old Testament Scrip- 
tures themselves were translated into the same 
language and used everywhere in the synagogues. 
Naturally enough, the language as spoken and 
written by the Jews was not the pure idiom of 
the classical Greek. Indeed, the language ac- 
quired certain marked peculiarities which easily 
differentiate it from all the classical dialects. 
To this Jewish Greek there has been given the 
name Hellenistic Greek. Jewish ideas and 
idioms are expressed in Greek words. This is 
the basis of the Christian Greek, in which all 
the twenty-seven books of the New Testament 
were written. Dr. Schafl" well says of it, " It is 
trie hotoniic : it has a Greek body, a Hebrew 
soul, and a Christian spirit." As many as eight 
characteristics have been pointed out: (1) The 
adoption of foreign words, e.g., Aramaic and 
Latin. (2) Words of peculiar orthography and 
pronunciation. (3) Peculiar flexions of nouns 
and verbs. (4) Heterogeneous use of nouns. (5) 
Peculiar forms of words. (6) Words peculiar to 
ancient dialects or entirely new. (7) New signi- 
fications given to words, of which there are 
numerous examples. (8) Hebrew idioms, the 
adoption of a variety of grammatical construc- 
tions peculiar to the Hebrew. A number of 
words are adopted directly from the Hebrew or 
Aramaic. It partakes in some measure of the 
simplicity of style and structure of the Hebrew 
sentence. "In its Hellenistic style and New 

Testament form we admire the divine wisdom, 
the deep philosophy and judgment, which ap- 
propriated the common dialect of a world-wide 
civilization, and consecrated its formulas of 
thought to preserve and perpetuate the gospel." 


The autograph manuscripts, both of the Old 
Testament and of the New Testament, have, of 
course, long since perished, and those extant 
are copies of preceding copies. The MSS. of the 
Old Testament do not date as far back as those 
of the New Testament. Only a few date beyond 
the twelfth century of our era, while a few 
New Testament MSS. are as old as the fifth and 
fourth centuries, and a considerable number 
anterior to the tenth. The oldest known 
Hebrew MS. is the "MS. of the Prophets," 
discovered in the Crimea, now in the Imperial 
Library of St. Petersburg, dated 916 a.d. The 
oldest MS. of the entire Old Testament is dated 
1010 a.d. A MS. of the Pentateuch at Odessa, 
bearing the date of 580, cannot be regarded as 
trustworthy as to date. A few others bear date 
of the ninth century, but it is thought wrongly 
so. The whole number of MSS. collated by 
Kennicott was about 630, and those of DeRossi 
479. A few others have since been discovered. 
The MSS. of the New Testament are more nu- 
merous and of higher antiquity. There are more 
than seventeen hundred of them. Mention can 
here be made of only the four or five best. They 
are known by the letters of the alphabet. 

$ or the Sinaitie Codex, discovered by Tiseh- 
endorf at Mt. Sinai in 1S59. It is in the Imperial 
Library at St. Petersburg. It was printed at 
Leipsic at the expense of the Czar, several copies 
of which were sent to America. It contains all 
of the New Testament, parts of the Septuagint, 
and the Epistle of Barnabas. It is from the 
middle of the fourth century. 

A, the Alexandrian Codex, now in the British 
Museum, comes down from the fifth century. It 
contains almost the whole New Testament, a part 
of the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, 
and one of the apocryphal epistles. 

B, the Vatican Codex, from the middle of the 
fourth century, is in the Vatican Library in 
Rome. It contains the whole Bible, with the 
exception of parts of Genesis and some of 
the Psalms and the Pastoral Epistles, Philemon, 
Revelation, and part of the Epistle to the 
Hebrews. It is less complete than the Sinaitie, 
but more accurately written. This and the 
Sinaitie are the best, the most complete, and the 
oldest MSS. extant. 

C, the Ephraem Codex, a palimpsest ( another 
work having been written over the first on the 
same vellum), from the fifth century, contains 
about two-thirds of the New Testament. It is 
in the National Library in Paris. 

D, the Codex Bezae, of the sixth century, once 
belonged to the eminent reformer Beza. It is 
in the University of Cambridge, England, and 
contains only the Gospels and Acts in Greek and 
Latin and a few verses of the Third Epistle of 
John in Latin. 

MSS. are divided into two classes— uncials, 
written in capital letters, and cursives, those 
written in a running hand. Those here named 
are all uncials, the oldest and best; but there 
are a number more which are quite fragmen- 
tary. The cursives are much more numerous, 
and although later than the uncials, some of 
them are of great value. 

Books of Eeperence: Articles on Semitic lan- 
guages in Smith's Bible Dictionary; McClintock & 
Strong's Cyclopaedia of Biblical and Theological Litera- 
ture; Encyclopaedia Britannica; Gesenius' Hebreiv Gram- 
mar, Introduction; Green's Hebrew Grammar; SchafP s 
Companion to the Study of the Greek New Testament; 
Westcott & Hoist's Greek New Testament, vol. ii., Intro- 
duction and Appendix. 






President of the University 

of Chicago. 

The value of the ancient versions varies 
greatly. Doubtless all have a certain use, but 
some are of the greatest importance to the bibli- 
cal student, and at least an intelligent idea of 
the most important of them is necessary for any 
one who would read the Scriptures understand- 
ingly. Each version has its own peculiar value, 
whether that is much or little, and we shall 
therefore consider them, separately. 

I. The Septuagint.— After the fall of Jerusa- 
lem in 586 n.c, the Jews were scattered to almost 
every country of southwestern Asia, to Egypt, 
and indeed to many other lands. Egypt and 
Babylon, however, were the chief seats of their 
activity— outside of Palestine— in the post-exilic 
times. The world-wide conquests of Alexander 
had contributed to make the Greek language the 
medium of communication. A Greek version 
therefore became necessary. It is generally 
agreed that the Septuagint, or LXX. as it is 
often written, was made at Alexandria, that it 
was begun in the time of Ptolemy, who reigned 
284-217 B.C., and that the translation of the Law 
was made first. 

Though there was nothing miraculous about 
the origin of the LXX., though it represents a 
growth of perhaps two centuries, though made 
by many different hands, though in many re- 
spects very imperfect and inadequate as a repre- 
sentation of the original, that version did a 
vast amount of good in bringing the Hebrew 
Scriptures to large communities of men who 
would otherwise have been practically deprived 
of them. Not only the Jews of Egypt, but those 
of Palestine as well, used it regularly in the 
time of our Lord. Greek was spoken every- 
where, while Hebrew was not widely known. 
The quotations from the Old Testament which 
we rind in the New Testament were taken from 
the Septuagint, not from the Hebrew. 

The text of the LXX. is very corrupt. Both 
the Hebrew and the Greek must have departed 
from their original form, and early in the Chris- 
tian era the two differed from each other in 
many important respects. 

The most important MSS. of the Septuagint 
are the Vatican, the Sinaitic, and the Alexan- 
drine. Of these the Vatican is the best and the 
Alexandrine the poorest; for it shows on every 
page a systematic alteration to bring it into 
greater conformity to the Hebrew. Swete's is 
the best critically edited text, though Lagarde's 
edition of the recension of Lucian is also impor- 

The value of the LXX. for the biblical student 
is, in the main, threefold: (1) For textual criti- 
cism. Our Hebrew text is far from pure. The 
oldest MSS. only go back to about 1000 A.D. (2) 
For interpretation. No translation can help 
reflecting the ideas of the translators. The 
LXX. is often very valuable in showing the in- 
terpretations of passages by the Jews, which we 
may fairly suppose were those generally received 
at the time. (3) For the study of biblical Greek. 
The. New Testament writers not only used the 
LXX. as the source of their quotations, but it 
was the mold in which their thought was cast. 

II. The Targums.— At what time the Jews 
lost the use of their language is a disputed point; 
but when the mass of the people could no longer 
understand their native tongue, the Law was 
publicly read as described in ISTeh. 8. The reader 
read a passage, and the Mcturgcman, or inter- 

preter, gave the sense in the Aramaic. For this 
custom in New Testament times see Luke 4: 16, 
et seq. There was great strictness enforced in 
regard to the exegesis of the Law by the Metur- 
geman, but greater liberty was allowed in the 
interpretation of the prophetical writings and 
the Hagiographa. The writing down of these 
interpretations gave rise to the Targums. They 
are, therefore, free paraphrases of the Old Testa- 
ment, and were never intended to be strict 
translations. They were compiled by different 
authors at different ages, long after the oral tra- 
ditions had become fixed. 

(1) The Targum of Onkelos covers the Penta- 
teuch, and in the main is closer to the Hebrew 
text than those on the other books. Onkelos 
was probably a Babylonian Jew, though his 
Targum was made in Palestine, for it uses the 
Palestinian dialect, which differed from that of 
Babylon. The date is very uncertain, though it 
was probably about the middle of the second 
century, (2) The Targum of Jonathan on the 
Pentateuch was made up from that of Onkelos 
and another which has not survived. It is at 
least as late as the seventh century. (3) The 
Targum of Jonathan on the Prophets is likewise 
a Palestinian product, though Jonathan may 
have been a Babylonian Jew. The date is quite 
undeterminable. (4) The Targum on the Hagi- 
ographa has come down without any name, and 
was not as important as the rest. No Targum 
covers the books of Ezra and Nehemiah. The 
text of the Targums is very corrupt, and their 
chief value to the biblical student is the mate- 
rial they afford for the study of the traditional 
exegesis of the Jews in the early centuries of 
our era. 

Notes.— Samaritan Pentateuch.— The Bible stu- 
dent should also notice that under the name of 
the Samaritan Pentateuch two distinct things 
are referred to: (1) The Samaritan Codex, i. e., 
the Hebrew Pentateuch in Samaritan charac- 
ters; and (2) the Samaritan Targum or version, 
based on that Samaritan text, possibly of the 
second or third centuries of our era. 

The three other Greek versions alluded to 
above by President Harper are (1) that of Aquila, 
which was made under Jewish influences in the 
reign of Hadrian, probably for polemical pur- 
poses, and of which only fragments are now 
extant. It is very literal. (2) That of Theodo- 
tion, who was a Jewish proselyte, was made in 
the second century. It also only exists in frag- 
ments, with the exception of his translation of 
Daniel, which was preferred to the LXX. text. 
(3) That of Symmachus, which was later than 
that of Theodotion, and seems to have been 
clearer, but also exists only in fragments. 

The Talmud is the body of Jewish law not 
included in the Pentateuch. It consists of the 
Mishna, which is "a digest of the Jewish tradi- 
tions," reduced to writing at Tiberias in the 
second century, and the Gamaras, or commenta- 
ries, of which there are two— the Palestine (or 
Jerusalem), of the fourth century, and the Baby- 
lonian, completed in the sixth century. 


I. The Syriac, or Peshitto, as it is commonly 

called. This version had its origin in the needs 
of the Syrian Christians for the sacred Scrip- 
tures, which were from the first much used by 
the Christians, whether Jew or Gentile, in their 
native tongue. This version was therefore made 
by Christians, and it is perhaps the first made 
by them. It arose probably in the early part of 



the second century- The translation shows 
evidence of different hands and different periods. 
Scholars are not agreed whether it was made 
from the Hebrew, from the LXX., or from both. 
The Pentateuch and the book of Job show rela- 
tionship to the Hebrew, while the Prophets 
show affinities to the LXX. The canon, how- 
ever, agrees for the most part with the Hebrew, 
the Apocrypha being found only in late recen- 
sions. The New Testament version is, without 
much doubt, from other hands than those which 
made the Old, but it may have appeared at about 
the same time. It does not contain II. and III. 
John, II. Peter, Jude, and Revelation. The chief 
value of this version is for the purposes of tex- 
tual criticism, and it is probably more useful for 
the New Testament than for the Old, but it can- 
not be fully used until more critical investiga- 
tions are made. If it shall prove possible to get 
an original text of the Syriac, it will be very 

II. The Old Latin and the Vulgate.— The Vul- 
gate was preceded by the Old Latin version, or 
the Itala, which originated in Africa in the 
second century, and was used by the early Latin 
fathers, as Tertullian, Cyprian, and Augustine. 
It has been preserved only in fragments, so far 
as is now known, and its full character and 
value are therefore uncertain. The variations 
are so great that some regard it as a sort of 
patchwork rather than a systematic translation. 
It is a rendering of the LXX., not of the Hebrew. 
But a version in a rude provincial dialect would 
not serve the purpose of the great Latin church 
of the fourth century, and to supply this need 
Jerome made his famous Latin translation— the 
Vulgate. Jerome began the great task at the 
request of the Bishop of Rome. The New Tes- 
tament was corrected first. In the Old Testa- 
ment he first revised the Psalms after the Greek 
text of his time. A second revision of the 
Psalter was made, along with other books, and 
this edition, called the Gallican Psalter, was 
never displaced by his later and more accurate 
work, and is in the Vulgate to this day. Jerome 
found that, to make his version thorough, he 
must follow the original. This task was not 
finished till a.d. 405. 



Languages.— Christ's command to "make dis- 
ciples of all the nations" (Matt. 28: 19, R.V.) and 
the events of the day of Pentecost brought into 
the Christian church such a variety of converts 
that before the last book of the New Testament 
was written there were many believers who could 
not understand the Christian Scriptures when 
they were read to them, in the original Greek. 
In the first age, the largest numbers of Christians 
who could not understand Greek would be found 
in the countries round about the two primitive 
Christian centers, Jerusalem and Antioch, and 
hence the need of a Syriac version would soon 
become very pressing. We are therefore pre- 
pared to learn that probably quite the oldest 
translation of books of the New Testament that 
was made was into Syriac. But, seeing that it 
was in countries which were under Roman rule 
that the gospel mostly spread, a translation into 
Latin would become a necessity almost as soon 
as a translation into Syriac; and we have good 
reason for believing that both these ancient 
versions were made before the end, and perhaps 
long before the end, of the second century. 
After these followed translations into Egyptian 
(of which the Memphitic and Thebaic versions 
may be as old as the second century), into 
Gothic, Armenian, and Ethiopic; while new 
versions in Syriac and Latin were made, which 
were partly independent translations, partly 
revisions of the original versions. Of these the 

Latin Vulgate is far the most famous and influ- 
ential. Later on we have translations into Geor- 
gian in the fifth or sixth century, into Anglo- 
Saxon in the eighth, and into Slavonic in the 
ninth. Arabic versions seem to have existed 
since the eighth century, but to have been made 
from the Latin Vulgate, not from the original 
Greek, as was the case with the first English Bible 
made by WyclifTe, and also the Rhemish version, 
which is used by English Roman Catholics. 

Contents.— Not all these early translations 
contained the whole of the books of our New 
Testament. We may reasonably conjecture 
that the Gospels were the first books to be trans- 
lated; and books which were as yet unknown 
or regarded with suspicion would not be trans- 
lated at all. But the portions of these oldest 
translations which have come down to us (Old 
Syriac, Old Latin, Memphitic, and Thebaic) are 
of very great value as witnesses to the antiquity 
of the books which were thus early translated, 
and also to the respect in which they were held. 
No one takes the trouble to translate a book 
unless he believes it to be of considerable impor- 
tance, and this was specially the case in an age 
in which a knowledge of foreign languages was 
rather a rare accomplishment, and in which 
neither grammars nor dictionaries existed. 

Value.— Besides being witnesses to the antiq- 
uity and importance of our Scriptures, these 
ancient versions are of immense assistance in 
determining the true text. The apostolic auto- 
graphs soon perished, and corruptions, caused 
by frequent copying and editing, soon began to 
appear, so that in not a few cases there was room 
for doubt as to what the original writer had said. 
Although none of our Greek MSS. are older than 
the fourth century, and most of them, are of 
considerably later date, yet some of the versions, 
like the best Greek MSS., represent Greek texts 
of the second and third centuries; and where 
the evidence of the best Greek authorities is 
divided, the evidence of the versions helps us to 
decide between them. They are specially help- 
ful in deciding questions of insertion or omis- 
sion. A translation may easily be so loose as to 
leave us in doubt as to what the precise wording 
of the original was; but this laxity is less likely 
to extend to the omission or insertion of whole 
clauses, or even of important words. But our 
MSS. of versions are not older than our* Greek 
MSS., and they both alike have been much cor- 
rupted by frequent copying and editing. It not 
unfrequently happens that nearly all the ver- 
sions support a reading which other authorities 
show to be certainly wrong; and it is worth 
remarking that translations which are the best 
as versions are by no means the best as evidence 
of the original Greek. That translation is the 
best version which, while faithfully reproduc- 
ing the substance of the original, is most suita- 
ble for being read aloud. A good version must 
have the thoughts of the original in the idioms 
of the new language. If the idioms of the origi- 
nal are too faithfully preserved, the translation 
becomes unreadable, and at times may become 
almost unintelligible; but a slavishly faithful 
translation is for that very reason a valuable 
witness as to the wording. The Philoxenian or 
Harclean Syriac version, made for Philoxenus, 
Bishop of Hierapolis, in 508, and revised by 
Thomas of Harkel in 616, "is probably the most 
servile version of Scripture ever made"; but 
this very fault makes its testimony respecting 
the text all the more trustworthy; whereas our 
excellent Authorized Version is all but useless 
as a witness to the original wording, not only 
because it was made so late, but because the 
nervous and idiomatic English might represent 
more than one reading in the Greek. 

Books of Eefeeence: Prof. Swete's The Old Tes- 
tament in Greek, According to the Sepluagint; Hatch & 
Kedpath's Concordance to the Septuagint; Gregory's 
Prolegomena; books on Part II. in general. 




By EEV. HENRY EVANS, D.D., H. M. Commissioner of National Education, 


The whole Bible was never translated into 
Anglo-Saxon. Csedmon of Whitby (d. 676) made 
a metrical paraphrase of Genesis 1, which he 
called the "Origin of Things." He also para- 
phrased the more prominent events of Old 
Testament history. 

Bede, commonly called the Venerable (6. 672 
— d. 735), translated the Lord's Prayer and the 
Gospel of John into Anglo-Saxon. He died 
gloriously after finishing the last sentence of 
the Gospel. 

An interlinear translation into Anglo-Saxon 
of the four Gospels in Latin was made by 
Aldred, about a. d. 900. Farmen and Owen, 
priests of Harewood, also rendered the four 
Gospels into Anglo-Saxon. Their work is called 
the "Rushworth Gloss." 

Alfred the Great (b. $19— d. 901) prefixed an 
Anglo-Saxon translation of the Ten Command- 
ments to his book of laws, to which he added 
selections from Exodus 21, 22, 23. He also under- 
took an Anglo-Saxon rendering of the Psalms, 
but died before the work was finished. 

An Anglo-Saxon translation, in excellent lan- 
guage and style, of the Pentateuch, Joshua, 
Judges, Esther, Job (with parts of Judith and 
Maccabees), was made by ^Ifric, who became 
archbishop of Canterbury about 9GG. His ren- 
dering of Genesis shows the existence of previ- 
ous translations, of which he made use. 

After the Norman Conquest, in 10G6, consider- 
able portions of the Bible were translated, chiefly 
in a metrical form. One of these was a metrical 
paraphrase of the Gospels and Acts by a monk 
named Orm, or Ormin. The work is called 
Ormulum, after the name of its author. 

The earliest rendering of any book of Scrip- 
ture into English prose was a translation of 
the Psalms by William of Shoreham, about 1327. 
The next prose rendering was also a version of 
the Psalter, by Richard Rolle of Hampole, near 
Doncaster. He died 1349. All these versions 
were made from the Vulgate. 

In 1382-83, a version of the Holy Bible, contain- 
ing the apocryphal books, was made from the 
Vulgate by John Wycliffe {b. 1324— d. 1384), aided 
by his friend Nicholas de Hereford, who trans- 
lated a large part of the Old Testament. A 
revised version of Wycliffe 's Bible was made in 
1388, four years after W T ycliffe's death, by his 
faithful coadjutor, John Purvey. This edition 
is less literal, but smoother and more idiomatic, 
than the earlier version. Both were made from 
the Latin Vulgate, and not from the original 
Hebrew and Greek. Still, their value was great. 
Wycliil'e's Bible gave a strong impulse to sacred 
study; it stimulated desire for the Scriptures 
in the language of the people, and left an im- 
press traceable in every later version. Many of 
the changes in the Revised Version of 1881 are 
simply a return to the rendering of Wycliffe. 

In 1484, a century after Wycliffe 's death, Wil- 
liam Tyndale was born. With his labors in 
translating the Scriptures the direct history of 
the English Bible begins. The publication of 
Tyndale's New Testament was begun in Cologne 
in 1525, and finished at Worms in 1526. In 1534 
he published, at Antwerp, a revised edition, 
with a translation of extracts from the Old 
Testament. In 1530 his translation of the Pen- 
tateuch appeared, and in 1531 the book of Jo- 
nah. A Bible published a year after his mar- 
tyrdom contains a translation by him of all 
the books from Genesis to II. Chronicles inclu- 

sive. For five centuries his version has shaped 
the diction, phraseology, and style of every 
other. Its spirit pervades all its successors. The 
simple, sublime, and pure language of the Au- 
thorized Version is due to it. Its influence may 
be said to have informed and consecrated the 
English language itself. 

Miles Cover dale's Version in 1535 was the first 
publication of the whole Bible in English. It 
is not, strictly speaking, an original version, 
but a compilation from five— the Vulgate, Tyn- 
dale's, Luther's, the German-Swiss version of 
Zurich, and Pagninus' Latin. The Prayer-Book 
version of the Psalms is in essence, and for the 
most part in words, Coverdale's version. Many 
of the happiest renderings of the Psalms in the 
Authorized Version are due to Coverdale. 

Matthew's Bible was published in 1537. The 
name Matthew is a pseudonym for John Rogers, 
the real author, who was the first martyr in 
Queen Mary's reign. Rogers was born about 
1500 and burnt alive at Smithfield in 1555. Mat- 
thew's Bible is not an independent translation. 
The Pentateuch and New Testament are re- 
printed from Tyndale ; the Old Testament books 
from Ezra to Malachi (with the apocryphal) 
are copied from Coverdale ; only the books from 
Joshua to II. Chronicles are a new translation. 
Having been published by the authority oi 
Henry VIII., this was the first "authorized 

In 1539 a revised edition of Matthew's Bible 
was published by Richard Taverner (b. 1505— d. 
1575), a layman. 

The Great Bible— so called because of its size, 
being fifteen inches long and nine inches wide 
—appeared in 1539, the same year as Taverner's. 
It is essentially a revision of Matthew's Bible, 
by Coverdale, with the aid of Miinster's Latin 
version, in the Old Testament, and of Erasmus' 
Latin version, in the New. The publication 
was carried out under Cromwell's auspices, 
although Coverdale was editor. In 1540 a re- 
vised edition of the Great Bible was issued, with 
an introduction by Cranmer. This version is 
known as Cranmer's Bible, but without suffi- 
cient reason, for Coverdale was editor as before. 

The Geneva Bible was published in J5G0. It 
was the work of eminent scholars exiled from 
England by the persecutions which raged dur- 
ing the reign of Mary. Among these were John 
Knox, Miles Coverdale, William Whittingham, 
and other men largely equipped with sacred 
learning. They settled in Geneva, and there, 
with the aid of Calvin and Beza, after two 
years' labor, completed the New Testament in 
1557. Three years later the whole Bible was 
published. It was dedicated to Q,ueen Eliza- 
beth, went through at least eighty editions, and 
for sixty years was the most popular of all the 
versions. It anticipated many of the happiest 
renderings in the Authorized Version. It was 
the first English Bible divided into verses, and 
the first to print in Italics all the words not 
in the original. 

The Bishops' Bible was published in 1568. Its 
promoter was Archbishop Parker, who, with 
eight bishops, several deans and professors, 
highly reputed for learning, set himself to pro- 
duce "one other special Bible for the churches." 
The basis of this version is obviously the 
Great Bible. The Bishops' Bable adopted the 
division into verses which had been made 
in the Geneva Bible. It continued to be the 



standard version until the appearance of the 
Authorized in 1611. 

The Rhemish Version of the New Testament 
is an English translation published in 1582, at 
Rheims in France. It was executed by Roman 
Catholic scholars. By the same translators an 
English rendering of the Old Testament was 
published at Douai in 1610. This version and 
a revised edition of the Rhemish Testament 
constitute the "Doway Bible," used by Roman 
Catholics. As a version, the Douai Bible is 
simply the common and not the genuine Latin 
text of Jerome, in an English dress. 

The Authorized Version was published in 1611. 
It was the work of forty-seven scholars ap- 
pointed by James I. These revisers were divided 
into six companies, to each of which a specified 
portion of Scripture was assigned. The render- 
ings of the several companies were finally re- 
viewed by the entire body. Seven years were 
spent on the work. Directly or indirectly, every 
prior version influenced their translation. The 
spirit of Tyndale especially prevades it. Always, 
however, and in everything, the revisers exer- 
cised independent judgment. The dialect of 
the Authorized Version is nearer men's minds 
than their own speech. Its influence has made 
the English language what it is, and has cre- 
ated our literature. 

The Revised Version declares itself "the ver- 
sion set forth a.d. 1611 compared with the most 
ancient authorities and revised a.d. 1881." It 
originated in the Convocation of Canterbury, 
May 6, 1870, by the appointment of a commit- 
tee, with whom should be associated other 
learned men representing the churches using 
the Authorized Version. A similar committee 
was formed in America to cooperate with the 
British company of revisers. Thus was started 
the first international and inter-denomina- 
tional effort to bring the Authorized Version 
into accord with the present standard of bib- 
lical knowledge. 

The first meeting of the New Testament Com- 
pany was held June 22, 1870; the last meeting 
was held on November 11, 1880. The Revised 
Version of the New Testament was published 
on the 17th of the following May. The Old 
Testament Company held its first meeting June 
30, 1870; its last meeting was held on the 20th of 
June, 1884. The Revised Version of the Old 
Testament was published May 19, 1885. 

The Revised Version of the New Testament 
retains the titles of the several books as they 
stood in the Authorized Version, but some 
changes have been made in the Old Testa- 
ment. The several books of the Pentateuch 
are described as "commonly called" instead 
of "called." In I. and II. Samuel, the second 
titles are omitted. The same has been done 
in the book of Kings. The Psalter is simply 
called "The Psalms," and is presented in five 
books, which is the true arrangement. "The 
Song of Solomon " is called " The Song of Songs." 
All poetry is printed as such, and not as prose. 

In matters of diction and locution the Re- 
vised Version of the Old Testament differs less 
from the Authorized Version than does the 
Revised Version of the New ; but in both Testa- 
ments the English rendering is brought into 

nearer correspondence with the originals than 
had ever been reached before. Distinctions in 
the Hebrew and Greek which were not repro- 
duced in the Authorized Version have been 
set forth in the Revised; on the other hand, 
where the Authorized Version made distinc- 
tions in English to which there was no corre- 
sponding variation in the originals, these, for 
the most part, have been effaced in the Revised 
Version. The Revised greatly excels in the pre- 
cision with which it reproduces the true force 
of the tenses and of compound verbs. It seizes 
the distinctive senses of prepositions, and ex- 
hibits them with a fidelity never before at- 
tained in English. Throughout, difficult pas- 
sages have been much simplified. By substi- 
tuting modern terms for obsolete and archaic 
ones, great gain in clearness has been effected. 
Whether it will, or will not, ever take the place 
of the Authorized Version in general use, the 
Revised Version is indispensable and invalu- 
able to Bible students. 


In Holland the work of revision was taken 
up in 1854 by a large company of scholars. As 
the result, a revised translation of the New 
Testament was issued in 1868 by the authority 
of the General Synod. 

In Denmark a revised translation of the 
Danish New Testament was made in 1819. The 
revision of the Old Testament appeared in 1871. 
It was the work of Kolkar, Rothe, and Bishop 

A revised version of the Swedish New Testa- 
ment was issued in 1885. It keeps very close 
to the Received Text, no variations therefrom 
being accepted unless sustained by at least two 
of the most ancient manuscripts. The Old 
Testament is in preparation. 

In France, Ostervald's version was revised by 
M. Frossard in 1869. A revision of the Old Tes- 
tament, by a committee of four, was published 
in 1879. This version is adopted by the British 
and Foreign Bible Society, and by the Ameri- 
can Bible Society. 

In Switzerland a new translation of the Old 
Testament, by Dr. Segond, reached its third 
edition in 1879, in which year the same scholar 
published a new translation of the New Testa- 
ment. This version has been accepted by the 
Oxford University Press. 

Luther's German Bible has been under revi- 
sion for many years, more with a view towards 
improving and modernizing the language than 
making a new version. The result, under the 
name of "Probe-Bibel," has been privately but 
widely circulated. 

Books of Reference: Mombert's Handbook of the 
English Versions of the Bible; Freeman's Short His- 
tory of the English Bible; Stough ton's Our English 
Bible:' Its Translations and Translators; Eadie's The 
English Bible; Westcott's General View of the History 
of the English Bible; Chambers' Companion to the Re- 
vised Old Testament; Schaif s Revision of the New Tes- 
tament; Scrivener's The Authorized Edition of the 
English Bible: Its Subsequent Reprints and Modern 


^ T ty r tbSi y^r «m % *>*%? l ^ tofrd*** &¥& \fir 

Specimen of Anglo-Saxon version from the Rush worth Gospels. John 13: 2. The line in large 
letters is Latin, with the Anglo-Saxon equivalents in the line above. 



By GEORGE J. SPURRELL, M.A., of Balliol College, Oxford; Late Examiner in 
Hebrew and New Testament Greek, University of London; 


REV. CHARLES H. H. WRIGHT, D.D., Ph.D., Grinfield Lecturer on the 

Septuagint, University of Oxford, and Examiner in Hebrew and 

New Testament Greek, University of London. 

A "summary of the books of the Bible" in- 
cludes not only an analysis of each book, more 
or less extended, but a discussion of the literary 
questions which suggest themselves — the au- 
thorship, characteristics, date, place, and cir- 
cumstances of writing. It has been said that 
"God has revealed himself through human 
eyes and- ears, intellect and hearts, tongues and 
pens" (p. 8). The investigation of these questions 
so related to the human element is largely a 
matter of literary interest, which should em- 
phasize and stimulate the Christian's belief in 
the divine inspiration and historical credibility 
of the Holy Scriptures, and the authority of 
those books in all matters of faith and practice. 
Such a summary as is here given will, it is 
hoped, aid the devout student to a clearer con- 
ception of the truth and to a stronger belief in 
the divine word as given in the Holy Scrip- 
tures. (Consult the articles in Part I. of these 

The Books of the Old Testament are grouped 
under four divisions: (1) The Pentateuch, or 
Five Books of Moses. (2) TJie Historical Books, 
twelve in number, from Joshua to Esther. (3) 
T7ie Poetical Books, five of them, Job to Song of 
Songs. (4) Tfie Prophets, including the Major, 
five in number, from Isaiah to Daniel, and the 
twelve Minor, from Hosea to Malachi. 


Name.— The name Pentateuch comes from the 
Greek, and means the five-volumed (book). Its 
Hebrew designation is "the Law," or "the book of 
the law of Moses," or, by the later Jews, "the five- 
fifth parts of the lata." 

Author.— Jewish tradition ascribed the entire 
work to Moses, sometimes even asserting that 
the last verses of Deuteronomy were the pro- 
duction of that lawgiver. The Pentateuch is 
referred to by Christ and his apostles as the 
work of Moses. That he was the author or com- 
piler is sustained also by the record itself. The 
Pentateuch ascribes to Moses the following por- 
tions: (1) Ex. 20-23 (cf. Ex. 24: 4, 7), The book of the 
covenant. (2) Ex. 34 : 10-28, The renewal of the cove- 
nant. (3) Ex. 17: 14, God's commands about the 
utter destruction of Amcdek. (4) The journeys of the 
children of Israel, which must have been based 
on Mosaic records (cf. Num. 33: 2). (5) Tlie " law" 
alluded to in Deul. SI: 9, 11, 2! r 26, although the 
extent of that " law " is not certain. ((>) The 
song of Moses, Deut. 32 (cf. 31: 19-22); and (7) The 
blessing of Moses, Deut. 33. Investigation in the 
present century led to the conjecture that in the 
Pentateuch the inspired author made use of 
earlier documents, and contemporaneous rec- 
ords preserved by the patriarchs, distinguished 
one from the other by various differences in 

their vocabulary, and by other peculiarities. 
It should, however, not be forgotten that, 
though the use of different documents in the 
composition of the Pentateuch be admitted, the 
books are properly ascribed to Moses, and that 
the result is a work remarkable for its unity 
of purpose. 

The name Jehovah, or JaJiveh, is employed in 
certain portions of Genesis, and the name 
Elohim (God) in others, whence the titles Elo- 
histic and Jehovistic, or Jahiislic. This variation 
in the use of the divine names only extends as 
far as Ex. 6, but other indications of the use by 
Moses of earlier documents extend throughout 
the whole work. If the Pentateuch were com- 
posed after the exile, it would be impossible 
satisfactorily to account for the knowledge of 
Egyptian customs which is exhibited in Genesis 
and Exodus. Those portions of Genesis which 
show a marked similarity to the literature of 
Assyria and Bahylonia contain also indications 
of a far earlier date. 

Reference is also made in Scripture to a liter- 
ature in existence long before the time of 
Moses. The art of writing, and consequently 
the existence of a written literature, at an early 
age, was denied by the earlier assailants of the 
Pentateuch. But that fact is now universally 
acknowledged by scholars of all schools of 
thought. Kirjath-sepher {the dtp of the book) 
was a name given to Debir long before the in- 
vasion of the Israelites (Josh. 15: 15; Judg. 1: 11), 
and the discovery of the Tell-amarna or Tel-el- 
Amarna tablets (see Plate I.) tends to confirm 
this opinion. 

Its Laws.— Numerous references to the histo- 
ries and laws of the Pentateuch are found in 
most of the books of the Old Testament. Some 
laws in the Pentateuch were suitable only for a 
nomadic people like Israel in the wilderness; 
and many laws, designed for that nation when 
in possession of the Holy Land, became obsolete 
when the territorial limits of each tribe had un- 
dergone changes, and the directions of the Pen- 
tateuch, as to individual or ecclesiastical prop- 
erty, could no longer be carried out. It was 
impossible after the exile to carry out fully the 
laws regarding the day of atonement, or those 
concerning the building and removal of the 
tabernacle. Many laws originally of Mosaic 
origin underwent modifications to suit the con- 
ditions of the Israelites, for the Pentateuch was 
a guide to the nation in all matters of religious 
and civil life. 


Name and Author.— The word Genesis, signify- 
ing generation or origin, is the title the book bears 
in the LXX. version, evidently with an allusion 
to its contents. Its Hebrew name is Bereshith 
{in the beginning). The book exhibits clearly 
throughout a definite plan and purpose, and 




though there are difficulties, there is a unity and 
harmonious agreement of the whole, which 
serves to emphasize the fact that there is no rea- 
son to doubt that the book, substantially in its 
present form, was written and compiled by 

Contents.— Genesis narrates the history of 
Israel from the creation until the death of 
Joseph. It may be divided into two parts: (1) 
Introductory (1-11 : 9)— the history of the crea- 
tion of the earth and mankind, down to the 
dispersion of Noah's descendants over the 
world. (2) The special history (9: 10-50: 26) of 
God's chosen people Israel, from Abram's birth 
and call till the death of Joseph. In this portion 
the lives of the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jacob are treated with considerable fullness of 
detail, and much information is given as to the 
fortunes of Joseph in Egypt, the narrative con- 
cluding with Jacob's death and burial at Mach- 
pelah, and Joseph's decease. 


Name and Character.— The name {departure, 
in reference to the great event in the book ; cf . 
Heb. 11: 22) is derived from the Greek title in the 
LXX., through the Latin version. The Hebrew 
title is Shemoth {names) or Eleh Shemoth (these are 
the names), from the beginning of verse 1. The 
book is full of suggestions of haste, of sojourn- 
ing, of camp and camp life, and of the wilder- 
ness, while the minute details of the deliver- 
ance from Egypt and the sojourn about Sinai 
indicate that the author was familiar with all 
the life which he describes. 

Contents.— The book continues the history of 
Israel, from the death of Joseph down to the 
giving of the law at Sinai, and the erection of 
the tabernacle. It may be divided into two 
parts: (1) Chs. 1-18 describe the oppression 
of the Israelites in Egypt, the history of Moses 
and his dealings with Pharaoh, the plagues, the 
exodus, the overthrow of the Egyptians, and 
the arrival at Sinai. (2) Chs. 19-40 contain an ac- 
count of the sojourn at Sinai, the giving of the 
law, the directions respecting the tabernacle 
and its services, the story of the sin of the 
golden calf and the subsequent punishment, the 
giving of the new tables, and the erection and 
dedication of the tabernacle. 


Name and Peculiarity.— The name Leviticus is 
a Latinized form of the Greek title in the LXX. 
In Hebrew it is called Wayyikra (and he called). 
from the first word. The details present great 
difficulties, which fact tends to prove antiquity. 
The book contains for the most part laws, or 
collections of laws, but very little historical mat- 
ter. Details as to sacrifices, etc., may have been 
modified under divine direction in times after 
Moses. The legislation contained in Leviticus 
is often alluded to in Ezekiel. This book, though 
not referred to more than two or three times in 
the Epistle to the Hebrews (Heb. 9 : 7 ff. ; 13 : 10-13), 
virtually underlies a considerable portion of 
that epistle. All the references and inferences 
lead up to the great fact dwelt on in the epistle 
concerning the sacrifice of Christ, namely, that 
that sacrifice was alone efficacious to remove 
sin, a sacrifice once offered never to be repeated. 

Contents. — It may be divided into four parts : 

(1) Chs. 1-7, laws relating to sacrifices in general. 

(2) Chs. 8-10, Aaron and his four sons consecrated 
to the priesthood ; the transgression and punish- 
ment of Nadab and Abihu. (3) Chs. 11-16, laws 
concerning clean and unclean beasts; personal 
uncleanliness, with especial reference to leprosy ; 
the day of atonement. (4) Chs. 17-27, various laws 
to be observed by Israel, God's chosen people, 
relating to sacrifices, chastity, marriage, religious 
and civil life; ordinances as to the priests, holy 

gifts and offerings, laws respecting festivals, the 
lighting of the sanctuary, and showbread; the 
story of a blasphemer and his punishment; the 
sabbatical year; the jubilee year; a chapter of 
blessings and cursings, and an appendix contain- 
ing laws relating to vows, things devoted to Jeho- 
vah, and tithes. 


Name.— The title Numbers is a translation of 
the name found in the Greek version, and the 
book is so called from the two numberings of 
the people described therein. In the Hebrew 
Bible its name is Bemidhbar (in the ivilderness), 
from the fifth word of verse 1, or Wayyedabber 
(and he said) from the initial word. The book 
consists of historical matter, interspersed with 
various laws and ordinances. 

Contents.— It may be divided into four parts: 

(1) Chs. 1-10 contain the census, laws relat- 
ing to purity and Nazarite vows, Aaron's bless' 
ing, the gifts presented by the tribal princes at 
the dedication of the altar, the consecration 
and duties of the Levites, a special ordinance as 
to the celebration of the Passover, and the pillar 
of cloud to regulate the journeying of the 
Israelites. (2) Chs. 11-19 carry on the history 
from the second year to the beginning of the 
fortieth year after the exodus, narrating with 
much detail the events of the journey from 
Sinai to Moab, including the survey of the land, 
the refusal of the people to enter it, their vari- 
ous acts of disobedience, and the different laws 
published during this period. (3) Chs. 20-24 
describe what happened during the first ten 
months of the fortieth year, including Edom's 
refusal to allow the Israelites to pass through 
their land, the death of Miriam and of Aaron, 
the conquest of the land of the Amorites and of 
Bashan, and the story of Balaam and his deal- 
ings with the children of Israel. (4) Chs. 
25-36 narrate the sin of Baal-peor, the second 
census, the appointment of Joshua as Moses' 
successor, the war of revenge against Midian, 
the settlement of Reuben, Gad, and half of 
Manasseh on the eastern side of Jordan, and 
the directions as to the cities of refuge. Various 
ordinances concerning the division of the land 
of Canaan, sacrifices, vows, etc., are also in- 
cluded in this section. 


Name.— The name Deuteronomy is derived from 
the incorrect rendering of the LXX. translator 
of the expression in ch. 17: 18, which is correctly 
rendered in the A. V. a copy of the law. This 
phrase was erroneously supposed to refer to the 
whole book. In the Hebrew Bible its title is 
Eleh Haddebharim (these are the ivords), or Debha- 
rim (words), from ch. 1: 1, with an allusion to the 
contents of the book. 

Contents. — Deuteronomy was intended for the 
use of the people, and not for the priests alone. 
It commences with a continuation of the his- 
tory narrated in the closing chapters of Num- 
bers, and contains for the most part legal matter. 
New laws and directions are given, and old laws 
repealed (cf., for example, ch. 12: 5-14 and Ex. 
20: 24), so that there is an apparent intention to 
remodel the previous legislation and to adapt it 
to the requirements of the people at a later 
time. The book is almost entirely made up of 
addresses delivered by Moses to the people, it 
may be divided into five parts: (1) Chs. 1-4: 
43, a resume of the history of Israel during the 
journey through the wilderness, to which is at- 
tached^ an impressive admonition to obey the 
law, and an account of the appointment of 
cities of refuge on the eastern side of Jordan. 

(2) Chs. 4: 44-20, the second address, partly deliv- 
ered by Moses, i.e., chs. 5-11, and partly added to 
in writing, i.e., chs. 12-26: 15. This speech com- 



mences with a recitation of the decalogue, with 
various warnings and exhortations based on 
this, and concludes with several special direc- 
tions. (3) Chs. 27 and 28, the concluding speech, 
containing directions as to the writing down 
of the law after the crossing of the Jordan, 
and the delivery of blessings and cursings from 
Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal respectively. 

(4) Chs. 29-31, Moses' farewell speech and warn- 
ing to the people, and his charge to Joshua. 

(5) Chs. 32-34, the song of Moses and the an- 
nouncement of his death; the blessing of Moses 
and his death and burial. 


Name.— The book of Joshua derives its name 
from Joshua, who led the Israelites into Canaan. 
In the Hebrew canon it is the first of the four 
books entitled the "Former Prophets" and is sep- 
arated from the Pentateuch, of which it is in 
reality the concluding portion. 

Author and Date.— The older commentators, 
both Jewish and Christian, regarded Joshua as 
the author. This theory is supported by the 
main contents of the book, though it involves 
the subsequent insertion of events which oc- 
curred after the death of Joshua. In all prob- 
ability other documents belonging to the time 
of Joshua were made use of, and in ch. 10: 13 a 
reference occurs to the book of Jashar. Refer- 
ences to the events narrated in the book of 
Joshua are frequent in the later books. 

Contents.— The work may be divided into 
three parts: (l)Chs. 1-12 describe the conquest 
of the promised land, Canaan. (2) Chs. 13-22 
record the division by lot of the land of Canaan 
among the nine tribes and the half tribe of Ma- 
nasseh. (3) Chs. 18 and 24 contain Joshua's last 
speeches and his death. 


Name.— The book of Judges— called in the 
Hebrew Shofetim (judges), a term identical with 
the Carthaginian Sufetes, although the two offices 
were not of the same nature— derives its name 
from the histories contained therein. 

Date and Authorship.— The author is uncer- 
tain. The book has been ascribed to Samuel, 
but others must have continued it. The song of 
Deborah (ch. 5) was composed in all probabil- 
ity shortly after the occurrence of the event de- 
scribed therein. The writer's thorough acquaint- 
ance with the topography of Palestine is suffi- 
cient to prove that the book was composed by an 
inhabitant of the country prior to the period of 
the exile. Allusions are found in Ps. 77 and 83 to 
some of the events narrated in Judges, and the 
sin of Gibeah is referred to in Hos. 9: 9 and 10: 9. 

Contents.— The book may be divided into 
three parts: (1) Chs. 1-2:5 are introductory, 
and contain an account of the conquest of cer- 
tain portions of the land, and a list of the 
towns that were not then subdued, concluding 
willi the rebuke administered to the Israelites 
at Bochim by the angel of Jehovah, or (as others 
think) by a man of God, because they had not 
destroyed the Canaanites, but followed their 
idolatries. (2) Chs. 2: 0-1G contain the main por- 
tion of the narrative, from the death of Joshua 
until that of Samson, and are closely connected 
with Josh. 24: 28. This part begins with an in- 
troduction explaining the spiritual significance 
of the events subsequently narrated. This is fol- 
lowed by the history of twelve,or fifteen judges, 
about the majority of whom little is told. It is 
impossible to determine, from the contents of the 
book itself, whether the judges named therein as 
the leaders of Israel ruled consecutively or con- 
temporaneously. (3) Chs. 17-21 contain two ap- 

pendices. The//>.s-£ describes the introduction of 
image worship by the Ephraimite Micah, and 
the conquest of Laish(Dan)by theDanites. The 
second records the shameful deed of the men of 
Gibeah, and the subsequent war which nearly 
annihilated the tribe of Benjamin. 


Historical Character.— The writer's object was 
to narrate an episode from the history of King 
David's ancestors, and to keep in remembrance 
the descent of that monarch. The events nar- 
rated occurred about a century before David. 
The genealogical table (although incomplete), 
and the fact that no writer Would invent a Mo- 
abitish ancestress for the house of David, prove 
its historical character. In post-exilic times in- 
termarriage with a Moabitess would have been 
regarded as highly discreditable to a pious 

Author and Place.— The book was probably 
composed after the clays of David. In the He- 
brew canon the book is one of the five Rolls, or 

Contents.— (1) The sojourn of Elimelech and 
Naomi, with their sons, in Moab, and the.death 
of the father and sons (1: 1-5). (2) The return of 
Naomi and her daughter-in-law, Ruth, to Beth- 
lehem (1: 6-22). (3) Ruth gleans in the fields of 
her kinsman, Boaz, and finds favor (2: 1-23); (4) 
Boaz recognizes her kinship and its rights (3: 
1-18), and (5) protects her "by marriage, from 
which marriage David is descended (4 : 1-22). 


Name.— In Hebrew MSS. the two books of 
Samuel are regarded as one. In the LXX. and 
Vulgate they are entitled the first and second 
books of Kings. The present division into two 
books was adopted from those two versions 
after the introduction of printing. The books 
are so called because Samuel is the most im- 
nortant character in the opening portion. 
~ Author.— In the Talmud, Samuel is stated to 
have written the books that bear his name, also 
Ruth and Judges. No doubt much material was 
gathered by him. The composition belongs to 
an early date, probably shortly after the separa- 
tion of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel (cf. I. 
Sam. 27:6). In its present form, however, the 
work appears to have undergone considerable 

Contents.— Whatever the date, the books are 
based on the records of the prophets contempo- 
rary with these kings. The books relate the his- 
tories of Samuel, Sard, and David, and. may be 
divided into three parts: (1) I. Sam. 1-12,' the 
history of Samuel until he retires from his posi- 
tion as judge, Eli's history being narrated so far 
as connected with that of Samuel. (2) I. Sam. 
13-11. Sam. 1, the history of Saul from his ac- 
cession, until his death. (3) II. Sam. 2-24, the 
reign of David. Three important songs are in- 
cluded in these two books, viz., (a) the song of 
Hannah, I. Sam. 2: 1-10; (b) David's lament, II. 
Sam. 1; (c) II. Sam. 22, which appears, with cer- 
tain modifications, in the Psalter as Ps. 18. Ref- 
erence is also made in II. Sam. 1: 18 to the book 
of Jashar. In I. Ohr. 27: 2i and 2!): 29 the author- 
ities mentioned, for the time of David, are "the 
chronicles of King David," "the histories of Samuel 
the Seer," of "Nathan the Prophet," and of "Gad 
the Seer." In I. Sam. 10 : 25 allusion is made to a 
work by Samuel, which contained at least the 
law of the kingdom. In all probability these 
sources were employed by the compiler of the 
books of Samuel. 


Name and Date.— These two books in Hebrew 
MSS. are regarded as one. In the editions of the 


LXX. and Vulgate they are entitled the third 
and fourth Kings. The present division into 
two books is of comparatively modern origin. 
The work was probably composed during the 
second half of the Babylonian captivity (after 
Evil-Merodach had ascended the throne; cf. II. 
Ki. 25 : 27 ft.). The author professes to have made 
use of the following sources in composing his 
book : (1) "The book of the acts of Solomon " (I. Ki. 
11: 41); (2) "the annals of the kings of Judah, 11 up 
to the death of Jehoiakim (I. Ki. 14: 29); (3) "the 
annals of the kings of Israel, 11 up to the death of 
Pekah (I. Ki. 14:19, etc.). 

Object.— The writer's object appears to have 
been not merely to communicate historical facts, 
but also to point out their bearing on matters of 
religion. The books of Kings contain the only 
record of the history of the northern kingdom 
after the separation from Judah, for the book 
of Chronicles only records the history of the 
northern kingdom in so far as connected with 
that of Judah. 

Divisions.— The books may be divided into 
three parts : (1) I. Ki. 1-11, the reign of Solomon. 
(2) I. Ki. 12-11. Ki. 17, a parallel account of 
the kingdoms of Judah and Israel until the de- 
struction of the kingdom of Israel. (3) II. Ki. 18- 
25, the history of the kingdom of Judah until 
the Babylonian exile. 


Name.— In Hebrew MSS. the books are re- 
garded as one. The present division into two 
books is adopted from the LXX. and Vulgate. 
The Hebrew title, "Acts of the Days, 11 is a general 
term indicating the historical character of the 
work. In the LXX. (and similarly in the Vul- 
gate) the books are called Paraleipomena (things 
omitted), since the translators viewed the Chron- 
icles as a supplement to the other historical 

Author.— According to Jewish tradition Ezra 
was the author; but this seems inconsistent 
with the genealogy in I. Chr. 3: 19-24, which is 
brought down to several generations after Ne- 
hemiah and Ezra. The work may have been 
written, if not by Ezra, by a Levite connected 
with the musical services of the second temple. 

Sources.— The author made use of the follow- 
ing: (1) " The book of the kings of Israel and Judah, 11 
a work quoted under four somewhat different 
titles; (2) "the history of Samuel the Seer, 11 possibly 
our books of Samuel ; (3 and 4) " the histories of Gad 
the Seer, 11 and of "Natlian the Prophet 11 ; (5) "the 
prophecy of Ahijah " ; (6) " the vision of Iddo " ; (7) the 
history of Shemaiah ; (8) that of Jehu the son of Ha- 
nani; (9) the Midrash (perhaps OommmZar^/, but the 
meaning of the word is doubtful) on the book 
of Kings; (10 and 11) IsaiaWs vision, and another 
work of the same prophet relating to Uzziah ; 
and (12) the Jdstory of Hozai or the Seers (cf. I. 
Chr. 29: 29; II. Chr. 9: 29; 12: 15; 20: 34; 24: 27; 26: 
22; 32: 32; 33: 19). The existence of Samuel and 
Kings is presupposed; e. g., in II. Chr. 21: 12-15, 
the history of Elijah is treated as known to the 

Object.— The author's object appears to be not 
merely to write a supplement to the already ex- 
isting historical books, but to compose an 
independent work, from a Levitical and reli- 
gious standpoint. He omitted much that was 
not connected with the object in view, such as 
the period of the judges, and the history of 
Saul, and that of the northern kingdom, which 
is only related in as far as it is connected with 
that of the southern. 

Contents.— The two books may be divided into 
four parts: (1) I. Chr. 1-10, an outline of the 
history from Adam to David, mainly consist- 
ing of genealogical lists. (2) I. Chr. 11-31, the 
reign of David. (3) II. Chr. 1-9, the reign of 
Solomon. (4) II. Chr. 10-36, the history of the 
southern kingdom down to the Babylonian cap- 

tivity. The genealogical tables agree in the 
main with those found in the other books of 
the Bible. They sometimes, however, contain 
enlargements and variations, and in certain 
cases names unknown to us are added. In the 
historical matter the Chronicles give many nar- 
ratives in common with the books of Samuel 
and Kings, sometimes agreeing verbatim, at 
others making important additions and omis- 
sions. Special attention is given to all that re- 
lates to the Levites, many details being inserted 
that are not found in the books of Samuel and 


Position.— These books were regarded in an- 
cient times as one. In the LXX. (second Ezra 
and Nehemiah) and Vulgate (first and second 
Ezra) and in later editions of the Hebrew Bible 
they are divided into two books. In the Hebrew 
canon they immediately precede the Chronicles, 
and probably originally formed with these one 
great historical work. 

Authorship. — Both books undoubtedly con- 
tain large portions of the original works of Ez- 
ra and Nehemiah (Ezra 7: 27-9: 15; Neh. 1:1-7: 
5; Neh. 12: 31-42; Neh. 13: 4-31). In their pres- 
ent form the books were probably edited and re- 
vised by a later hand (Neh. 12 : 10, 11, 22). 

Contents.— They may be divided into four 
parts: (1) Ezra 1-6 describes the first return of 
the Jews under Sheshbazzar or Zerubbabel and 
Joshua, the high priest, in the first year of 
Cyrus (536 B.C.), and the rebuilding of the tem- 
ple, completed in the sixth year of Darius (516 
B.C.). (2) Ezra 7-10 narrates the second migra- 
tion from Babylon under Ezra, in the seventh 
year of Artaxerxes Longimanus. (458-457 B.C.), 
and includes Ezra's prayer and confession (ch. 9) 
and the expulsion of foreign wives. (3) Ne- 
hemiah 1-7 relates how Nehemiah came to Je- 
rusalem in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes 
(445-444 B.C.), and rebuilt the walls of the city in 
spite of the hostility of Sanballat, the Horonite, 
and Tobiah, the Ammonite. (4) Neh. 8-13 de- 
scribes the combined efforts of Ezra and Nehe- 
miah to effect the restoration of religion, in- 
cluding the solemn reading of the Law, the cele- 
bration of the Feast of Tabernacles, the con- 
fession of the Levites, the sealing of the cove- 
nant by the people, a list of the inhabitants of 
Jerusalem and of other cities, the dedication of 
the walls, and the removal of certain abuses. 


Name and Author.— The book of Esther forms 
one of the five Megilloth, or Rolls, and is so 
called from the principal character in the nar- 
rative. The date of its composition is uncertain. 
The Talmud ascribes the book to the "Great 
Synagogue," supposed to be the successors of 
"the men of Hezekiah " (see under Proverbs), 
and the rabbis and many Christian expositors 
to Mordecai. The writer's knowledge of the 
character of Xerxes (which is historically ac- 
curate) and his familiarity with Persian man- 
ners and customs (1:3; 4: 11; 8:8) show that the 
work has an historical basis. 

Object.— The object of the book is manifestly 
to explain, from history, the origin and motive 
of the feast of Purim, or "lots." The historical 
character of the narrative has been questioned, 
but there must have been some adequate cause, 
similar to that described in the book, to account 
for the Purim feast. 

Contents.— The book relates how Esther, a Jew- 
ish maiden, dwelling in Susa, the Persian cap- 
ital, became queen of Ahasuerus, or Xerxes (485- 
465 B.C.), and was instrumental in rescuing her 
compatriots from the destruction prepared for 
them by Haman, the king's favorite. The 
name of God occurs nowhere in the book. The 



omission is perhaps intentional, in order to 
avoid irreverence, for the book was designed to 
be read in the Jewish houses during the festive 
banquets customary at the celebration of Purim 
(9: 27). l\\ later times the book attained a great 
popularity among the Jews, who considered it 
superior to the writings of the prophets, and the 
other parts of the Hagiographa. 



Character of the Book.— The book is so called 
from Job, whose history and sayings it records. 
Job was a non-Israelite, a dweller in the land of 
Uz (probably near Eclom, pn the east or north- 
east), a man of wealth and exemplary piety. 
That Job was an historical character is clear 
from Ezek. 11: 14, where he is mentioned with 
Noah and Daniel. Whether the contents of the 
book are also historical is not so clear. Some 
have regarded it as historical. Others affirm that 
it is unhistorical, purely poetical, and composed 
for a didactic purpose. The view commonly 
adopted is that the book is an inspired poem, 
based on actual occurrences. 

Author and Date.— Nothing can be affirmed 
wit h certainty as to the authorship or date of the 
poem. Job is represented as living in the days 
of the early patriarchs. This has led some to 
suppose that the work was composed by Moses. 
The writer's allusions to contemporary history 
are slight, but from his familiarity with eastern 
Palestine he seems to have been an Israelite. His 
knowledge of Egypt is displayed in his vivid de- 
scription of the crocodile and the hippopotamus. 

Object.— Scholars hold different opinions as to 
the object of the book. It may, perhaps, be de- 
scribed as an attempt to solve the problem. 
why the righteous suffer. To the ordinary He- 
brew suffering and misfortune seemed to be the 
punishment of special sin. But since the un- 
godly are not always punished for their offenses, 
while the righteous are frequently visited with 
grievous trials, a serious difficulty presented 
itself. The book of Job seems written to point 
out that such suffering is often permitted as a 
test of faith and a means of grace. 

Contents.— The book may be divided into five 
sections: (1) Chs. 1 and 2, the prologue, writ- 
ten in prose, describe the piety and prosperity 
of Job. The insinuation of Satan was that the 
patriarch's piety was merely the result of his 
prosperous condition. The overthrow of Job's 
prosperity was permitted in order to test that 
point, and Job's continued trust in God in spite 
of overwhelming sorrows is then narrated. 
There follows an account of the visit of three 
friends, Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar, who, hav- 
ing heard of his affliction, come to condole with 
him. (2) Chs. 3-31 describe a discussion be- 
tween Job and his friends, written in poetry. 
Ch. 3 contains Job's passionate complaint, which 
gives the friends the opportunity of point- 
ing out to him that affliction was the result of 
previous sin. The discussion consists of three 
sets of speeches, (a) chs. 4-14, (6) chs. 15-21, and 
• (c) chs. 22-31, each set containing six speeches, 
one by each of the three friends, with Job's 
reply. In their speeches the friends urge their 
point with ever increasing vehemence. Job, 
however, remains the victor in the contest. 
He strongly maintains his righteousness, in 
spite of their attacks, and, when, hard pressed 
by his adversaries, questions God's justice. His 
friends having been silenced, Job again takes 
up "his parable" and protests his innocence of 
all the offenses insinuated against him, while 
he implores the Almighty to make known the 
cause of his affliction. (3) The speeches of Elihu, 
chs. 32-37, are also, with the exception of the 
opening verses (32 : l-(i), in poetry. Elihu, a 

youthful bystander, who had listened to the 
debate, now intervenes, and, after apologiz- 
ing for entering into the discussion, criticises 
the views of both Job and his three friends. 
Elihu advocates the view that affliction is. de- 
signed to purge and prove the alllicted person. 
No reply IS made by Job to the speech of Elihu, 
and no allusion is made to him in the epilogue, 
where the other three friends are mentioned. (4) 
Chs. 38-12: G arc also poetical. Jehovah, in 
his speech out of the storm, makes no allusion 
to Job's case, accuses the patriarch of no hidden 
crimes, and does not explain the cause of his 
misfortunes. "The intellectual solution of such 
problems can never be a question between Je- 
hovah and his servants; the question is the state 
of their hearts towards himself. He asks of 
Job, 'Who am I?' and 'What art thou?' In a 
series of splendid pictures from inanimate crea- 
tion and the world of animal life, he makes all 
the glory of his being pass before Job."— David- 
son, Job, p. 12. The answer of the Lord is suffi- 
cient for Job. He humbly confesses that God 
is omnipotent and omnipresent, and repents his 
former utterances and demeanor "in dust and 
ashes." (5) The book concludes with the epilogue, 
ch. 42: 7-17, written in prose. In this the con- 
duct of the three friends is condemned by the 
Almighty, who restores Job to greater pros- 
perity than he had enjoyed before. 


Name and Formation.— The Hebrew title of this 
treasury of "prayer, praise, and adoration" is 
Sephcr Tehillim, the Book of Praises. Our name is 
the Anglicized form of the Greek title, ^aA/aot 
(Luke 24: 44; 20: 42). The early Christian fathers 
called it the Psalter. It is the first book of the 
third division of the Old Testament, the Hagiog- 

The " Psalms of David " is simply a popular 
form of reference because of David's promi- 
nence in the collection. The poet-king w 7 as prob- 
ably the founder of the Psalter, but the collec- 
tion was formed gradually and perhaps collect- 
ed and arranged in Ezra's time. 

Divisions, Peculiarities, and Authors.— In the 
Hebrew and in the Revised Version the Psalter 
is divided into five books. This division was 
probably due to the similar division of the Pen- 
tateuch, and dates back to a period before the 
LXX. translation. 

Book I. contains Ps. 1-41. Thirty-seven of the 
psalms in this book are ascribed in the titles 
to David. Ps. 1 and 2 are without titles. Ps. 33 
has no superscription in the Hebrew, but in the 
LXX. is ascribed to David. Ps. 2, 10, and 22 are 
Messianic, and probably Ps. 8 (see Heb. 2); so 
also Ps. 40. In this book the usual title of God 
is Jehovah; Elohim is rarely used. 

Book II. comprises Ps. 42-72. In this book Ps. 
42-49 are ascribed to the sons of Korah, Ps. 50 to 
Asaph, and Ps. 51-65 and 68-30 to David. Ps. 06, 67, 
and 71 are without titles, and Ps. 72 is headed 
"A Psalm of Solomon." Ps. 67 is ascribed in the 
LXX. to David. Ps. 43 probably forms part of 
Ps. 42; the former is without a title, and in 
some Hebrew MSS. is united with Ps. 42. In 
the majority of the psalms in this book the 
divine title Elohim is used, Jehovah being em- 
ployed only thirty times. Two psalms which 
are in Book I. Jehovistic (Ps. 14 and 40: 13-17) are 
here Elohistic, viz., Ps. 53 and 70. The Messianic 
Psalm is Ps. 72, but the New Testament recog- 
nizes Messianic elements in Ps. 45, 68, and 69. 

Book III. consists of Ps. 73-89. Ps. 73-83 inclu- 
sive are ascribed to Asaph ; Ps. 84, 85, and 87 to the 
sons of Korah. Ps. 86 is entitled "A Prai/cr of 
David." Ps. 88 is assigned both to the sons of 
Korah and to Reman the Ezrahite; and Ps. 89 
to Ethan the Ezrahite. Ps. 89 is applied to the 
Messiah in the New Testament. 

Book IV. contains Ps. 90-106. Ps. 90 is ascribed 



in the title to "Moses the man of God," and Ps. 101 
and 103 to David. All the others are anonymous, 
though the LXX. assigns 91, 93-99, and 104 to 
David. Ps. 91 is applied to the Messiah in the 
New Testament. 

Book V. comprises Ps. 107 to end. Fifteen of 
these are, according to the Hebrew titles, Da- 
vidic. One (Ps. 127) is Solomonic. Ps. 116 and 
147 are each divided into two psalms in the 
LXX. version. The titles prefixed to the psalms 
in this book in the LXX., Syriac, and Vulgate 
versions differ considerably from those in the 
Hebrew. Ps.110 is an important Messianic psalm, 
and Messianic elements are recognized in the 
New Testament in Ps. 113. The fifteen psalms 
120-134 are entitled "Songs of Degrees." These 
psalms were probably intended to be sung by 
the pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem. 

At the end of each of the first four books of 
the Psalter a doxology is inserted, which in 
each case serves to conclude the book. Those 
doxologies are found in all the ancient versions, 
and are an evidence of the antiquity of the five- 
fold division. 

In the Hebrew, the book of Psalms contains 
150 psalms. The same number is also found in 
the LXX., but it is obtained in that version by 
uniting Ps. 9 and 10, and 114 and 115, and by sep- 
arating Ps. 116 and 147 each into two psalms. 
The oldest Jewish tradition gives the number 
of psalms as 147, corresponding to " the years of 
the life of our father Jacob" (Jer. Talmud, Shab- 
batJi, 16: 1). In old Hebrew MSS. a lower num- 
ber than 150 is often found, two psalms being 
united into one, e. g.. Ps. 42 and 43, and others. 
The LXX. adds after Ps. 150 an additional psalm, 
stated in the title to be "outside the number," and 
ascribed to David, "when he fought in single com- 
bat with Goliath." 

The Titles.— Only thirty-four psalms are with- 
out titles. The superscriptions of the others in- 
dicate : 

1. The liturgical character of the psalm, e.g., 
"For the precentor," or "chief musician," or the 
musical or religious features of the psalm, 
"a maschil," "a shiggaion," "a michtam," "a 
prayer," " a song of praise." 

2. The instrument to be used in playing the 
accompaniment to the psalm. 

3. The measure or melody to which it was 
to be sung. 

4. The event which prompted the composi- 
tion of the psalm, or the occasion on which it 
was to be used (e.g., the "Songs of Degrees"; see 
above). In some cases the psalm is provided 
with two titles {e.g., Ps. 88). 

5. The author; the following being named, 
in the superscriptions in the Hebrew Bible, as 
authors of the Psalms: Moses (one), Solomon 
(two), Asaph (twelve), Heman the Ezrahite (one), 
Ethan the Ezrahite (one), the sons of Korah (ten), 
and David (seventy-three, thirty-seven of which 
are found in the first book). The value of these 
titles is variously estimated. Those relating 
to the musical and liturgical directions proba- 
bly date from the period of the second temple. 
The titles containing historical notices are also 
probably of late date, and are not decisive as to 
the authorship, though they may in some cases 
embody reliable information. 

Characteristics.— The subject-matter of the 
Psalter is varied. It contains prayers, songs of 
praise, lamentations, reflections on God's prov- 
idence and his moral government of the 
world, expressions of faith, resignation, joy in 
God's presence; psalms referring to the personal 
circumstances of the psalmist; national, histor- 
ical, and royal psalms (many of Messianic im- 
port); others of a didactic character, referring 
to matters of religion or morality. The theol- 
ogy of the Psalter does not differ from that of 
the prophetical books. The psalms were used 
both in the public services of the Israelites and 
also in their private devotions, and afford a 

striking picture of the religious life and thought 
of the pious portion of Israel. 


Name.— The Hebrew title of the book is Mishle, 
the singular of which is mashal, usually trans- 
lated "proverb." The word really signifies " like- 
ness," and then a similitude or parable. It is 
frequently employed for short maxims or sen- 
tentious sayings, which often consist in com- 
parisons, or for longer or shorter didactic poems. 

Authorship and Date.— The authorship and 
date of the various parts of the book of Proverbs 
are a matter of uncertainty. The book seems to 
have been gradually formed. According to the 
commonly accepted view, chs. 10-22: 16 are the 
oldest collection, and may (cf. the title) contain, 
in the main, proverbs by Solomon. Chs. 1-9 
seem to be the work of an unknown author, 
who probably composed this section as an intro- 
duction to chs. 10-22: 16. Some consider that the 
writer of this portion (chs. 1-9) was the editor 
of the whole book, and fix the date a short 
time prior to the exile. Chs. 22: 17-24: 22 and 
24: 23-34 are both anonymous. Their date is 
uncertain, but it is considered by many to be in 
the time of Hezekiah. Chs. 25-29 are assigned 
to Solomon. Some suppose this collection was 
made at the time of Hezekiah. Of the remain- 
ing three chapters the first two are assigned to 
Agur and Lemuel respectively; the third is 
anonymous. The date at which these several 
sections were put together cannot be definitely 
ascertained. Several proverbs are extant in the 
LXX. version which do not occur in the Hebrew 
text. The order of the chapters in that transla- 
tion is also different. 

Contents.— The book falls into eight parts: 
(1) Chs. 1-10. Ch. 1: 1-7 contains the title, 
"The proverbs of Solomon the son of David," etc., 
and is of the nature of a preface, indicating the 
aim and object of the book. The remaining por- 
tion of the section forms a connected poem in 
praise of wisdom. (2) Chs. 10-22 : 16 bear the title, 
"The proverbs of Solomon," and form the first col- 
lection of Solomonic sayings. Each mashal, or 
proverb, is contained in one verse, consisting 
of two clauses, of which the second generally 
forms the contrast, or antithesis, of the first. 
This section consists of ethical maxims, but 
loosely connected with one another. (3) Chs. 
22 : 17-24 : 22 form a better connected whole than 
the preceding section, and consist of pre- 
cepts and admonitions relating to justice and 
prudence. (4) Ch. 24 : 23-34 forms an appendix to 
(3) and is entitled, "These things also belong to 
the wise." (5) Chs. 25-29 form the second col- 
lection of Solomonic sayings, and have the su- 
perscription, "These are also proverbs of Solomon, 
which the men of Hezekiah king of Judah copied 
out." The "men of Hezekiah " were probably a 
band of scribes or a literary college, established 
by that monarch, to whose care were entrusted 
the sacred writings of the nation and the task 
of editing them. The proverbs in this part are 
contained in verses consisting of two to five 
lines. The section also includes a short poem in 
ten lines (27: 23-27) on the value of industry. 
With this may be compared the poems in ch. 
23:29-35 (on drunkenness), and in ch. 24:30-34 
(on the sluggard). (6) Ch. 30 is the first of 
three appendices which form the conclusion 
of the book. The proverbs in this chapter are 
attributed to "Agur the son of Jakeh." (7) Ch. 
31 : 1-9 forms the second appendix, and bears the 
title, "The words of King Lemuel, the prophecy that 
his mother taught him." We know nothing about 
these two writers. (8) Contains the third appen- 
dix, ch. 31: 10-31, a didactic poem, the verses 
of which are arranged alphabetically,— whose 
theme is the praise of a virtuous woman. Many 
proverbs in the book are repeated in an identi- 
cal form, or with but slight variations (e. g., 14: 



12 and 16: 25 ; 25:24 arid 21: 9; 19:24 and 26: 15; 12: 
11 and 28: 19, etc.); in other cases a part of the 
proverb is repeated (e. g., 10: 15 and 18: 11; 12: 14 
and 13: 2, etc.); and in others the wording of the 
proverb is similar, but the subject different {e. g., 
13: 14 and 14: 27; 17: 15& and 20: 10b). 


The Title.— The book of Ecclesiastes, like Prov- 
erbs, is one of the class of didactic compositions, 
or mashals (see on Proverbs). It does not, however, 
like that work, consist of a number of maxims 
loosely connected with one another, but forms a 
continuous soliloquy on the vanity of human 
wishes, put by the author into the mouth of Solo- 
mon, the wise king of Israel. The title assigned to 
the king in the book is Koheleth. In the LXX. it is 
Ecclesiastes, in the English A.V. it is The Preacher, 
while the R.V. (margin) gives it The Great Orator. 

Author.— The common opinion in ancient 
times was that the author of the book was King 
Solomon. That opinion was not entirely ac- 
cepted by Jewish scholars. The language of 
Ecclesiastes is unique. In many of its features 
it bears a strong resemblance to the later books 
of the Old Testament; in others it approximates 
to the language of post-biblical literature. 

Contents.— The book is a discussion of the prob- 
lem, Can the world without God meet man's 
need? can man truly live without God? The 
conclusion is, "All is vanity," unless man "fears 
God and keeps his commandments." In chs. 
1 and 2 the writer demonstrates the " vanity 
of all things " by illustrations drawn from the 
fields of human activity; man's labor, the pur- 
suit of wisdom, or pleasure, or riches, are all of 
no avail, for the end of the wise and foolish 
is the same, and riches, amassed with toil and 
care, bring no satisfaction. In ch. 3:1-15 he 
indicates that everything has its own proper 
time and season, but who can be certain that 
he has discovered this season? Man's efforts to 
grasp success are thus of no avail, and all he 
can do is to enjoy the present. In ch. 3: 16-22 
he contrasts the lot of man with that of the 
beasts that perish ; the fate of both seems alike, 
and he again draws the same conclusion, — to 
enjoy the present. In ch. 4: 1-3 he depicts the 
evils of oppression, for which there is no re- 
dress, (vs. 4-6) of rivalry, (vs. 7-12) of isolation, and 
(vs. 13-16) the vanity of political life. In ch. 5 : 1-9 
he points out how certain of the vexations of 
life may be avoided by care and prudence, and 
in vs. 10-17 moralizes on the vanity of riches, 
which are often fraught with care and trouble, 
and (vs. 18-20) can only be regarded as blessings 
when God grants the opportunity and power to 
enjoy them. This, however (6 : 1-6) God often de- 
nies, and (vs. 7-9), though man toils and labors, 
he cannot obtain his desire, for (vs. 10-12) he 
is powerless to contend with "him that is might- 
ier than he." In ch. 7: 1-24 the writer points out 
how a man may alleviate the troubles of life by 
avoiding frivolity and practicing patience and 
resignation, and instead of brooding over the 
ills of life, by seeking after wisdom, which, 
though difficult to find, is the best guide for 
man. In vs. 25-29 he emphatically insists on 
the fact that one of the greatest hindrances to 
human happiness is the wicked woman, "whose 
heart is snares and nets, and her hands as bands." 
In ch. 8 : 1-9 the writer urges prudence in all mat- 
ters affecting the king and those in author- 
ity. The memory of the righteous (vs. 10-15) 
speedily passes away, while the wicked are hon- 
ored and rewarded, so that man's best course is 
to derive all the enjoyment he can from life 
while God permits him. Chs. 8:16-9:6, man's 
efforts to grasp God's purposes are of no avail, 
life is uaught but evil, and death quickly comes, 
with no certain hope of Immortality (a judg- 
ment to come is affirmed in ch. 12: 14); therefore 
(9: 7-10) man must get all the pleasure he can out 

of life. In ch. 4: 11-16 he points out that merit 
is not always sufficiently rewarded; wisdom is 
often of more avail than strength, yet wisdom, 
that has accomplished much, is often forgotten. 
Chs. 9: 17-10: 15 form a collection of proverbs on 
wisdom and the consequences of folly, and (vs. 16- 
20) the wretched condition of a country under the 
rule of a feeble king. In ch. 11: 1-8 the writer 
urges the importance of benevolence, and that 
life, in spite of its troubles, ought to be enjoyed. 
Especially (11: 9-12: 8) ought the young man to 
rejoice in the season of ais youth, before old age 
overtakes him; yet in his joy he should not be 
unmindful of God, who created him. The book 
concludes with the epilogue, ch. 12: 8-11. The drift 
of the book is, briefly, that life is full of disap- 
pointment and dissatisfaction ; man should seek 
to enjoy in moderation the blessings God has 
granted unto him, making the approval of God 
his great object, knowing that after death there 
is a j udgment. 


Name and Author.— The Song of Songs (A. V., 
The Song of Solo?non) is in the Hebrew caiion the 
first of the five Megilloth, and is annually read 
by the Jews in their synagogues at the Feast of the 
Passover. The traditional view is that the author 
is Solomon, appeal being made to evidences in- 
ternal and external. There is no ground for as- 
suming that the book is exilic or post-exilic. 

Structure.— It was formerly supposed that the 
book consisted of a number of independent songs, 
which were only united together by a common 
subject. It is now generally admitted that the 
song is a single poem, the production of one au- 
thor. The structure of the book is dramatic, and 
by some supposed to have been designed for the 
stage; but that view is erroneous. Different parts 
of the poem are put in the mouths of various 
speakers; but opinions differ as to who the 
speakers are, and how the various parts of the 
song are to be distributed among them. The poem 
is divided into twelve scenes, each commencing 
and ending with a sort of refrain, which sepa- 
rates one scene from the preceding and follow- 
ing. The author was attached to the charms of 
country life, and the images and comparisons 
used are striking and picturesque. The tend- 
ency of the poem is didactic. A noteworthy 
element throughout the poem is the chorus, 
which is composed of the daughters of Jerusalem. 

Interpretations.— Various interpretations 
have been given : (1) According to the old opin- 
ion there are only tAVO principal characters, 
King Solomon and a Shulamite maiden, of 
whom the king was enamored. The conclusion 
expresses in glowing terms the superiority of 
pure and genuine affection over that which 
may be obtained by wealth and position. (2) 
It has been thought to be an ode composed at 
the marriage of Solomon with Pharaoh's daugh- 
ter. (3) From ch. 6: 4 it has been suggested that 
it was designed to bring together again the 
tribes of Israel. (4) The poem may be inter- 
preted literally. Whether the allegorical inter- 
pretation, dating back to the Targum, and fre- 
quently adopted by many ancient and modern 
scholars, is admissible is another question. Ps. 
45 is a proof that it is easy to pass from the literal 
sense to the allegorical. And though some, in 
interpreting the poem allegorically, have been 
led into extravagance, it is a fact that Christ's 
love to his redeemed church is in the New Tes- 
tament compared to conjugal love. 



Author.— Little is known of the details of 
Isaiah's life. From the book itself we learn 



that he received the prophetic call in the last 
year of King Uzziah's reign (6: 1), and prophesied 
during the reigns of the three following kings, 
Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah (1: 1). He was the 
son of Amoz (a name distinct from that of the 
prophet Amos), who is otherwise unknown; he 
was married (8: 3), and had (at least) two sons 
(7: 8-8: 1-4). Assuming that he was twenty or 
twenty-one years old when he began his pro- 
phetic career, he must have been over eighty 
years of age when he died, or suffered martyr- 
dom (cf. Heb. 11: 37), shortly after Manasseh's 
accession to the throne. According to II. Chr. 
20: 22, Isaiah was also the author of a history 
of Uzziah's reign, and in II. Chr. 82: 82 allusion 
is made to a "vision of Isaiah," which contained 
an account of the reign of Hezekiah, and formed 
part of the lost book of " the kings of Judah and 
Israel" (see on Chronicles). Nothing further, 
however, is known concerning these two books. 

Authorship.— The question of the authorship 
of the second part of the book has been dis- 
cussed by many scholars, though none doubt the 
inspiration. The difference in the prophet's 
standpoint, the dissimilarity in thought and 
language in the second portion of the book, and 
the marked advance in the writer's theology 
in chs. 40-66, as compared with the passages 
that are undoubtedly Isaiah's, have led many 
modern scholars to assume that these last chap- 
ters were not composed by Isaiah, but by some 
unknown prophet, who wrote after the exile, 
but before the restoration. The differences in 
the style and standpoint of the prophet cannot 
be denied, but are perfectly consistent with the 
unity of authorship. If Isaiah was their author, 
they must have been composed in the prophet's 
old age, when it is not difficult to suppose that, 
having meditated long and sorrowfully over 
the approaching misfortunes of his compatri- 
ots, he might well have been transported in 
spirit to the closing days of that period of dis- 
grace and humiliation. If he predicted the 
Babylonian captivity (cf. ch. 39, an admitted 
Isaianic passage), why is it impossible that he 
should have predicted the return? If the style 
of chs. 40-66 differs from that of prophecies 
which are generally admitted to be Isaiah's, 
there are also, on the other hand, many similar- 
ities between the genuine and disputed pas- 
sages. Is it possible that the name of the writer 
of one of the most striking Hebrew prophecies 
could have vanished without the slightest trace ? 
Forty-seven of the sixty-six chapters are quoted 
in the New Testament, and our Lord refers to 
these portions. The voice of antiquity is unan- 
imous in assigning the whole book to Isaiah, 
and the question of a double authorship has 
only been raised in comparati vely modern times. 

Contents.— The book falls into two main divi- 
sions, (1) chs. 1-39 and (2) chs. 40-66. (1) The former 
refers for the most part to the kingdom of Assyr- 
ia, the latter to that of Babylonia. The first 
part may be subdivided as follows: (a) Chs. 
1-6, prophecies against the sinful and idolatrous 
people, ib) Chs. 7-12, prophecies belonging to 
the period of the Syro-Ephraimitish war; the 
prophecy of Immanuel, and the downfall of the 
Assyrians, (c) Chs. 13-23, prophetic utterances 
relating chiefly to foreign nations, viz.: chs. 
12-14 : 23, against Babylon ; ch. 14 : 24-27, against 
the Assyrian; ch. 14:28-32, against Philistia; chs. 
15 and 16, against Moab; ch. 17, against Da- 
mascus; ch. 18, concerning Ethiopia; ch. 19, 
against Egypt; ch. 20, against Ashdod; ch. 21, 
on Babylon, Dumah (Edom), and Arabia. In 
ch. 22 : 1-14 the prophet rebukes the attitude 
of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and in vs. 
15-25 announces the downfall of Shebna, the 
treasurer (this chapter is perhaps inserted here 
owing to the similarity of its title to that of 
ch. 21); ch. 23, on Tyre, (d) Chs. 24-27 form a 
single prophecy, announcing God's judgment 
upon the world, and the establishment of his 

kingdom in Jerusalem, (e) Chs. 28-33 are a group 
of prophecies against Samaria and Judah, in 
which the prophet condemns the policy of 
relying on Egypt for help, and describes the 
overthrow of Sennacherib and the deliverance 
of Jerusalem. (/) Chs. 84 and 35, judgment on 
the nations (with special reference to Edom), and 
the joyous return of Israel to its fatherland, (g) 
Chs. 34-39, an historical section, identical in the 
main with II. Ki. 18-20. Ch. 39 : 9-20 contains the 
psalm of Hezekiah, not found in the parallel 
section in II. Kings. (2) The second part of 
Isaiah is a continuous prophecy (chs. 40-66), the 
subject of which is the restoration of Israel 
from the Babylonian captivity. It may be sub- 
divided into three parts: (a) Chs. 40-48, in which 
the prophet emphasizes the certainty of the ap- 
proaching release from exile, assures the 
people that nothing can hinder their deliver- 
ance, and in proof of this statement points 
out the power of Jehovah to fulfill his prom- 
ises, and the impotence of the gods of the 
heathen. (&) Chs. 49-57, the prophecy of the serv- 
ant of Jehovah, his sufferings and glory. This 
title has three different applications. It is used 
of Israel in general (e.g., 42: 19), of the righteous 
in Israel (cf. 44: 1, 2, 21), and of the personal Mes- 
siah (chs. 49-57; cf. 42: 1-43: 10). (c) Chs. 58-66, the 
restoration of Zion, the felicity of the Israelites 
admitted to be its citizens, and the condemna- 
tion and overthrow of the enemies of Jehovah. 


Author.— Jeremiah was the son of Hilkiah, 
u one of the priests that were in Anathoth," a town 
in the tribe of Benjamin, a short distance north 
of Jerusalem. He was a young man (1 : 6) when 
he made his first appearance as a prophet, in 
the thirteenth year of King Josiah (626 B.C. ; cf. 
1:2; 25: 3), and prophesied chiefly in Jerusalem, 
although from chs. 11 : 21 and 37 : 12 he does not 
seem to have severed his connection with his 
native place, Anathoth. After the destruction 
of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, he resided in 
Mizpah (40 : 6), and after the murder of Gedaliah, 
was carried off against his will to Egypt (43 : 6 IT.), 
where, according to a later tradition, he was 
stoned to death by the Jews, at Tahpanhes or 
Daphne, on account of his prophecies. 

Preservation.— The first collection of prophe- 
cies by Jeremiah was, as we learn from ch. 36, 
destroyed by King Jehoiakim. In consequence 
of this, Jeremiah, assisted by his amanuensis, 
Baruch, prepared another copy of u all the words 
of the book ivhich Jehoiakim king of Judah had 
burned in the fire," making additions to what he 
had previously written. That roll contained the 
prophecies that belong to the first twenty-three 
years of the ministry of Jeremiah, and as it is 
clear that they were subjected to revision after 
delivery, it is probable other prophetic speeches 
in the book underwent revision. 

Occasion.— The prophet was much impressed 
by the sad scenes that he saw. The backsliding 
and lapses into sin on the part of Israel, the re- 
fusal to give heed to the warnings uttered, the 
persecutions and trials to which he was sub- 
jected at the hands of his fellow countrymen, 
are all reflected in Jeremiah's writings. He 
foresaw the ruin of his country, and lamented 
it bitterly. His patriotism was great, and the 
accusations brought against him by those 
whom he warned of impending disaster were 
quite destitute of foundation (cf. ch. 9). He 
persisted in his warnings and exhortations, 
looking forward in hope to the renewal of God's 
covenant with his people, and the restoration 
that he predicted for his chosen people Israel. 
The Messiah is alluded to in chs. 23: 5-8; 30: 4-11; 
83: 14-26, but less is said regarding his personality 
than we find in the other prophets. 

Summary.— The book may be divided into two 
parts: (1) Chs. 1-45 comprise for the most part 



prophecies relating to Juclah and the kingdom 
of God. They also contain much information 
Respecting the personal history of the prophet, 
and the events that happened during his minis- 
try (cf. 11: 21; 20: 1-3; 2(5, 28, 36-43: 8). (2) Chs. 
46-51 consist of nine discourses against foreign 
nations, together with eh. 52, which was un- 
doubtedly added at a later date (after B.O. 562, as 
is clear from 51 : 64 compared with 52: 31 if.\ and 
which exhibits a close resemblance to II. Ki. 24: 
18-25: 30. The prophecies, as we now have them, 
do not appear to be arranged in chronological 


Title and Author.— The book is entitled in the 
Hebrew Bible Echah, from its initial word, and 
it is placed, as one of the five Megilloth, among 
the Hagiographa. In the LXX., Targum, and 
Talmud, Jeremiah is regarded as the author of 
the book. This view is perhaps due to the re- 
semblance the poems have to Jeremiah's proph- 
ecies, and is adopted by many modern scholars. 
In II. Chr. 35: 25 it is stated that Jeremiah la- 
mented the death of King Josiah, but the " lam- 
entations" referred to in that passage are not ex- 

Summary.— The book consists of five separate 
poems, the subject of which is the destruction 
of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, and the mis- 
fortunes that followed that event. The first four 
poems are arranged alphabetically. In chs. 1, 
2, and 4, each of which consists of twenty-two 
verses, the first letter of every verse commences 
with the corresponding letter of the Hebrew 
alphabet. Ch. 3 consists of sixty-six verses, and 
three verses, each beginning with the same 
letter, are assigned to each successive letter of 
the alphabet, so that there is a threefold alpha- 
betical arrangement in that chapter. In ch. 5 
there are twenty-two verses, but they are not 
arranged alphabetically. 


Author.— Ezeki el was one of those who were 
carried captive to Babylonia with King Jehoia- 
chin, B.C. 597, and lived there at Tel-abib, on the 
banks of the canal or river of Chebar, a name 
which is distinct from Habor, a river men- 
tioned in II. Ki. 17: 6; 18 : 11. He was a priest, 
the son of Buzi (1: 3), and as such belonged to 
the aristocracy of Jerusalem. He received the 
prophetic call in the fifth year of the captivity 
(1: 2), and prophesied for at least twenty-two 
years among his fellow exiles (cf. 29: 17; his last 
dated prophecy was in the twenty-seventh year 
of the captivity). His prophetic ministry was 
possibly of longer duration. As to his subse- 
quent fate nothing is known. An uncertain 
tradition states that he died a martyr's death 
at the hands of his fellow exiles, who resented 
the tone of his prophecies. He was a younger 
contemporary of Jeremiah, and, like him, proph- 
esied both before and after the destruction of 
.Jerusalem by the Chaldeans. His prophecies, 
however, were all composed in Babylonia. The 
Jews regarded the book as one of the most diffi- 
cu 1 1 i n t he Hebrew canon, and so would not allow 
any person under thirty years of agetostudy it. 

Analysis.— The book may be divided into three 
parts, each dealing with a different subject: (1) 
( lis. 1-2-1, the impending downfall of Jerusalem. 
(a) Chs. 1-3: 21 contain an account of the proph- 
et's call, and the wonderful vision of the four 
living creatures (cherubim), with the four faces, 
and four wings encircling the four-wheeled char- 
iot, (b) Chs. 3: 22-7 are a symbolic description of 
the fate of Jerusalem, (c) Chs. 8-11, a vision of 
the dest ruction of Jerusalem, (d) Chs. 12-24, the 
certainty of the impending ruin is further dem- 
onstrated by the prophet. Its ground is the na- 
tion's sinfulness. The song in ch. 21, the allegory 
in ch. 23, and the parable in ch. 24: 1-14, are all 

cbafracterisl ic of the prophet. (2) Chs. 25-32, the 
prophecies against the foreign nations who re- 
joice at the fall of Jerusalem and regard it as a 
sign that Jehovah cannot defend his city. Jeho- 
vah will bring a similar misfortune upon them. 
(a) Ch. 25: 1-7, against Amnion ; (b) vs. 8-11, against 
Moab; (c) vs. 12-14, concerning Edom; (d) vs. 15-17, 
on the Philistines; (e) chs. 20-28: 19, against Tyre; 
(/) 28: 20-2(1, against Bidon; (g) chs. 29-32, prophe- 
cies against Egypt. (3) Chs. 33-47, Israel's restora- 
lion. (a) Ch. 33 (which was probably delivered 
shortly before the news of the capture of Jeru- 
salem) describes the duties of the prophet to- 
wards the people, {b) Ch. 34, the bad shepherd 
and the good shepherd; the advent of the Mes- 
siah (God's servant David), (c) Chs. 35-30 : 15, 
Edom, on account of its hostility to Israel, will 
become an utter desolation, but the land of Israel 
shall again be peopled with those of the house of 
David, and its ruins rebuilt, (d) Ch. 30 : 10-38, the 
reason why Israel is to be restored, (e) Ch. 37: 
1-14, the vision of the dry bones in the valley; 
the resurrection of all Israel to a new life, and 
(vs. 15-28) the reunion of Ephraim and Judah, 
who will be united together under the rule of 
the Messianic king. (/) Chs. 38 and 39, Jehovah's 
filial triumph over the w r orld is set forth in the 
allegory of Gog and Magog, (g) Chs. 40-43 describe 
the building and dedication of a new temple. 
(7i) Chs. 44-46 give the order of divine service, 
the position of strangers, Levites, and priests in 
the sanctuary; ordinances with reference to the 
sacrifices, (i) Ch. 47: 1-12, the stream of living 
water that Hows from the sanctuary, (j) Chs. 
47: 13-48, the boundaries and divisions of the 
Holy Land. These chapters (40-48), are not in- 
tended to be interpreted literally, but are an 
allegorical description of the new theocracy and 
the new temple, which will be built, not in the 
old Jerusalem, but in an ideal city, whose name 
is Jehovah-shammah (Jehovah is there). 


The Book.— The book of Daniel is placed in 
the Hebrew 7 canon among the books of the 
Hagiographa, between Esther and Ezra; but in 
the LXX., Vulgate, and English version, as the 
fourth of the great prophets, after Ezekiel. It 
narrates the story of Daniel, who (1:1-6) w T as 
carried away captive by King Nebuchadnezzar, 
in the third year of Jehoiakim, B.C. 605. The 
book is written partly in Hebrew, and partly 
(from 2: 46 to ch. 7) in Aramaic. 

Author.— According to the orthodox interpre- 
ters, the book w r as written by Daniel, who lived 
during the whole of the Babylonian exile, 
down to the third year of Cyrus ( 10: 1). Daniel 
is mentioned outside this book in Ezek. 14:14, 
20, together with Noah and Job, and in Ezek. 
28: 3; in the former passage his righteousness 
is spoken of, and in the latter his wisdom. In 
the LXX. there are several additions to the 
narrative (cf. on the Apocryphal Books, p. 42). 
Josephus adds some details not found in the 
Bible (Anliq., x., 11, 6), which tend to prove that 
Daniel was a well-known historical character 
prior to the Grecian period. The knowledge of 
Babylonian life in the first part (chs. 1-6) 
(which is largely confirmed by modern discov- 
eries) indicates that the book was composed in 
Babylonia, and not in Palestine. The Persian 
words which undoubtedly occur in the book 
are more natural to the age of Daniel than to a 
later period. 

Contents.— The first part of the book, which is 
mainly historical, consists of chs. 1-6. Ch. 1 re- 
cords the captivity of Daniel and his companions 
in the third year of Jehoiakim, and their subse- 
quent training for civil service at the court of 
Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. Ch. 2 con- 
tains the account of Nebuchadnezzar's dream 
of the great image, interpreted by Daniel, and 
the promotion of Daniel and his three compan- 


ions in the province of Babylon. The vision of 
Nebuchadnezzar depicted the four great world- 
empires which w T ere to come in contact with 
the people of Israel before the setting up of the 
Messianic kingdom and up to the time of its 
final victory. These four world-kingdoms were 
(1) the Babylonian, signified by "the head of 
gold "; (2) the Medo-Persian, "the silver breast and 
arms "of the image; (3) the Gi*ecian, its brazen 
"belly and thighs"; (4) the Roman, portrayed 
under two stages— (a) the stronger, the undi- 
vided empire, the "legs of iron "; {b) the weaker 
era, when the Roman empire was broken up 
into many smaller kingdoms, "his feet part of 
iron and part of clay." "The stone cut out of 
the mountain without hands" (or without any 
human efforts), which smote "the image upon 
its feet " (v. 84), is the Messianic kingdom set up 
"in the days of Augustus Caesar," when Christ 
was born, which is to grow until it becomes "a 
great mountain and fills the whole earth." Ch. 
o gives the account of Nebuchadnezzar's golden 
image in the plain of Dura, and the deliverance 
of Daniel's three companions from the fiery 
furnace. Ch. 4 records Nebuchadnezzar's dream 
of the great tree, and the fulfillment of that 
vision by his being afflicted with a seven years' 
madness because of pride. Ch. 5 records one of 
the grandest episodes in Israel's captivity— Bel- 
shazzar's feast and its tragic close. Ch. 6 records 
Daniel's deliverance from the den of lions. 

The second portion of the book consists of 
Daniel's own visions, contained in the last six 
chapters (chs. 7-12). The first vision (ch. 7) is that 
of the four great wild beasts, which represent, 
though under somewhat different aspects, the 
four kingdoms portrayed in Nebuchadnezzar's 
dream. (1) The Babylonian. (2) The devouring 
bear was the Medo-Persian empire. (3) The 
leopard was the Greek or Macedonian empire. 
(4) The indescribable beast was the Roman. 
Ch. 8 contains the vision of "the ram and the 
he-goat," which describes the contest between 
the Persian and the Grecian empires, the over- 
throw of the latter by Alexander the Great, and 
the oppression of the children of Israel by Anti- 
ochus Epiphanes. This vision of Daniel closes 
with the promise that this power should be 
broken when "it shall stand up against the 
prince of princes." Ch. 9 describes Daniel's 
prayer and confession of sin at the end of the 
seventy years' captivity predicted by Jere- 
miah, and the answer to that prayer by the 
promise of Messiah's atoning work at the close 
of "the seventy weeks." Ch. 10 describes the 
vision of the mighty angel to Daniel, in- 
troductory to the description of the prophecy, 
"noted in the scripture of truth" (ch. 10: 21). 
This is given in chs. 11 and 12, in which chap- 
ters the wars between Syria (the kingdom of 
the north) and Egypt (the kingdom of the south) 
are depicted. All temporal deliverances are but 
foreshadowings of the deliverance by Messiah, 
and predictions of the coming of Messiah are 
connected by other prophets with the overthrow 
of Assyria and of Babylon. Daniel here depicts 
Messiah's deliverance as if it were to occur at 
the close of the Grecian period. Michael the 
Conqueror, in Dan. 12, as in Rev. 12, is Messiah 
under the garb of a warrior prince. The Mes- 
sianic prophecies in the book are worthy of 
special notice. Christ refers to the book in 
Matt. 24: 15, and in other passages. The book 
forms the basis of several of the prophecies in 
the New Testament, especially those of the 



Author.— Hosea, the son of Beeri, was a native 
of the northern kingdom, where he prophesied 
under Jeroboam and the succeeding kings. He 

was a younger contemporary of Amos, whose 
book he seems to have known (cf. Hos. 4: 3 with 
Amos 8: 8, and Hos. 8: 14 with Amos 1: 5, 7, 10, 
12, etc.). ' ' ' 

Contents.— The book falls into two parts: (1) 
Chs. 1-3 belong to the closing years of the reign 
of Jeroboam II. These chap fcers describe Israel's 
unfaithfulness towards God, and his patient 
and never-failing love towards his people. 
Israel's infidelity towards God is vividly illus- 
trated by the sad details of the prophet's do- 
mestic life— his marriage with an unchaste 
wife, her continued misconduct, chastisement, 
and final return to her husband's home. Others 
consider that section merely symbolical, and 
regard the description of the prophet's life as 
a mere imaginary picture. (2) Chs. 4-14 contain 
a series of discourses which describe Israel's 
moral decadence— people and priests alike are 
utterly corrupt (chs. 4-8) ; in consequence, pun- 
ishment is threatened (chs. 9-11); but if Israel 
will renounce their sins, and turn in penitence 
to Jehovah, he will receive, forgive, and again 
bless them (chs. 12-14). 


Author.— Nothing is known about this proph- 
et beyond the name of his father, Pethuel. 
He was presumably a Judean, and possibly 
prophesied in Jerusalem, being perhaps pries r t 
as well as prophet. Compare his allusions to 
the priests, public worship, and sacrifices. If is 
a common opinion that he prophesied in the 
early years of King Joash of Judah (c. 837-801 B.C.). 
Amos apparently was acquainted with the book 
of Joel (cf. 3: 16 and Amos 1:2; 3: 18; 9: 13). 

Contents.— The book may be divided into two 
parts: (1) Chs. 1:1-2: 17, a lamentation over the 
devastating plague, and an exhortation from 
the prophet to the people to repent and turn 
again to Jehovah. It is probable that an actual 
plague of locusts is intended by the prophet, 
and not an ideal representation of the north- 
ern foes. (2) Ch. 2:18 to end, the answer to the 
prayer, and the promise of blessings in the 
future. God will pour out his Spirit on all flesh, 
will bring back those led captive from Judah 
and Jerusalem, and in the conflict in the valley 
of Jehoshaphat overthrow the heathen who 
are his people's foes, and again become their 
refuge and stronghold, Jehovah dwelling in 


Author.— Amos, as we learn from the opening 
words of the book, was a herdsman of Tekoa 
(about nine miles south of Jerusalem), who also, 
as would appear from ch. 7: 14, was employed 
in the cultivation of sycamore trees. He ex- 
pressly disclaims being a prophet by profession 
or education (7:14). Though apparently a na- 
tive of Judah, he was commissioned by Jehovah 
to go and prophesy unto Israel. His prophetic 
ministry belongs to the reigns of Uzziah and 
Jeroboam II. He was, therefore, somewhat 
earlier than Isaiah, and an elder contemporary 
of Hosea. 

Place.— In accordance with the divine com- 
mission, he came to the kingdom of Israel, 
Bethel being apparently the chief scene of his 
prophetic activity. His sojourn at Bethel lasted 
probably no longer than a year, when, having 
incurred the hostility of Amaziah, the priest of 
Bethel, by prophesying disaster to King Jero- 
boam II. in the midst of his victories, he 
returned to Judea, where, we may infer, he 
committed his prophecy to writing. 

Contents.— The style of the book is noticeable 
for imagery and its numerous allusions to nat- 
ural objects and the cultivation of the fields 
(2: 13, R.V.; 3:4; 5: 19; 9:9; 9: 13). Chs. 1 and 2 are 
introductory, announcing that God's judgment 
will come upon Damascus, Gaza, Tyre, Edom, 



Aminon, Moab, and Judah, but will fall most 
heavily upon Israel. Chs. 3-6 contain three 
discourses, commencing with the emphatic 
words, "Hear ye," in which the indictment and 
sentence of chs. 1 and 2 are further justified 
and expanded. Chs. 7-0: 10 describe in five vis- 
ions the judgments that are coming upon Israel, 
the book concluding (9: 11 to end) with a prom- 
ise that the kingdom of God ("the tabernacle of 
David that is fallen") shall again be restored. 


Author and Date.— Of this prophet we know 
nothing except his name. The first nine verses 
of the prophecy exhibit a close, and occasionally 
verbal, agreement with Jer. 49: 7-22. The ques- 
tion of date is connected with the relationship 
of the parallel passages in the two prophets one 
to the other. If Jeremiah borrowed from Oba- 
diah. then an early date is given to the latter 
and the incidents referred to in vs. 11-14 would 
be explained to belong to the reign of King 
Jehoram of Judah (B.C. 852-843). On the other 
hand, it is generally maintained that both 
prophets wrote about the same time, and that 
Obadiah's prophecy w r as composed shortly after 
the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar 
(586 B.C.), the capture of the city by that monarch 
being alluded to in vs. 11-14 (cf. Ps. 137: 7). 

Contents.— Obadiah's design is to predict the 
overthrow of Edom. (1) He condemns their 
pride, self-righteousness, and violence against 
Jacob, and predicts their destruction (vs. 1-1(3). (2) 
He promises future restoration to Israel, and 
the possession of an enlarged kingdom, includ- 
ing Edom (vs. 17-21). In this book the modern 
Jews see the future restoration of their people. 


Jonah.— Jonah, the son of Amittai, mentioned 
in II. Ki. 14: 25, was a native of Gath-Hepher in 
the tribe of Zebulon, and lived in the reign of 
Jeroboam II., shortly after the time of Elisha. 
He was therefore a contemporary of the prophet 
Amos. The book of Jonah does not claim to 
have been written by him. 

Character.— The narrative strikingly illus- 
trates the conditional character of the judg- 
ments pronounced by divine command against 
nations, and even against Israel, which princi- 
ple is also taught by Jeremiah (Jer. 18 : 10). 

The Hebrew prophets were wont often to utter 
predictions under the form of historical narra- 
tives. Nathan's parable related to David (II. 
Sam. 12: 1-7), the tale of the prisoner let loose 
on the battlefield, related by an unknown 
prophet to Ahab as an actual fact (I. Ki. 20: 39- 
41), the grand parable or vision of Micaiah (I. 
Ki. 22: 19-22), are a few out of many instances. 

Historical Relation.— The main difficulty in 
the book of Jonah does not consist in the ac- 
count of his having been swallowed by the 
great fish, but rather in the fact that no refer- 
ence is made to any such conversion of Nine- 
veh by Isaiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Nahum, and the 
other prophets who prophesied concerning As- 
syria and Nineveh. The Assyrian inscriptions 
have confirmed the statements of the book con- 
cerning the exceeding great city Nineveh, but 
no reference has yet been discovered to Jonah's 

Several incidents of Jonah's history are re- 
ferred to by our Lord (Matt. 12:39fT. and Luke 
11: 29 11'.), and this has been generally considered 
conclusive evidence in favor of the historical 
character of the narrative. 

Contents.— The book is an historical narra- 
tive, giving an account of Jonah's call and 
disobedience (1: 1-3), his punishment by being 
swallowed up by t he great fish (1: 4-17), the psalm 
composed in the fish's belly (2: 1-9), his deliver- 
ance (2: 10), his second call, obedience, and the 

success of his mission to Nineveh (3: 1-10). The 
account of Jonah's indignation at the non-ful- 
fillment of his predictions, and God's explana- 
tion of the mercy shown, close the book (4: 1-11). 
The psalm in eh. 2 is almost entirely com- 
posed of quotations from the Psalms, and from 
those of a late date. 


Author.— The prophet is described in chapter 
1:1 as a native of Moresheth, a little town in 
the Shephelah, or maritime plain, a dependency 
OfGath. lie prophesied in 1 he reigns of Jotham, 
Ahaz, and llezckiah. He w;is;i younger contem- 
porary of Isaiah, and in;i.\ perhaps be described 
as "the prophet of the people." A want of co- 
hesion and connection between the different 
parts of the prophecy may be admitted, but 
there are no reasons to deny that Micah com- 
posed the book, with perhaps the exception of 
the title in ch. 1. 

Contents.— The book may be divided into three 
sections: (1) Chs. 1 and 2, the judgment that will 
come upon Israel and Judah for their sins, to- 
gether wi th a promise that the remnant of Israel 
shall be delivered. (2) Chs. 3-5, a vivid descrip- 
tion of the sinfulness of the leaders of the peo- 
ple, the destruction of Jerusalem, the future 
restoration of the people, and the glorious reign 
of the Messianic king. (3) Chs. 6 and 7, exhor- 
tations to repentance and threats of punish- 
ment, the penitent, attitude of the people toward 
Jehovah, with promises of future restoration. 
The Messianic prophecy in ch. 5: 2, 3 is of great 
importance; the allusions also in chs. and 7 
to the Pentateuch are of considerable value. 
Compare ch. : 4-6 with Ex. 12 : 51 and 14 : 30 ; Num. 
22-25 and ch. 7 : 17-20 with Gen. 3 and the history 
of the patriarchs. 


Author and Date.— All we know of Nahum is 
that he lived at Elkosh, a village which was, 
according to Jerome, in Galilee. The book may 
have been composed sometime between the fall 
of Thebes in Egypt (alluded to in ch. 3: 8-10, No- 
amon), c. 664 B.C., and the destruction of Nine- 
veh by the Medes and Babylonians in 607 B.C. 

Subject. — The subject of Nahum's prophecy is 
the fall of Nineveh. The descriptions are very 
striking and picturesque. The style is terse and 
vigorous, and resembles more closely that of 
Isaiah than that of any of the other prophets. 
The prophet presents (1) the majesty of God and 
the certainty of his judgments against the 
wicked city (ch. 1) ; (2) a vivid picture of the fall 
of the city (ch. 2); and (3) the complete destruc- 
tion of Nineveh and its desolation (ch. 3),— all 
given with marvelous detail and brilliancy. 
These prophecies had a most striking fulfillment 
in the disappearance for ages of the very site, 
until recent explorations revealed the extent of 
the ancient city. 


Author and Date.— Nothing is known about 
the prophet outside the book itself. He be- 
longed to the kingdom of Judah, and may have 
been either a priest or a member of the Levitical 
choir (3:1, 3, 13-19). Most critics are of the opinion 
that Habakkuk wrote duri \\\z the time of Jehoi- 
akim (B.C. 608-597), perhaps towards the begin- 
ning rather than the close of that monarch's 
reign. Some assign the prophecy to the time of 
Josiah (B.C. 639-608). 

Contents.— The theme of the prophecy is the 
Chaldean invasion. The book is dramatically 
constructed in the form of a dialogue. Ch. 
1:2-4 contains the prophet's complaint, vs. 5-11 
Jehovah's reply that judgment is near, and vs. 
» 12-17 the prophet's reflections: In ch. 2 the 



prophet sets himself on the prophetic watch- 
tower, awaiting Jehovah's reply, by which he is 
assured that " the just shall live by his faith " (2: 4) 
and that the heathen (the Chaldeans) shall be 
humbled and brought to ruin. Ch. 3 is one of 
the finest examples of Hebrew lyric poetry. It 
describes the awe-inspiring appearance of the 
Lord from Sinai, as in the days of old; recalls 
the glorious events of Israel's redemption from 
Egypt; and announces the motive of Jehovah's 
advent in order to support and encourage his 
people in the troublous days that were coming 
upon them. 


Author and Date.— Zephaniah was a great- 
grandson of Hezekiah, and prophesied during 
the reign of Josiah. The Hezekiah alluded to 
is no doubt the king of Judah of that name. It is 
probable from chs. 1: 4-6, 8, 9, 12 and 3: 1-3, 7 that 
Zephaniah wrote before the great reformation 
in the eighteenth year of King Josiah (B.C. 621). 

Contents.— The prophecy falls into three parts : 
(1) In ch. 1 the prophet graphically describes the 
great day of wrath coming upon the nations of 
the earth, and especially upon Judah and Jeru- 
salem. (2) In chs. 2:1-3:8 the prophet exhorts 
the people to repent, and thus escape the doom 
that threatens the Philistines, Moab, Amnion, 
Ethiopia, and even Nineveh itself. (3) In ch. 3: 
8-20 the prophet promises the Messianic blessings 
to the remnant of Israel, and announces that 
these blessings will also extend to all the nations 
of the earth. Zephaniah predicts the destruction 
of Nineveh, but not the agents who were to ac- 
complish it. 


Author.— The prophet Haggai was a contem- 
porary of Zerubbabel, u the governor of Judah," 
with whom he returned to Jerusalem. Together 
with Zechariah the prophet (cf. Ezra 4: 24-5: 1, 
2), he came forward in the second year of Darius 
(B.C. 520) to urge the people again to undertake 
the building of the temple, already commenced 
in the second year of Cyrus (B.C. 535), but aban- 
doned, owing to the opposition met with (cf . Ezra 
4 and 5). The exhortations of the two prophets 
were not without effect, and that work was 
completed at the expiration of four years (cf. 
Ezra 6 : 14, 15). 

Contents.— The prophecy is arranged chrono- 
logically, and consists of four parts. These were 
all delivered within the space of three months. 
(1) Ch. 1, an exhortation to build the temple— on 
the first day of the sixth month of the second 
year of Darius— and its result. (2) The glory of 
the new temple— on the twenty-first day of the 
seventh month (2: 1-9). (3) From the twenty- 
fourth day of the ninth month Jehovah prom- 
ises to again bless his people with fruitful sea- 
sons (2: 10-19). (4) The prophet on the same day 
assures Zerubbabel that, amid the impending 
overthrow of the thrones and kingdoms of the 
heathen (2: 6), Jehovah will specially favor and 
protect him (2:20-23). The book is remarkable 
as containing a distinct Messianic prophecy, re- 
ferred to in Heb. 12 : 26-28. In ch. 2 : 5-9 the phrase 
"the desire of all nations" is not, however, a title 
of the Messiah, but should rather be rendered, 
as in the R.V., u the desirable tilings of all nations," 
the allusion being to the munificent gifts brought 
by the Gentiles to beautify the second temple. 
The "latter glory" of the temple exceeded the 
former glory, for in it the Messiah manifested 
himself in the person of Jesus Christ. 


Author and Purpose.— Zechariah was the son 
of Berechiah, and grandson of Iddo, one of the 
priests who returned with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12 : 

4, 16). He prophesied in the second and fourth 
years of Darius Hystaspes (b.c. 520 and 518) (cf. 1: 
1, 7; 7:1), and was associated with the prophet 
Haggai (cf. Ezra 5 : 1 ; 6 : 14). The book falls 
into two parts, chs. 1-8 and chs. 9-14. Part first 
is undoubtedly the work of Zechariah, but the 
authorship and date of part second are much 
disputed. Assuming that the latter part of the 
book is from the hand of Zechariah, the prophet 
describes therein the judgments that came upon 
different parts of Syria and Palestine during 
the Greek period, which resulted in the conver- 
sion of the remnant of the Philistines and 
their incorporation with Israel, and paved the 
way for the advent of the Messiah, whose 
coming the prophet predicts. 

Contents.— I. (1) Ch. 1 : 1-6 contains an earnest 
exhortation to repentance. (2) Chs. 1 : 7-6 : 8 com- 
prise eight apocalyptic visions, viz.: (a) ch. 
1 : 8 ff., the vision of the angels riding on vari- 
ous colored horses among the myrtle trees; (6) 
ch. 1 : 18-21, the four horns and the four smiths ; 
(c) ch. 2, the man with the measuring line; (d) 
ch. 3, the high priest Joshua standing before the 
angel of the Lord, Satan's accusation, the ac- 
quittal of Joshua and his restoration to Jeho- 
vah's favor, the promise of the advent of the 
Messiah (the Branch) ; (e) ch. 4, the golden can- 
dlestick, and the two olive branches; (/) ch. 
5 : 1-4, the flying roll inscribed with curses against 
theft and perjury; (g) ch. 5: 5-11, the woman in 
the ephah, symbolical of wickedness with false 
weights and measures; {h) ch. 6:1-8, the four 
chariots, with different colored horses, destined 
to execute God's judgments on the earth. The 
most striking features of each vision are indi- 
cated to the prophet by an angel. (3) Ch. 6 : 9-15 
forms an appendix to what precedes, descriptive 
of the crowning of the high priest Joshua, sym- 
bolical of the coming of the Messiah (the Branch) 
as High Priest and King. (4) Chs. 7 and 8, the 
prophet's answer to the inquiry of the men of 
Bethel concerning fasting, in which he points 
out that Jehovah requires no fasts, but obedi- 
ence to his law, concluding with a promise that 
the Lord will again turn to his people, and 
change their fasting into joy and gladness. 

II. In ch. 9 the prophet describes the future of 
the Jewish church, and foretells the corning of 
the King who shall " speak peace unto the 
heathen " (9 : 10), and have world-wide dominion. 
In ch. 10 he describes the war of the children of 
Zion against the Greeks, and in chs. 11 and 12 
sketches the outlines of the same period down 
to the advent of the Messiah and his rejection 
by Israel. Ch. 12 contains a striking description 
of the mourning in Jerusalem. In ch. 13 is de- 
scribed "the reaction against the false prophets, 
in the post-exilic period, which subsequently 
led to the rejection of the true Prophet of Israel." 
Ch. 14 is of an apocalyptic character, and was 
doubtless not intended to be interpreted literally. 
It is a vision "of the last things as seen in the 
light of the Old Testament. " Special importance 
is to be attached to the Messianic passages in 
chs. 9, 11, 12, and 13. 


Author and Date.— Nothing is known regarding 
the history or person of the prophet Malachi; 
nor is the name found elsewhere. This does 
not, however, prove the name Malachi to be 
merely a title ("my messenger") descriptive of 
his office. The prophecy belongs to the time 
after the exile, when Judah was a Persian 
province, when the temple (1: 10; 3: 1) was 
rebuilt; and it may be assigned to some period 
between the first and second sojourns of Nehe- 
miah in Jerusalem (cf. the phrase " thy governor," 
in 1: 8; also Hag. 1: 1; Neh. 5: 14; 12: 26). 

Style and Contents.— The style of the book is 
more prosaic than that of the other prophets of 
the Old Testament. It is partly arranged as a 



dialogue, and attacks (l) the degenerate condi- 
tion of the priesthood (1-2: 9), (2) intermarriage 
With foreign women (2. 10-16), and (3) the remiss- 
ness on the part of the people in the payment 

of sacred dues (2: 17-1: 0). There are, with these, 
striking promises for the future. The book is 
important, as it contains a striking Messianic 
prediction (cf. 3: J; 4: 1,2). Elijah the prophet, 
spoken of in ch. 4: 5 as the forerunner of the 
Messiah, was expressly declared by Christ to be 
John the Baptist (see Matt. 17: 10-18; 11: 14, Mark 
9: 11-13). In eh. 3: 1 there is an allusion to the 
divine character of the Messiah. 

Books of Refekknck. I. C4knj<:ral. Historical 
Evidences oj the Old Testament, by Conder, Blaikio. and 
others; Historical Evidences of the New Testament, by 

-Maclcar. Meyer, and others; Taylor's Outline Analyses 
of the Books of tin Bible; Pierson's Keys to the Word. 

II. Old Tkstamkxt. Eftrkpatrick's Divine Lurmry 
of the oui Testament,' Smith's Old Testament in the 
Jewish ChurcH; C. II. II. Wriuhfs Introduction to the 
oi'/ Testament; Bleek's Introduction to the Old Testa- 
ment; Geikie'S Hours with (he Bible; Rowland's The 
Pentateuch; Gibson's Ages Before Moses and Mosaic 
Era; Phelps' Studies in the Old Testament; French's 
(editor) Lex Mosaica; Gtenung's Kpic of the Inner 
Life (Job); GrifRs' The Lily Among Thorns (Song of 
Songs); Weidner's* Studies in Genesis; C.H.H. Wrightte 
Biblical Essays (Job, Jonah, Ezekiel, etc.), Zechariah 
end His Prophecies, and The 1 loot: of Kcheleth (Eccle- 
siastes). Consult also List of Commentaries and 
General Bookqof Refeeence, page 144 ; books re- 
Cerred to under Parts ii. and III., and under How 
t« ) St r i > v T 1 1 k I > i p le, page (J. 


By GEORGE J. SPURRELL, M.A., Balliol College, Oxford, Examiner University 

of London. 

The exact technical meaning of the word 
Apocrypha (lit. hidden or concealed) is a matter 
of dispute among scholars. From the time of 
the Reformation, however, it has been the title 
employed by the Protestant church to designate 
those books which are appended to the ancient 
Greek and Latin versions of the Bible, but 
which were not admitted into the Hebrew can- 
on by the Jews. This latter point is clear from 
the evidence of Josephus, and from other con- 
siderations; and Jerome expressly distinguishes 
between the canonical writings as works of 
authority, and the non-canonical, which he 
considered useful for private perusal, and "for 
example of life and instruction of manners," but 
which ought not to be used to "establish any 
doctrine." The Church of England adopted 
Jerome's view (which, however, was current be- 
fore his time), and expressed a similar opinion 
in Article VI.; but the Roman Church, in ac- 
cordance with the decision of the so-called 
Council of Trent, regards the books as canonical. 
In the early Christian church many of these 
books were frequently used and quoted, and 
they were often regarded as if they were equal 
in authority with the canonical Scriptures 
themselves. The importance of the study of 
the Apocrypha is obvious, when we consider 
that it serves in a great measure to rill up the 
interval (of about 400 years) between the writ- 
ings of the Old and New Testaments. It is com- 
posed partly of independent works, and partly 
of additions to canonical works, and was, with 
the exception of Ecclesiasticus, I. Maccabees, 
Judith, and perhaps Baruch and Tobit, origi- 
nally written in Greek. Some of the books are of 
great historical value, while others are important 
as exhibiting various moral and doctrinal views. 

1. The Tftird Bookof K\dr<(s is variously entitled 
the First Book of Esdras (A. V., so LXX. and Syr- 
ian and the Third Book of Esdras (Vulgate). 
The book is for the most part compiled from 
other books of the Bible, chiefly from the canon- 
ical book of Ezra; but chs. 3, 4, and 5: 1-6 seem 
to be an independent work of no historical 
value, derived from unknown sources, but 
bearing a slight resemblance to the book of Es- 
ther. Its author is unknown, and the date of 
its composition uncertain. 

2. The Fourth Book of Esdras, otherwise called 
the Apocalypse of Esra, and in the A. V. the 
Second Book of Esdras, was originally written in 
Greek, but is now extant only in translations. 
The main portion of the work (chs. 3-14) consists 
of seven visions, in some respects similar to the 
book of Daniel, and is generally assigned to 
the end of the first century a.d. The remain- 
ing chapters, 1, 2, 15, and 16, are probably of later 

date (about 200-270 a.d.). The contents of the 
book possess no historical value. 

3. The Book of Tobit. — The work is now only 
extant in several translations, viz., Greek, Latin, 
Hebrew, and Aramaic. The date of composition 
cannot be fixed, but the book ought perhaps to 
be assigned to the second or first century B.C., 
rather than to a later period. Where the book 
was composed, whether in Palestine or among 
the "Dispersion," cannot be determined. 

4. The Book of Judith relates how Holof ernes, 
the chief captain of Nebuchadnezzar, king of 
Assyria, w r as commissioned to set out and take 
vengeance on the nations who had refused 
that king assistance in his campaign against 
Arphaxad, king of the Medes. Holof ernes pro- 
ceeds to execute his master's commands, and in 
due course lays siege. Judith, a Jewish widow, 
by means of a stratagem slays Holofernes, which 
so encourages the defenders of Bethulia, a for- 
tress on the way to Jerusalem, that they easily 
rout the demoralized Assyrian hosts. The book 
probably dates from the Maccabean period. 

5. The rest of the book of Esther, containing 
chs. 10: 4-16, was doubtless originally written in 
Greek, and was known to and used by Josephus. 
It is later than the canonical book of Esther, and 
was not composed by the author of that work. 

6. The Book of Wisdom is also entitled The Wis- 
dom of Solomon. The name of Solomon was used 
because it had become " a sort of collective name 
for all sapiential Hebrew literature " (Farrar). 
The work was perhaps composed between 150 and 
50 B.C., and is not a translation. The theology of 
the writer is noticeable. The doctrine of im- 
mortality is taught, and (possibly) that of future 
retribution, but no mention is made of a resur- 
rection, nor is there any allusion to the Messiah. 

7. TJie Wisdom of Jesus the Son of SiracJt, other- 
wise called Ecclesiasticus, the latter title being due 
to the fact that the book was much used iii the 
early church as an ecclesiastical reading book. 
The book was probably edited and translated 
into Greek, in Egypt, about 132 b:C. by the author's 
grandson Jesus, the son of Sirach. Nothing cer- 
tain is known about the author himself. 

8. 9. TJie Book of Baruch consists of two distinct 
sections, the work of different authors, to which, 
in the English version of the Apocrypha (and 
also in the Vulgate), a third is appended, entitled 
the Epistle of Jerem j/, an independent work, pro- 
ceeding from another author. T lies- parts were 
probably composed between 100 r>.c. and 300 a.d. 

10,11,12. The additions to Daniel. (1) The Prayer 
of Azariali and the Song of the Three Children, in 
the LXX. and Vulgate ch. 3: 24-90, was probably 
written in Hebrew or Aramaic. , (2) The Story of 
Susannah, or the Judgment of Daniel. In the LXX. 



this is a separate work, placed after the book of 
Daniel, but in the Vulgate is Dan. 13. The orig- 
inal was probably composed in Greek. (3) Tlie 
Story of Bel and the Dragon, a separate book in 
the LXX., curiously entitled, from "the Prophecy 
of Habakkuk, Son of Joshua, of the Tribe of Levi." 

13. The Prayer of Manasses is only found in 
some MSS. of the LXX. 

14. The First Book of the Maccabees is a work of 
great historical value. It contains an account 
of the history of the Jews in Palestine, from 175 
to 135 B.C., beginning with Antiochus Epiphanes' 
attempt to abolish the Jewish religion, narrat- 
ing the heroic exploits of the Maccabean broth- 
ers, and concluding with the death of Simon the 
high priest. The work was probably composed 
by an unknown author about 105 B.C. 

15. The Second Book of the Maccabees is of in- 
ferior historical value to the first, and of later 
date. The author was probably a Jew of Alex- 
andria. The work falls into two parts. The 
first contains two fictitious documents, profess- 
edly letters addressed by the Jews of Jerusalem 
to their brethren in Egypt. The main portion 
of the narrative is based on the history of Jason 
of Cyrene, who is otherwise quite unknown, and 

extends from ch. 2: 19 to 15:39. It commences 
with the history of the latter days of Seleucus 
IV., Philopator, 176 B.C., and extends to Judas 
Maccabeus' victory over Nikanor, 160 B.C. 

16. The Third Book of the Maccabees is one of the 
books whose canonicity is maintained by none. 

17. The Fourth Book of the Maccabees, more cor- 
rectly entitled The Triumph of Reason, was prob- 
ably composed before the destruction of Jerusa- 
lem, by an Alexandrian Jew acquainted with 
Stoic philosophy. It attempts to prove that " re- 
ligious reasoning is absolute master of the passions." 

18. Among the other apocryphal writings of 
the Old Testament may be enumerated : (1) The 
Book of Jubilees, or The Little Genesis. (2) TJie Book of 
Enoch. (3) The Assumption of Moses. (4) TJie Ascen- 
sion of Jsaiah. (5) The Apocalypse of Baruch. (6) 
The Sibylline Oi^acles. (7) The Psalter of Solomon. 
(8) The Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs. Not 
one of all these, though each is important from 
various points of view, has been recognized as 
canonical, with the single exception of the book 
of Enoch, which is received by the Abyssinian 
Church, but by no other. 

Consubt Bissell's Apocrypha of the Old Testa- 
ment, with notes and introductions. 

By EEV. A. PLUMMER, D.D., Master of University College, Durham. 

The Books of the New Testament, twenty- 
seven in number, may be grouped as follows : (1) 
The Historical Books, including the four Gospels 
and the Acts of the Apostles; (2) The Pauline 
Epistles, fourteen in number, including ten 
addressed to churches,— Romans, I. Corinthians, 
II. Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philip- 
pians, Colossians, I. Thessalonians, II. Thessa- 
lonians, Hebrews(?); three pastoral, I. Timothy, 
II. Timothy, and Titus ; and one personal, Phile- 
mon. (3) The General Epistles, James, I. Peter, 
II. Peter, I. John, II. John, and III. John, and 
Jude. (4) The Prophetic, Revelation. 


In no case is the title of a Gospel— " according 
to Matthew," "Mark," "Luke," " John "—origi- 
nal. But the titles are very ancient, and those 
who added them thereby expressed their belief 
as to the authorship of each Gospel; for the "ac- 
cording to "is equivalent to "of "or "by." There 
is abundant evidence for believing that in all 
four cases this ancient belief was correct. There 
is no rival hypothesis. As soon as the evidence 
begins it is unanimous. From all parts of the 
Christian world we have testimony as to the ex- 
istence of four, and only four, Gospels; and none 
of them is ever attributed to any author other 
than Matthew, Mark, Luke, or John. And if " ac- 
cording to Matthew " had been intended to mean 
no more than that some unknown writer was 
giving us the substance of what St. Matthew 
used to teach, then the second Gospel would 
have been called the " Gospel according to Peter," 
and the third the "Gospel according to Paul." 

The first Gospel, like the other two synoptic 
Gospels, is composite in substance. The author 
has made use of previously existing material; 
and much of this material has been used by St. 
Mark and St. Luke also. How many sources St. 
Matthew used cannot now be ascertained, nor 
whether they were all of them written docu- 
ments. Some of them may have been oral tra- 
ditions. But, if so, they had already been told 
so often that they had reached a fixed form 
almost equivalent to a written document. The 
Jews were specially trained in the accurate 
retention of sacred words and facts; and this 

is common in other Oriental nations, especially 
where the memory has not been weakened by 
habitual reliance upon books, or burdened by 
habitual perusal of them. Both from tradition 
and habit the apostles taught by word of mouth 
in preference to writing. By constant repetition 
they found out what portions of the gospel his- 
tory were most effectual in bringing the Christ 
home to the hearts of men. Thus the gospel was 
tested again and again by experience before it 
was committed to writing; and it was probably 
not committed to writing before the necessity 
for this arose. When churches began to multi- 
ply in cities far apart from one another, so that 
it was impossible for an apostle to visit them 
frequently, and, above all, when apostles began 
to die off, then it became necessary to have their 
teaching put on record, so that there might be 
something to which all could appeal. Indeed, 
it had become evident that, if apostles did not 
meet this necessity, others with less authority 
would endeavor to do so (Luke 1: 1). (Consult 
the introduction to the Harmony of the Gospels, 
p. 75.) 


Author.— Matthew may safely be identified 
with Levi. The call of Levi (Mark 2: 14; Luke 
5: 27) is evidently the same as the call of Mat- 
thew (Matt. 9: 9). Alphseus the father of 
Matthew is probably a different person from 
Alphseus the father of James; but we know 
nothing of the family. Matthew's profession 
was lucrative, and he gave a farewell banquet to 
"a great multitude" of his old associates when 
he surrendered it. The words which Jesus ut- 
tered on the occasion, "I came not to call the 
righteous, but sinners," are one of the two earli- 
est quotations from the first Gospel that have 
come down to us. They are found in the Epistle 
of Barnabas (ch. 5) close after "many are called, 
but few chosen " (ch. 4). 

Date. — The Gospel was probably written in 
Palestine, a.d. 60-70. It was before the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem (ch.24). Barnabas quotes 
Matt. 9: 13, and 22: 14 as Scripture, and his epistle 
is placed at a.d. 70-79. All three synoptic Gospels 
must have been published early. It is manifest, 
both from what each omits and from what each 
contains, that the writer of the first Gospel can- 
not have seen the third, and that the writer of 



the third cannot have seen the first. This ren- 
ders it probable that the two Gospels appeared 
about the same time; for, it' one had Long pre 
ceded the other, the writer of the second would 
have seen the first. 

Object.— That Matthew wrote for Jewish Chris- 
tians is affirmed by all ancient writers from 
Jremeus (A. I). 180) downwards; and the State- 
ment is abundantly confirmed by the internal 
evidence of the Gospel itself. Thegenealogy of 
Christ is traced through David to Abraham, but 
no farther. Appeals to the Old Testament arc 
frequent, t he object of t he writer being to show 
that Messianic prophecies were fulfilled in Jesus 
of Nazareth. The Sermon on the Mount abounds 
in references to the Mosaic Law. A knowledge 
of Jewish customs and of the geography of Pal- 
estine is assumed. Tin 1 frequent phrase, "king- 
dom of heaven " (literally "of the heavens,") For 
which other evangelists and St. Paul have 
"kingdom of God," is of Jewish origin. In 
short, the whole tone of the Gospel is Hebraic, 
and it may he regarded as the last word of Jeho- 
vah to his ancient people. Hence, it rightly 
stands first, whatever its date may he, for it 
most closely connects the old covenant with the 
new. It preserves the Jewish atmosphere, with- 
out Jewish narrowness. 

Language. — That the first Gospel was original- 
ly written in Hebrew, i. e.. in the Aramaic dia- 
lect, which had taken the place of the old 
Hebrew* is stated hy many ancient writers from 
Papias (c. a.d. 130) onwards. But Papias implies 
that translating it into Greek had in his day 
ceased; obviously because the Greek Gospel of 
St. Matthew had rendered this unnecessary. Onr 
Gospel of Matthew has never been treated as a 
translation even by those ancient writers who 
assert that it is a translation. Everything re- 
specting this Hebrew original is mere hearsay. 
Our Matthew does not read like a translation. 
It contains translations of Hebrew words (1: 23; 
27: 33-46), and these translations could not have 
existed in a Hebrew original. 

Style and Summary.— St. Matthew gives us 
more fully than either St. Mark or St. Luke the 
discourses of Jesus Christ (chs. 5, 0, 7, 10, 13, 18, 23, 
24, 25). In the Gospel, as we have it, the narrative 
forms about one-fourth of the whole. St. Mat- 
thew does not tie himself to the chronological 
order of events, but often groups his sections 
according to similarity of matter. He probably 
had very little plan in writing, but we can mark 
the following divisions: The birth and infancy 
of the King (chs. 1, 2) ; the preparation for the 
kingdom (3: 1-4: 16); the works of the kingdom 
and its true nature (4: 17-16: 20); the journey to 
Jerusalem and residence there (16: 21-25:46); the 
passion and resurrection (chs. 26-28). 


Author.— The evangelist's full name was John 
Mark (Acts 12: 12, 25; 15: 37), a combination of 
Hebrew {John, or Johanan = Jehovah is gracious) 
with Roman {Marcus= Hammer or Mallet), which 
symbolizes his mission. As in the case of Peter 
and Paul, the original Hebrew name (Acts 13: 5, 
13) seems to have gone out of use (Acts 15: 39; 
Col. 4: 10; Phile. 24; 11. Tim. 4: 11). His mother, 
Mary, was a friend of Peter (Acts 12: 12), and 
Peter probably converted Mark, and hence calls 
him his son (I. Pet. 5: 13). The young man 
mentioned in Mark 14: 51, 52 is possibly the 
evangelist. It is difficult to see why so trivial 
an occurrence is mentioned, unless it was of per- 
sonal interest to the narrator. Mark was cousin 
to Barnabas (Col. 4: 10), and perhaps in this way 
came in contact with St. Paul (Acts 12: 25; 13: 5), 
who dismissed him for slackness (Acts 15: 38, 39), 
on which his cousin was less severe. But nine 
or ten years later we find him a welcome com- 
panion of St. Paul during his first Roman cap- 
tivity (Col. 4: 11; Phile. 24), and a much desired 

fellow- worker during his second (II. Tim.- 4: 11). 
Mark was with Peter in "Babylon," i. c, Rome, 
when be wrote his first epistle (I. Pet. 5:13). Tlio 
date and manner of his death are unknown. 

Date.— The relation of the Gospel of St. Mark 
to those of St. Matthew and St. Luke is a very 
dim cull problem. In one respect it is demon- 
strably prior, for it contains far more of the 
primitive material of which all three make 
much use. Bui in its present form it may easily 
he later. From all the evidence, we conclude 
that Mark was preparing to write during Peter's 
lifetime, but did not complete and publish his 
( lospei until some time after Peter's martyrdom. 
The prophecies in eh. 13 lead to the conclusion 
that it was finished before the destruction of 
Jerusalem. This would place 1 hcGospel between 
67 and 70. The last twelve verses are probably 
not hy St. Mark, whose Gospel was found incom- 
plete (probably through some accident), and 
finished in different ways by later hands. Two 
different conclusions are found in the MSS., and 
the two best MSS. omit both of them. But there 
is no reason for doubting that, like the section 
on the woman taken in adultery, these twelve 
verses represent genuine apostolic teaching, al- 
though they are probably not by the writer of 
the rest of the Gospel. 

Sources.— Mark's Gospel contains little else 
than the primitive material, oral and written, 
which is employed by all three synoptists; and 
there are only about twenty -four verses in 
it which are not contained in Matthew or in 
Luke, or in both (e. ,/., 1: 26-29; 7: 1, 31-37; 12: 32, 
33). This, however* does not extend to the his- 
tory of the passion. There it would seem that 
St. Mark has made use of St. Matthew ? s account, 
or vice versa. There is good reason for believing 
that the source of most of this common mate- 
rial is the preaching of St. Peter. That which is 
found in all three Gospels, or in Mark and Mat- 
thew, or in Mark and Luke, is just that part of 
Christ's life of which Peter would have personal 
knowledge. The earliest witnesses, from Papias 
(a.d. 130) downwards, state that Mark recorded 
the things which were related by Peter. The 
graphic details, which are so abundant in Mark, 
indicate that the writer was an eye-witness or 
obtained his information from an eye-witness 
(e. g., 3: 5, 34; 5: 32; 8: 33; 9: 35; 10: 23, 32, etc.). St. 
Mark sometimes specially mentions the pres- 
ence of Peter where Matthew and Luke are 
silent on the point (1: 36; 11: 21; 13: 3; 16: 7). He 
begins the ministry of Christ with the call of 
Peter and his brother Andrew (1: 16), and ends 
his Gospel with a message to Peter (16: 7). He 
tells us that at the transfiguration Peter "wist 
not what to answer." He alone tells us that 
Peter was warming himself "in the light of the 
fire " (14 : 54), so as to attract attention, when he 
denied his Master; and that the cock crew twice 
(14:72). And possibly it is Peter's humility 
which suppresses notice of Peter where others 
tell what is to his honor (contrast Mark 6: 50, 51 
with Matt. 14: 28-31; Mark 9: 33 with Matt. 17: 
24-27: Mark 8: 29, 30 with Matt. 16: 17-19). 

Object.— It is probably true that St. Mark 
wrote his Gospel in Rome for Gentiles, and pri- 
marily for Romans. It is confirmed by the in- 
ternal evidence of the Gospel itself. In his own 
8erson he quotes only two passages from the 
Id Testament (1 : 2, 3). He makes no references to 
the Mosaic Law, and gives no genealogy of the 
Messiah. He explains Jewish words, localities, 
and customs (3:17; 5:41; 7:3,11; 10:46; 12:18,42; 
13: 3; 14: 1, 12, 36; 15: 6, 16, 34, 42). The Latin words 
which he uses may be the result of life in Rome 
(6:27; 7:4; 12:42; 15:39. 44,45). 

Characteristics and Summary.— He represents 
Christ as the Son of God, exhibiting the divine 
power in mighty wonders, especially in van- 
quishing the powers of evil by healing demoni- 
acs. The people are thus led to recognize in him 
a spiritual conqueror, an aspect of the Crucified 



which would be acceptable to heathen, and 
especially to the Romans. The Gospel of St. 
Mark has no special characteristic as regards 
doctrine. It is primitive and neutral; practical 
rather than theological. In style it is inartifi- 
cial clear, and vivid; originality and truthful- 
ness are stamped on its face. The writer has lit- 
tle literary skill. His language is homely and 
sometimes ungrammatical. But he has a faithful 
memory, and can reproduce with picturesque 
freshness the graphic narratives which he had 
heard again and again from St. Peter; hence his 
fondness for the historic present, for the scene 
is before him as he writes; and his frequent 
"straightway " is perhaps a trait caught from 
the eager lips of the impetuous apostle. He 
notices more than any other evangelist the 
human emotions and the gestures of Christ, and 
it is from him that we learn that Jesus, as well 
as Joseph, was a carpenter (6: 3). The arrange- 
ment, so far as there is any, is simple: The in- 
troduction (1: 1-8); the ministry in Galilee, 
Pera?a, and Jerusalem (1: 9-13: 37); the passion 
and resurrection (14: 1-16: 8. 


Author. — The name Luke, or Lucas, is an ab- 
breviation, possibly of Lucilius, but almost cer- 
tainly of Lucanus. Some of the oldest Latin 
MSS. have Secundum Lucanum as the title of the 
third Gospel. These contracted proper names 
are frequent as the names of slaves ; and slaves 
were sometimes physicians. It is quite possible 
that St. Luke was a manumitted slave. Luke 
nowhere gives his name in either of the two 
writings which from the first have been as- 
signed to him; but he is three times named by 
St. Paul (Col. 4: 10, 14; Phile. 24; II. Tim. 4: 11). 
These notices of him tell us that he was a Gentile 
and a physician, very dear to the apostle, as be- 
ing his fellow worker in spreading the faith and 
his attendant in both his Roman imprison 
ments. It is worth noting that in all three 
places his brother evangelist Mark is men- 
tioned also. In four other passages in the New 
Testament Luke, by using the first person, 
tells us a good deal about himself (Luke 1: 1-4; 
Acts 16- 10-17; 20: 5-21: 18; 27: 1-28: 16); and these 
seven passages contain all that is really known 
about the life of St. Luke. Luke was probably 
a Syrian of Antioch, and may have been con- 
verted by St. Paul. He gives us much informa- 
tion about Antioch (Acts 11: 19-30, where v. 26 is 
especially remarkable; 13: 1-3; 14: 26-15: 3; 15: 
22-41). His opportunities of collecting the very 
best information were very great, owing to his 
residence at Antioch, at Jerusalem, at Csesarea, 
and at Rome, where we lose sight of him. At 
all these places he would meet, or from them 
could easily reach, apostles and many others 
who had seen Jesus Christ in the flesh. He is 
rightly called the "father of Christian church 
history." His investigation of primary sources, 
his accuracy, and his high aims, are all of them 
worthy of the best historical work. Continuity 
and development characterize both his writings; 
and it may be said that he is the only New Tes- 
tament writer who exhibits a really historical 

Date.— The date of the publication of the Gos- 
pel must be determined on the one hand by the 
date of the Acts, on the other by the many at- 
tempts at written narratives which preceded the 
Gospel (1: 1). We may place the third Gospel 
between a.d. 60 and 70. A later date is not prob- 
able on account of the early date required for 
the Acts. 

Source.— While the second Gospel seems to 
come almost entirely from one source, the third 
appears to be the most composite of all. St. 
Luke tells us that he obtained information 
from a variety of quarters, and the internal evi- 
dence shows that this is the case. Besides the 

primitive material of which all three synoptists 
make use, and of which St. Mark gives us so 
much, the third evangelist translates and adapts 
various documents and traditions which appear 
to have been unknown to the other two. The 
contents of the first two chapters and of most of 
what is given us in 9: 51 to 18: 14 may be as- 
signed to these new sources. The primitive tra- 
dition respecting the origin of Luke's Gospel is 
similar to that respecting Mark's. Mark is said 
to give us the teaching of St. Peter; Luke the 
teaching of St. Paul. But the cases are not par- 
allel. Mark derived his material from Peter; 
Luke derived his spirit from Paul. Mark was 
Peter's "interpreter"; he passed on to others 
what Peter had said. Paul was Luke's "illumi- 
nator"; he inspired the evangelist with his own 
mind and spirit. It is altogether a mistake to 
suppose that by " my gospel " St. Paul means 
the Gospel of St. Luke (Rom. 2: 16; 16: 25; II. Tim. 
2: 8). By "my gospel" he means the substance 
of his teaching, under the influence of which 
Luke came. Both Paul and Luke teach with 
special fullness the universality and freedom of 
salvation without legal conditions or privilege 
of birth. It is in this sense that the third Gos- 
pel is the Gospel of Paul. In his preface Luke 
tells us that he derived his material from eye- 
witnesses, and among these St. Paul cannot be 

Object.— St. Luke wrote for the whole world, 
whether Jew or Gentile, but especially for 
Greeks, as Matthew for Jews, and Mark for 
Romans. His is the universal Gospel (3: 38; 4: 
16-30; 7: 36-50; 10: 25-37; 17: 11-19; 18: 14; 19: 1-10; 23: 
39-43). He is less careful to set forth Jesus as the 
Messiah of prophecy, than to exhibit him as the 
Saviour of all men and the satisfier of all human 
needs. He shows how the lives of Jesus and his 
apostles are part of the history of the great 
Roman empire, and he is not content until he 
has traced the lineage of the Saviour past David 
and Abraham to the father of the whole human 
race. The Theophilus to whom he dedicates 
both the Gospel and the Acts was probably a 
real person in good social position, and either 
a convert or at least a catechumen. But 
whether real or imaginary he represents the 
intelligent and godly reader who needs infor- 
mation as to the historical basis of the faith. 
Such there will always be, and for them the 
third Gospel will always be of peculiar worth. 

Characteristics.— No other Gospel is so com- 
plete as Luke's. It begins with the promise of 
the forerunner, and ends with the ascending 
Saviour's blessing and his disciples' continual 
joy. It gives us the fullest account of Christ's 
humanity, its development and reality, from the 
manger to the ascension. Quite in keeping with 
its universal character, it is in a special sense 
the Gospel for women. From first to last a 
prominent place is assigned to them, and a great 
variety of types of womanhood are exhibited : 
Elizabeth, the blessed Virgin, the prophetess 
Anna, the widow at Nain, the nameless sinner 
in the house of Simon the Pharisee, Mary Mag- 
dalene, Joanna, Susanna, the woman with the 
issue, who had spent all her living upon physi- 
cians, Martha and Mary of Bethany, the widow 
with her two mites, the "daughters of Jerusa- 
lem," and the women at the tomb. And Luke's 
keen sense of historical accuracy does not ex- 
clude a love of poetry, especially that poetry 
which is the outcome, not of imagination, but 
of religious fervor and truth. The biblical 
hymns, which for centuries have been used 
in public and private worship throughout 
Christendom, have all been preserved to us by 
St. Luke (1: 28, 46-55, 68-79; 2: 14, 28-32). The keen 
literary instincts of Renan are not far wrong 
when he pronounces this Gospel to be "the 
most beautiful book which exists." 

The synoptists all agree with one another 
most closely in reporting the words of Christ, 



and differ most in the narrative of his acts, 
showing that tradition guarded the discourses 
of Jesus with a care which was not considered 
necessary in recording his works. In Luke 
about one-third of the Gospel is narrative, and 
rather less than one-third is peculiar to him, i.e., 
is discourse or narrative which is recorded by 
no one else. But even here he seldom writes 
independently, but is under the influence of 
tradition or documents. When he does write 
independently, as in the preface to the Gospel 
and the latter half of the Acts, he writes excel- 
lent Greek. He was evidently a person of con- 
siderable education, with literary skill and a 
very full vocabulary. In his Gospel he uses 
about 180 words which are not found elsewhere 
in the Greek Testament. His style has many 
characteristic marks, and any one who is famil- 
iar with them could recognize a leaf torn from 
his writings as his composition. These marks 
demonstrate a common authorship for the 
third Gospel and the Acts, and also prove that 
the whole of each book is from the same pen. 

Summary.— The following main divisions can 
be traced in it: The preface (1: 1-4); the infancy 
and childhood of the forerunner and of the 
Saviour (1: 5-2: 52); the preparation and early 
ministry (8:1-7: 50) ; the later ministry (8: 1-9: 50) ; 
the journeyings towards Jerusalem (9: 51-19:48); 
the last days, passion, resurrection, and ascen- 
sion (20: 1-21: 53). 


Author.— As the Gospels surpass all other 
books, so the other Gospels are surpassed by the 
Gospel of St. John, "the most influential book 
in all literature." That it is by St. John has 
been the conviction of all who have known it, 
with very insignificant exception, down to the 
end of the last century. The best scholars are 
fully agreed that the fourth Gospel is by St. 
John, the apostle. The genuineness of no clas- 
sical works of similar antiquity is attested by 
such a mass of early, continuous, and full evi- 
dence. The internal evidence is not less strong 
than the external, and it has been well said that 
if we knew nothing of the apostle John, we 
should have to imagine such a person in order 
to account for his writings. He is the one per- 
sonality which fits the intricate and varied 
phenomena of the case. The author is evidently 
a Jew r , familiar with Jewish opinions and points 
of view (1: 19-28, 45-51; 4: 9, 20, 22, 25, 27; 6: 14, 15; 
7: 15, 49; 8: 48; 12: 34, etc.), with Jewish usages 
and ceremonies (1: 25; 2: 6, 13, 23; 3: 22-25; 4:2; 
5:4; 7: 2, 37; 10: 22, etc.), with the topography of 
Palestine (1: 28, 44, 46; 2: 1; 3: 23; 4: 5,47; 11:18, 
54, etc.) and of Jerusalem (5: 2; 9: 7; 10: 23; 18: 1, 
28; 19: 13, 17). Moreover, he knows the Old Testa- 
ment in Hebrew. Out of fourteen quotations 
from the Old Testament there are three which 
agree w T ith the Hebrew against the Septuagint; 
there is not one which agrees with the Septua- 
gint against the Hebrew. The author displays 
such exact knowledge of details, that he can 
hardly have been other than an eye-witness (1: 
29, 35, 39, 43; 2: 1, 14-16; 4: 6, 40, 43, 52; 6: 5-14, 22, 
etc.). But the author is not merely an eye-wit- 
ness, but a disciple, and a very intimate disciple. 
1 1 e k nows the ways and views of the Twelve, and 
sometimes the very thoughts of the Master (2: 
11, 17, 22, 24, 25; 4: 1-3, 27, 31, 33; 5:6; 6: 6, 15, 19, 60; 
9:2; 11: 8, 12, 16, 54; 13: 1, 3, 11, 22, 28, etc.). Al- 
though he carefully distinguishes persons (11: 
16, 49; 14: 22; 18: 13; 20: 24, etc.), he never follows 
the synoptists in distinguishing the two Johns 
by calling one of them " the Baptist." The Bap- 
tist in the fourth Gospel is simply "John " (1: 6, 
15, 19, 26-41 ; 3: 28-27, etc.). We infer that the au- 
thor himself is the other John, to whom the 
Baptist was the only John. 

Date.— How late John wrote his Gospel cannot 
be determined, but probably between a.d. 80 and 

95. Tradition says that he wrote at the request 
of his fellow disciples and elders of Ephesus. 
That it was written in Ephesus we may regard 
as certain. There he lived during the last portion 
of his life, teaching what he afterwards wrote. 

Source. — The fourth Gospel is not composite 
like theother three. Although it comes last, and 
the author of it knew the writings of his prede- 
cessors, it is the most original of them all. He 
writes from personal knowledge; "that which 
we have heard, that which we have seen with 
our eyes, that which we beheld, and our hands 
handled, concerning the Word of life . . . 
declare we unto you." The other Gospels some- 
times influenced him in the selection and the 
treatment of his subjects; here and there they 
may have influenced his wording (John 6: 7 and 
Mark 6: 37; John 12: 5 and Mark 14: 5); but St. 
John's material is his own. He has no genealogy 
of Christ, no record of the birth, infancy, bap- 
tism, temptation, transfiguration, or ascension, 
no healing of demoniacs, no Sermon on the 
Mount, no parables. Instead of these w r e have 
the preexistence of the Word, the incarnation, 
the new birth of the Spirit, the water of life, the 
bread of life, the good shepherd, and the true 
vine. Where he traverses exactly the same 
ground as the synoptists. as in the feeding of 
the five thousand, and in the history of the pas- 
sion and resurrection, he adds various details 
of great interest, which come from his personal 
knowledge. Perhaps the chief of these are the 
farewell discourses of Christ to his disciples just 
before the crucifixion. The difference between 
these and those in the other Gospels is very great, 
and is to be explained partly by the difference of 
the occasions and audience, partly by the ele- 
ment in them which comes from St. John him- 

Object.— St. John writes for adult Christians, 
to confirm them in the belief that "Jesus is the 
Christ, the Son of God," that by believing they 
"may have life in his name" (20: 31). His is the 
spiritual Gospel, abounding in symbolism, sat- 
urated with the Old Testament, and stern in its 
condemnation of those whose misconception of 
the Old Testament led them to reject the Mes- 
siah. It sets forth the true conception of the 
Messiah in opposition to the debased perversions 
of it current among "the Jews," who in this 
Gospel are the enemies of Christ. 

Style.— The style is simple in construction and 
intense in meaning. The sentences are short, 
and the vocabulary is limited; as of a writer 
whose command of the language is sufficient, 
but not perfect. It abounds in parallelisms and 
repetitions, which arrest the ear and impress 
the heart. It has a charm which is unique in 
literature, and which it is not easy to analyze. 
It is one of those things which all can know, 
but none can tell. St. John alone among bib- 
lical waiters uses " the Word," or " the Logos," of 
the divine Son (1: 1-18), a term which in itself 
is a summary of theology. And his is the only 
Gospel which has an elaborate plan, the divi- 
sions of which are arranged with great care. He 
gives us, not a biography of Christ, but a series 
of carefully chosen scenes, all leading up with 
dramatic and cogent effect to the only possible 
conclusion, " My Lord and my God " (20: 28). 

Characteristics.— The difference between these 
contents and those of the synoptic Gospels is 
great, and we need not doubt that part of St. 
John's reason for selecting certain scenes was 
that they had not been previously recorded. The 
synoptists give us little more than one year of 
Christ's ministry, nearly all of which is in Gal- 
ilee. John gives us nearly three years (2: 13; 6: 
4; 13: 1), with various sojourns at Jerusalem. 
But in the gaps in the synoptic narrative there 
is plenty of room for all that is peculiar to St. 
John, and in the gaps in his narrative for all 
that is peculiar to theirs. They, imply several 
visits to Jerusalem (Matt. 23: 37), although they 



do not record them. But he differs from them, 
not only in his choice of material, but in the 
view which he gives us of the Christ. They show 
us how the great Rabbi and Prophet exasperated 
the people by denouncing their immoral tradi- 
tions and lives. John shows us how a divine 
personage infuriated the hierarchy by claiming 
to be one with Jehovah. They exhibit the teach- 
ing of Christ as simple, and for the most part 
moral, illustrated by frequent parables. John 
/exhibits it as mystical and doctrinal, without a 
single parable, aud with only one or two allego- 
ries. As already stated, there is in St. John's 
Gospel a large element which, although under 
the guidance of the Spirit, comes from himself. 
His strong personality determines the form in 
which he records the words of others and even 
of Christ. He wrote in circumstances very differ- 
ent from those which surrounded the first three 
evangelists. The opposition between Christianity 
and Judaism had become more intense; the hos- 
tility between the church and the world had be- 
come more evident. This change is reflected in 
his narrative. After twenty or thirty years of 
additional experience he is able to see, more 
clearly than the synoptists could do, what were 
the precise issues involved in the coming of 
Christ and the teaching of Christ; and this clear- 
ness influences his Gospel. 

Summary.— The main divisions of the Gospel 
are two, of which the first is preceded by a pro- 
logue of pregnant meaning, w hile the second is 
followed by an appendix of intense interest. 
The prologue sets forth the Word as a divine 
Person, the eternal Interpreter of the nature of 
God, the Creator of the universe, and the 
Fountain of life and light (1: 1-18). The min- 
istry is the revelation of the incarnate Son and 
his Father to the world (1: 19-12: 50). In the 
i ssues of the ministry a more complete revelation 
is made to the disciples (chs. 13-20). The appen- 
dix explains Christ's saying respecting the evan- 
gelist (ch. 21). The first main division seems to 
be divided into three parts at 2: 11 and 11: 57, 
and the second also at 17: 26 and 19: 42. 


Author.— Few things in biblical criticism are 
more certain than that the author of the third 
Gospel was the author of the Acts, and therefore a 
companion of St. Paul. It is practically certain 
that this companion was St. Luke. Christian 
tradition on this point is early, full, and unani- 
mous. And it is twofold. There is separate testi- 
mony to Luke as the author of the third Gospel. 
and to Luke as the author of the Acts ; and each 
enormously strengthens the other. No conjec- 
ture as to what is possible, seeing that Paul had 
various companions, ought to weigh against 
such strong evidence as to what is the fact. 
Luke is the author of all but the title of the 
book ; that, no doubt, was added by others. The 
earliest form of it seems to have been "Acts of 
Apostles," which was shortened to "Acts" or 
"The Acts," and lengthened to "The Acts of the 
Apostles," in which form it is rather misleading. 
The book is rather the Acts of Peter and Paul. 

Date.— The date of the treatise itself cannot 
be determined. It may have been published in 
any year between 62 and 70, but probably not 
long after 62. There is no hint of the Neronian 
persecution, or of the death of Peter or of Paul, or 
of the epistles of either, or of the destruction of 
Jerusalem. The strongest argument for an early 
date is the writer's manifest ignorance of the 
four great epistles of St. Paul, all of which were 
written before the end of 58. This ignorance 
would not continue long after Paul's death, 
even if it lasted till then; wherefore a date 
much later than 68 seems improbable. 

Sources.— In his Gospel, St. Luke is entirely 
dependent upon research; he is never an eye- 
witness, but obtains his information from eye- 

witnesses. In the Acts he has both sources of 
knowledge. In the first half he is mainly de- 
pendent upon others, but in the second half 
records a great deal that he witnessed himself. 
Without mentioning his own name he slips 
from the third person into the first, and thus 
indicates his own presence (16: 10-17; 20: 5-21: 18; 
27: 1-28: 16). These are the famous "we " sections, 
which every one admits to be contemporary 
evidence. The excellence of his information 
and his fidelity in using it have been abun- 
dantly proved. Wherever we can test him, by 
profane writers, by inscriptions, by excavations, 
and the like, he is found to be accurate. No 
ancient writer gives us so many opportunities, 
in so small a compass, of testing the accuracy 
of his statements; and very seldom in the case 
of ancient authors have we contemporary let- 
ters with which to confront them. The number 
of undesigned coincidences between the Acts 
and the Epistles are numerous and convincing, 
as the student of Paley's Horce Paulinw knows. 

Characteristics.— In the work of Peter among 
the Jews and Paul among the Gentiles the au- 
thor joyously sketches the triumphant progress 
of the faith from Jerusalem, the center of Juda- 
ism, to Rome, the center of paganism and the 
capital of the civilized world. Luke evidently 
regards the book as a continuation of his Gospel 
(1: 1-8), and as such perhaps gave it no title. 
"The former treatise" gives us the ministry of 
Christ in his own person; the latter gives us his 
ministry through the Spirit acting upon his 
apostles. It has been called " the Gospel of the 
Holy Spirit," who is mentioned in the Acts more 
often than in any other book in the New Testa- 
ment. In this way it forms a link between the 
Gospels and the Epistles. Its relation to the Gos- 
pels has been stated; the one the ministry of 
Christ, the other the ministry of his church. 
But the external work of the church predomi- 
nates in the Acts; its internal life predominates 
in the Epistles. In short, the Gospels, Acts, and 
Epistles give us the Christ in the world, his 
church in the world, and his church at home. 

Summary.— St. Luke addresses the Acts, as he 
addresses his Gospel, to Theophilus, who repre- 
sents all who are in need of information about 
the foundation of the church. He himself indi- 
cates the main divisions of his treatise, in the 
last words of Christ before the ascension (1: 8)— 
"Ye shall be my witnesses both in Jerusalem 
[1: 15-8: 8], and in all Judea and Samaria [8 : 4-11: 8], 
and unto the uttermost part of the earth [11: 19- 
28 : 31]." Of the opening verses, 1-5 are preface and 
6-14 are introduction, which overlaps the Gospel. 
Two events are mentioned of which the dates are 
fixed by profane history— the death of Herod 
Agrippa I. (12: 23), which took place in a.d. 44; 
and the accession of Festus (25 : 1), which occurred 
a.d. 60. 




Author.— Nothing in the history of literature 
is more certain than that the four great epistles 
—to the Corinthians, the Galatians, and the Ro- 
mans—are by the apostle St. Paul; and they 
contain all the essentials of the faith. They 
form the second and chief group of the Pauline 
Epistles, having been written four or five years 
after the two to the Thessalonians, and four or 
five years before the epistles of the captivity. 

The epistle is written in Greek, not only be- 
cause St. Paul could write most easily in that 
language, but also because it was most familiar 
to his readers. Christians in Rome, whether 
Jews or Gentiles, would understand no language 
better than Greek. 

Date.—Of the four great epistles, that to the 



Romans was written last, and apparently not 
long after the Epistle to the « Jalatians, which is 
the rough sketch out of which the elaborate 
treatise grew. All four were written within about 
fourteen months, in a.j>. 57 and 58. The dates 
of the Pauline Epistles are much more certain 
t ban those of any other books in the New Testa- 
ment, and must all be placed in the sixteen 
years 52 to 67. Romans was written in the 
spring of 58, from Corinth, during a stay of 
three months in Greece. 

The Church at Rome.— The Roman church for 
many generations was a Greak-speaking com- 
munion. Its origin is unknown, but there is no 
need to assume that an apostle founded it. Chris- 
tians would migrate from various parts of the 
world to Rome, and would there make converts. 
The letter is addressed sometimes to Gentiles 
(1:6, 13; 11: 18), sometimes to Jews (2; 3: 19; 7: 1), 
sometimes to both (chs. -9-11). Evidently there 
are plenty of both in the Roman church, and 
there is no sharp antagonism between them. Of 
the many persons named in the epistle, some 
are Jews and some are Greeks, while two (Urban 
and Ampliatus) have Latin names. It is a rep- 
resentative and metropolitan communion, and 
it receives an epistle of like character. 

Occasion.— The letter to the Romans is a theo- 
logical treatise rather than a letter, and the 
exact motive which induced the apostle to write 
it is not certain. The epistle is written calmly 
and deliberately, and betrays no trace of anx- 
iety or pressure, or of any serious crisis in the 
church or city of Rome. St. Paul had many 
friends there (eh. 16), and had long wished 
to go thither (15: 23). He could not fail to see 
that the condition of Christianity in the me- 
tropolis of the empire must be momentous for 
the whole church. The departure of Phoebe, 
a deaconess of Cenchrea, port of Corinth, gave 
him an opportunity of sending a letter to the 
Christians in this important center, and "the 
most profound work in existence " was the re- 
sult. In it he tells the church in this city of 
conquerors to proclaim the gospel as the power 
of God, which by faith is to conquer the world, 
and to establish a spiritual empire greater than 
the material empire of Rome. Submission to 
this spiritual rule is the only true freedom. 

Contents.— In the previous year the apostle 
had dealt sharply with Gentile license at Cor- 
inth, and with Jewish bigotry in Galatia. He 
now writes a calm dissertation upon the power 
of the faith to a church in which Jew and Gen- 
tile were equally and peacefully represented. 
In this treatise he expounds Christianity as a 
divine scheme for producing righteousness in 
man, and thus realizing the kingdom of the 
Messiah. The epistle has two main divisions, 
doctrinal and practical, with introduction and 
conclusion. Introductory (1: 1-17); doctrinal- 
righteousness by faith (1: 18-11: 36); practical 
—Christian duties (12:1-15: 13); valedictory (15: 
14-16: 27). The principal passages which touch 
on the divinity of Christ are 1:3, 4; 8:3; and 
perhaps 9: 5; but in the last passage some would 
apply the doxology to God and not to Christ. 


Date and Place.— The epistle was written at or 
near Ephesus, before Pentecost (16: 8), and prob- 
ably in a.d. 57. It was written near the end of 
St. Paul's second and long visit to Ephesus on 
his third missionary journey (Acts 19: 1, 10; 20: 
31), shortly before his departure for Greece (19 : 21). 
No other book in the New Testament is quoted 
b)i Us author's name so early as I. Corinthians. 

The Corinthian Church.— Corinth, destroyed 
by Muinmius (B.C. 146), was restored by Juiius 
Ca3sar (B.C. 46); and in a century it had become 
the political and commercial capital of Greece. 
As such it was the abode of the proconsul 
Gallio (Acts 18: 12). With its luxury and its 

worship of Aphrodite, it became a byword for 
licentiousness. The Corinthian Christians had 
been rescued from this (I. Cor. 6: 10, 11); but the 
evil influence was always there (ch. 5). The plant- 
ing of the gospel in this corrupt center was the 
work of St. Paul (3:6, 10; 4: 15; 16: 15; 1 : 16). He 
was probably the first Christian to enter Corinth 

(C. A.D. 52). 

Style— No epistles of St. Paul illustrate the 
peculiarities of his style better than the two 
to the Corinthians. He dictated his letters, and 
thus speaks rather than writes to the recipients 
of them. In this way his letters have become a 
mixture of oratory, conversation, and corre- 
spondence, which is unlike any other collection 
of letters that is known to us. 

Occasion.— Some five years after the founding 
of the Corinthian church, St. Paul was moved 
by three things to write the First Epistle— the 
news of the monstrous case of incest, perhaps 
brought by Stephanas and others (16:17); the 
news of the factions and kindred evils, brought 
by some of the household of Chloe (1: 11); and 
the letter from the Corinthians (7: 1). 

Contents. — The contents of the epistle are de- 
termined by the evils reported and the questions 
asked, and these involve a considerable number 
of disconnected topics. After the usual salu- 
tation and thanksgiving (1:1-9), he deals with 
the factions (1: 10-4: 20) and impurity (4:21-6: 
20). He then answers their questions about 
marriage (ch. 7), heathen feasts (8: 1-11 : 1), public 
worship and spiritual gifts (11: 2-14: 40), and ex- 
pounds the doctrine of the resurrection (ch. 15). 
He ends with charges and salutations (ch. 16). 
These contents are more varied than those of any 
other epistle. They form a series of Tracts for the 
Times, and give us our first and fullest informa- 
tion about the institutions and ideas of the 
apostolic age, e. g., baptism (1: 13-17); the eu- 
charist, which is evidently united with the 
agape, or love-feast (10: 15-22; 11: 23-34); the min- 
istry (12 : 28, 29) ; public worship (14 : 14-39) ; a creed 
(15: 3, 4); belief in a future state (15: 12-34); the 
observance of Sunday (16:2); the holy kiss (16: 
20). About these things I. Corinthians gives us 
the earliest information ; but it does not give us 
the earliest stage of their development. The 
churches of Jerusalem and of Antioch were 
older than the church of Corinth. 


Date.— The Second Epistle to the Corinthians 
was written in Macedonia, in the autumn of a.d. 
57, but perhaps not all at one time or place. Ap- 
parently Paul was suffering from his chronic 
malady (1:9; 4 : 10-12, 16). Certainly he was much 
depressed (1: 6; 4: 8, 9; 5: 2; 7: 4). The bearers of 
the letter were Titus and two others, who are 
not named, and about whom there have been 
many futile conjectures. 

Characteristics.— This is the first chapter in 
ecclesiastical biography, as the First Epistle is 
in ecclesiastical history. It is the apostle's Apol- 
ogia pro vita sua, being in part an autobiography; 
and for many details of his life it is our only 
source of information. It tells us much about 
his personal feelings, the joys and sorrows which 
his high office brought to him, and the humility 
and fortitude with which he received them. As 
in the former letter, and in those to Timothy 
and Titus, the pastoral sagacity and strength of 
the apostle is very prominent. 

Occasion and Contents.— The motive for writ- 
ing it was news brought from Corinth by Titus 
(7:5, 6), especially as to the way in which the 
First Epistle had been received, and the success 
of the Judaizing party, who had been intriguing 
in Corinth, as elsewhere, against the authority 
of St. Paul. The contents are less varied than 
those of the First Epistle, but the changes from 
one subject to another are very abrupt. After 
the usual salutation and thanksgiving (1 : 1-11), 



he discusses the news brought by Titus (1 : 12- 
7: 16), the collection for the churches in Judea 
(8: 1-9: 15); and his own apostolic authority (10: 
1-12 : 13). He ends with warning and blessing (12 : 
14-13:13). Love and thankfulness pervade the 
first half of the letter, indignation and severity 
the second. It is less eloquent than the First 
Epistle, but even more intense. 


Date.— The Epistle to the Galatians was writ- 
ten before that to the Romans, but probably after 
those to the Corinthians, while St. Paul was 
journeying through Macedonia to Greece late in 
a.d. 57. 

The Galatian Churches.— We are uncertain 
whether it is the churches in the Roman prov- 
ince of Galatia, which included part of Phrygia, 
Pisidia, and Lycaonia, or only those in Galatia 
proper, which are addressed by the apostle. The 
latter is the more probable alternative. In the 
Acts St. Luke seems to mean Galatia proper, and 
not the Roman province, when he mentions the 
country. Its inhabitants were a mixed people, 
with a strong Celtic element from its Gallic con- 
querors ; and in the want of stability, for which 
St. Paul rebukes them, some have seen an ex- 
ample of Celtic fickleness. We gather from 4: 13 
that St. Paul was detained among the Galatians 
by illness; and this led to their conversion. 

Occasion.— They received his preaching with 
enthusiasm, and became personally devoted to 
him. But after he left them some Judaizing 
teachers arrived, who affirmed that in order to 
be loyal Christians the Galatians must become 
loyal Jews and keep the Mosaic law ; and to this 
persistent dogmatism the Galatians succumbed. 
This burning appeal is the result. 

Characteristics.— The epistle is written rap- 
idly, under the influence of strong emotion, and 
sweeps all before it in its fervid proclamation of 
the freedom of the gospel as opposed to the bond- 
age of the law. As in II. Corinthians, Paul has 
to vindicate his claim to be an apostle. He has 
also to make clear that the Mosaic law, although 
divine in origin, is not binding upon Christians, 
because legal ordinances have been superseded by 
faith in Jesus Christ. Material which is roughly 
thrown together in this letter is worked up, to- 
gether with a great deal of additional matter, 
into an elaborate structure in the Epistle to the 
Romans. Here we have the first sketches, 
which were afterwards enlarged and arranged 
in the more careful composition, which was 
produced when the writer was less under 
the influence of pressure and strong emotion. 
The letter is remarkable in lacking the thanks- 
giving, which is an all but invariable feature in 
the Pauline Epistles. In his severity the apostle 
substitutes for the thanksgiving a statement of 
the Galatians' defection (1: 6-10). 

Summary.— We can trace three main divisions 
—personal, doctrinal, and hortatory. After the 
introduction (1 : 1-10), we have a vindication of 
his apostolic authority (1 : 11-2 : 21), and of the 
gospel as superseding the law (3:1-4: 31) ; thence 
we pass to a practical application of this doc- 
trine (5: 1-6: 10). The conclusion he writes with 
his own hand (6: 11-18). 


Date.— This epistle belongs to the group which 
is called "the epistles of the imprisonment" 
or "of the captivity," i.e., the first Roman im- 
prisonment, during which St. Paul wrote 
Philippians, Philemon, Colossians, and Ephe- 
sians. The letter was probably written and sent 
near to the close of the first Roman imprison- 
ment, about the year a.d. 63. 

Characteristics.— In all these letters he de- 
scribes himself as a prisoner (Phil. 1:13, 17; 
Phile. 1, 23; Col. 4: 10, 18; Eph. 3: 1; 4: 1). As 

we might expect from the fact of their being 
written almost at the same time, there is 
great resemblance between the letters to the 
Colossians and to the Ephesians. Out of the 
hundred and fifty-five verses in Ephesians, 
seventy-eight contain expressions identical with 
those in Colossians. But the two epistles, 
although similar, are not the same. In Colos- 
sians the glory of Christ as head of the universe 
and of the church is magnified. In Ephesians it 
is the catholicity of the church itself that is set 
forth as the outcome of the doctrine of adop- 
tion in Christ. In Colossians it is the glory of 
Christ that is emphasized; in Ephesians the 
work of the Spirit, for it is through the Spirit 
that the presence and energy of Christ is con- 
tinued in the church (1: 13; 2: 22; 4:3, 30; 5: 18* 

Occasion.— The fact that Tychicus was going 
from Rome to Colosste (Col. 4 : 7) was an oppor 
tunity of sending a letter not only to that city, 
but to other Christians in Asia (Eph. 6: 21). But 
there seems to have been no great crisis in the 
churches of Asia Minor calling for interference. 
In this respect the epistle is parallel to the 
Epistle to the Romans. There is little doubt 
that this magnificent epistle was originally a 
circular one, and that Ephesus was only one of 
the cities in the Roman province of Asia to 
which it was addressed. "The epistle from 
Laodicea" (Col. 4:16) probably refers to a copy of 
this circular letter to be left by Tychicus at 
Laodicea, on his way from Ephesus to Colossge. 

Style.— The language of the epistle is marked 
by an overflowing copiousness of expression, 
sometimes resulting in involved and prolonged 
constructions (1 : 3-14). The writer finds even 
the grand resources of the Greek language 
unequal to the task of conveying to others 
the flood of heavenly thoughts which spring up 
within him as his mind soars from his prison in 
Rome to the throne of God ; this is specially the 
case in the first chapter. 

Contents.— The epistle expounds the concep- 
tion of the ideal church and draws practical 
conclusions from it. The church is the body of 
Christ, and the fullness of Him that fllleth all in 
all (1 : 23; 4 : 12-16) ; the holy temple of God (2 : 20- 
22) ; and the spotless spouse of Christ (5 : 25-28). 
As the fullness of the Godhead resides in Christ, 
so the fullness of Christ resides in his church. 
This ideal church is in process of being realized. 
The actual church has many defects and blem- 
ishes. But "the measure of the stature of the 
fulness of Christ" will be reached at last (4: 13); 
and it is the duty of each individual member to 
work towards this end, especially through 
the Christian family, which is a symbol and 
likeness of the church. The usual salutation 
(1 : 1,2) and thanksgiving (1 : 3-14) are followed by 
a corresponding intercession (1: 15-2: 10) and a 
contrast between unconverted and converted 
Gentiles (2: 11-22). The apostle's special interest 
in the conversion of the Gentiles (3:1-21) leads 
up to exhortations respecting the unity of the 
catholic church and the duties of its members 
(4 : 1-6 : 20) ; after which comes a personal expla- 
nation, and the concluding benediction (6 : 21-24). 


The Philippian Church.— Philippi, founded by 
Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, and 
immortalized by the battle which ended the 
Roman republic and ushered in the empire 
(B.C. 42), had been thereupon raised to the rank 
of a Roman military colony, and made a minia- 
ture likeness of Rome. Greeks, Roman officials, 
and colonists, and a small colony of Jews, who 
had a place of prayer by the river, formed the 
population. St. Paul's first visit to Philippi, in 
company with Silas, Timothy, and Luke, is nar- 
rated by Luke with exceptional detail in one of 
the "we" sections (Acts 16: 11-40). This was on 



the second missionary journe v, i n or near a.d. 52 
The three converts whom St. Luke mentions, 
and the order of their conversion, are typical: 
first, the proselyte purple-seller from Thvatira- 
next, the Greek slave girl with the spirit of 
divination; and lastly, the Roman jailer. No- 
where, m spite of very great persecution, was 
the apostle's success so great, and nowhere had 
he more loyal converts. They were the only 
congregation from which he accepted pecuniary 
help (4: 15), and that more than once. He was 
deeply attached to thorn as his "joy and crown," 
and visited them a second time towards the end 
of 57, and vet a third time on his return to Asia 
for the last journey to Jerusalem, in the spring 
of 68, when he stayed and kept Easter with them. 
They contributed, not only to his support, but 
to the relief of the poor Christians in Judea— a 
charitable work which St. Paul had very much 
at heart. 

Occasion and Date.— The letter is a sponta- 
neous expression of love and gratitude in return 
for the affectionate generosity of the Philip- 
pi ans, and is a beautiful reflection of the apos- 
tle's mind and character in its noblest and ten- 
derest moods. It was sent by Epaphroditus, 
who had brought help from the Philippians to 
their imprisoned master in Rome, at the cost of 
a severe illness, which almost proved fatal, and 
which left him rather homesick. St. Paul gen- 
erously seconded his desire to return home, and 
with him sent this affectionate letter (2: 25-30). 
It was probably the first of the group of letters 
written during the first Roman imprisonment. 
Contents.— The epistle to the Philippians is the 
only one of St. Paul's letters to the churches in 
which there is no word of rebuke or disappoint- 
ment. It overflows with Christian cheerfulness. 
"Rejoice in the Lord alway: again I will say 
Rejoice" (4: 4). Like the First Epistle to the 
Thessalonians, it approaches the character of a 
private letter as an exhibition of personal feel- 
ing; hence there is very little arrangement of 
topics: Salutation and thanksgiving (1: 1-11)- 
personal narrative (1: 12-26); exhortation to fol- 
low Christ (1: 27-2: 18); the missions of Timothy 
and Epaphroditus (2: 19-30); final charge, inter- 
rupted by a caution against those who debase 
the gospel (3:1-4: 1), and resumed (4: 2-9); grati- 
tude for their bounty (4: 10-20); greetings and 
blessing (4 : 21-23). He looks forward to visiting 
them again (2: 24); and it would seem that this 
hope was fulfilled in the interval between the 
two Roman imprisonments (I. Tim. 1:3); but in 
the New Testament we are told no more about 


The Epistle and Its Date.-This epistle is the con- 
necting link between Ephesians and Philemon. 
The letters to the Ephesians and the Colossians 
were both entrusted to Tychicus, and they have 
a great deal of common material. Those to the 
Colossians and to Philemon mention almost ex- 
actly the same group of persons. The devotion 
of Epaphras had caused him to be kept in Rome 
as a fellow-prisoner with St. Paul (Phile. 23V 
and therefore not he, but Tychicus, is entrusted 
with the letter, and Tychicus is accompanied by 
Onesimus, who bears the letter to Philemon (4- 
7-9). The probable date is a.d. 63, shortly before 
the apostle's release from the first of the two 
Roman imprisonments. 

The Colossian Church. — Colossse had been a 
great city, but it had very much declined, and 
was now the smallest of the three neighbor cities 
in the valley of the Lycus; for Laodicea and 
Hierapolis were still prosperous. It was the most 
insignificant of the churches which have been 
honored by receiving a letter from St. Paul, and it 
is scarcely mentioned in later times. Neither in 
this epistle nor in the Acts is there any evidence 
that the apostle ever visited the Colossians. He 
has "heard of their faith" (1: 4, 9), and implies 

that they "have not seen his face in the 
flesh " (2: 1). It was the Colossian Epaphras who 
preached Christ at Colossse, Laodicea, and Hie- 
rapolis, being aided at ( tolossse by Philemon, and 
at Laodicea by Nymphas (1-7; 4:12-15): and it- 
was the report, brought by Epaphras to Rome, 
of the dangerous heresy that was spreading in 
Colossse, which moved the apostle to write. This 
heresy was a mixture of Oriental dualism with 
Jewish formalism. 

Contents.— St. Paul meets the erroneous doc- 
trine taught at Colossse by insisting that Christ 
is the one mediator between (rod and man. It is 
io ; iindnotany series of angelic beings, that 
bridges the chasm between the supreme God and 
the universe, between the Creator and the crea- 
ture. And St. Paul meets the erroneous method 
?,t c .°l n J? a l mg evil by pointing out that it is in 
Christ that sanctification is to be gained, by puri- 
f^ng the heart, and not by external observances. 

Christ is all and in ail," is the main theme of 
the epistle, which is written with less finish 
than most of St. Paul's letters, but with all his 
characteristic force. After the customary salu- 
tation and thanksgiving (1: 1-8) he protests his 
intense interest in the Colossians (1 : 9-29), which 
leads on to warning against errors (2: 1-3:4) and 
exhortation to Christian duties as husbands, 
fathers, wives, mothers, children, masters, and 
servants (3: 5-4: 6). Personal explanations and 
salutations bring the letter to a close (4 : 7-18). 


Date.--These two epistles to the Thessalonians 
form the earliest group among the letters of St. 
Paul ; and the first of them is probably the earliest 
Christian document that has come down to us 
The only book that is at all likely to be earlier is 
the Epistle of St. James, and that was probably 
written eight or nine years later. The apostle 
wrote the First Epistle from Corinth, in the 
names of himself, Silas, and Timothy, late in 52 
or early in 53. The letter bears strong marks of 
its very early date. It was written at a time 
when it was expected that most Christians 
would live to see Christ's return, and when it 
was feared that those who died before he came 
might lose some of the blessings of his comin^ 
The apostle corrects the latter mistake, but ap- 
pears to share the former (4 : 13-18) ; this is a 
strong mark of genuineness; for no one writing 
after St. Paul's death would have attributed to 
him a belief which experience had proved to be 
erroneous. Evidently, when the letter was 
written, not many Christians had died. After 
many had passed away without witnessing the 
return this erroneous expectation perished. 

The Church.— Thessalonica was a prosperous 
city on the Thermaic Gulf, the capital of Mace- 
donia Secunda, and seat of a Roman proconsul 
Many Jews had settled there for the sake of its 
commercial advantages. St. Paul founded the 
church there on his second missionary journey 
in company with Silas, about a.d. 52. He 
preached in the synagogue and converted some 
Jews and many proselytes. Jewish hostility 
was so great that after three weeks he ceased to 
preach in the synagogue; then many Gentiles 
were won over. Jewish persecution became so 
intense that he was obliged to leave the city 
but his implacable enemies followed him to 
Berea, and made that place also unsafe for him. 
His friends sent him away to Athens, where he 
waited for Silas and Timothy, who had re- 
mained behind at Berea (Acts 17) ; and they ulti- 
mately joined him at Corinth (18:5). But it 
seems that Timothy joined the apostle at Ath- 
ens, as previously arranged (18: 15)> and thence 
returned to Thessalonica, before rejoining Paul 
at Corinth (I. Thes. 3: 1, 2) with a report of the 
mistaken ideas that had arisen. 

Contents.— I. Thessalonians shows us a voung 
church which had embraced the faith with en- 



thusiasm, but is not yet free from heathen vices, 
and is moreover much excited about questions 
respecting the end of the world, which tended 
to promote idleness and gossip. It is the least 
dogmatic of St. Paul's epistles, yet it clearly 
teaches the following important doctrines : that 
Christ is one with the Father (1:1; 3:11); is our 
Redeemer and Saviour (1: 11; 5: 9, 10); is the 
Lord (2: 15; 4: 16) and our Lord (2: 19; 5: 23), who 
is coming again from heaven (4: 14-18). After 
the salutations and thanksgiving (ch. 1), we have 
two main divisions : declarations of affection and 
satisfaction (2 : 1-3 : 13) ; advice and comfort, be- 
cause of the triumph in the resurrection (4: 1- 
5: 22). In the conclusion (5: 23-28), the direction 
that the epistle is to be read to all the brethren, 
and not retained by a select few, is quite in 
place in the first letter written by the apostle to 
a Christian church. 


Date.— The Second Epistle was written before 
a.d. 58, but how long after the First Epistle cannot 
be determined; probably a number of months. 
Silvanus and Timothy are still with St. Paul 
(1: 1), and that perhaps points to his being still 
at Corinth. But the precaution against forged 
letters (4: 17), by means of which the Thessalo- 
nians seem to have been deceived (2: 2), appears 
to imply that they have received more than one 
genuine letter from the apostle. 

Contents.— In I. Thes. 4: 15 St. Paul expects 
that he and most Christians will live to see the 
second advent. In II. Thes. 2: 2, 3 he points out 
that "the man of sin" must come first, whom 
the Lord shall " bring to nought by the manifes- 
tation of his coming " (2 : 8, R. V.). This is quite 
consistent with the belief that most Christians 
will live to see the coming both of " the man of 
sin" and also of the Lord. The main divisions 
of the epistle are marked by the chapters. Sal- 
utation and thanksgiving (ch. 1) ; warning about 
the date of the advent (ch. 2); exhortation to 
prayer and work (3 : 1-15), with benediction (v. 16) 
and autograph conclusion (vs. 17, 18). 



The Name, " Pastoral."— This title could not be 
improved. It expresses the chief characteristic 
of this last group of the Pauline Epistles; but it 
might easily mislead, for the letters, especially 
II. Timothy, are by no means wholly pastoral. 
They are suitably placed, although out of the 
chronological order, between the other epistles 
of St. Paul and that to Philemon. Like Phile- 
mon, they are personal; like the others, they 
treat of church practice, doctrine, and govern- 
ment, rather than of personal topics. Yet these 
church questions are treated, not (as in other 
epistles) from the point of view of the congrega- 
tion, but from that of the minister. 

The Dates.— The dates can only be approxi- 
mately fixed. Titus and I. Timothy were written 
after St. Paul's release from the first Roman 
imprisonment, and II. Timothy was written 
during the second Roman imprisonment, short- 
ly before the apostle's martyrdom in a.d. 67 or 
68. Titus may have been written before I. Tim- 
othy, but it is impossible to find a place for the 
whole group— so evidently connected with one 
another, and so distinct from the preceding 
group— inside the period covered by the Acts. 


Author.— Timothy would be barely thirty-five 
years of age when Paul, who was nearly twice as 
old, wrote the First Epistle to him. He had 
been converted as a lad by the apostle at Lystra, 
about a.d. 45, and was the most trusted of all 

his disciples, his "beloved and faithful child." 
He was with Paul during his imprisonment in 
Rome (Phil. 1: 1; 2: 19; Col. 1: 1). 

Occasion and Date.— After Paul's release, Tim- 
othy had been left by him in Ephesus to check 
erroneous doctrine, while Paul went on to Mac- 
edonia (1: 3-7) to visit his loved Philippians 
(Phil. 2 : 24). Not knowing when he may return 
(3 : 14, 15), the apostle writes to instruct Timothy 
about a variety of matters. This was probably 
about 65. 

Summary.— The subjects are taken just as they 
occur to the writer, in an easy manner, which 
is perfectly natural in a genuine letter, but 
which a forger, writing to promote his own 
views, could not readily have assumed. We have 
the eminently Pauline salutation (1: 1, 2) and 
thanksgiving (1: 12-17) at the outset. Then the 
subjects of public worship (ch. 2), officers of the 
church (ch. 3), false teachers and asceticism 
(ch. 4), widows and elders (ch. 5), slaves, false 
teachers, and covetousness, (6: 1-19) are dis- 
cussed; and the letter closes with, a charge and 
a benediction (6: 20, 21). 


Date.— The Second Epistle to Timothy was 
written from the prison in Rome, near the close 
of the second imprisonment, a.d. 67 or 68, after 
Paul alone and unaided had defended himself, 
and had been "delivered out of the mouth of 
the lion." It was written in the conviction that 
the end was near at hand. 

Occasion.— The immediate motive of the letter 
is the desire to see Timothy, a desire so urgent 
that it is expressed four times (1:4; 4: 9, ll, 21). 
But the writer takes the opportunity of express- 
ing a great deal more than this personal wish. 

Contents.— The apostle sends his last instruc- 
tions to his disciple and delegate, and to all 
future ministers in the church. In its strange 
mixture of depression and gladness it reminds 
us of II. Corinthians. Death, which will free 
him from bonds, toil, and anxiety, and bring 
him home to Christ, will take him from the 
churches which sorely need him, and from the 
friends who love him and lean on him; dark 
days are coming, and even love is waxing cold; 
hence the urgent appeals all through the letter 
to be firm and courageous (1 : 6-14 ; 2 : 1-13 ; 3 : 14 ; 
4: 1-5). The conduct of Timothy occupies about 
one-third of the epistle, the second main sub- 
ject being the present and future condition of 
the church (2: 14-3: 17). Towards the close the 
apostle speaks of himself (4: 6-21). Like the 
First Epistle, the letter has the thoroughly 
Pauline salutation (1: 1, 2), thanksgiving (1:3-5), 
and benediction (4 : 22) ; which last contains the 
last recorded words of the apostle of the Gen- 
tiles. Of Timothy we are told nothing further 
in the New Testament, excepting his release 
from some imprisonment, about which we have 
no details (Heb. 13:23). 


Author.— Titus, like Timothy, was converted by 
St. Paul; unlike Timothy, he was a Gentile. He 
was probably the bearer of I. Corinthians, and 
certainly the bearer of II. Corinthians, a.d. 57. 
Paul writes of him to the Galatians as a person 
well known to them (2 : 1), but we do not know 
when he was in that country. Apparently he 
was not one of the apostle's constant compan- 
ions, but worked more or less independently. 
We have no certain knowledge of him until the 
epistle to him reveals him as the delegate of the 
apostle in Crete, where St. Paul had left him 
some time before, perhaps in a.d. 65. When 
II. Timothy was written a year or two later 
(66 or 67), Titus had been with Paul in Rome 
during his second imprisonment there, but had 
left him to go into Dalmatia. Whether the 



plan of meeting In Nicopolis, during the winter 
alter the writing of the letter to Titus (3: L2), was 
carried ou1 or not, we do riot know. On the 
journey from Rome to Dalmatia we losesighl of 
tltus, He was one of sr. Paul's most trusted 
disciples, and apparently was a stronger man 
than Timothy. The apostle seems to be Jess 
anxious about him. 

Object and Contents.— The main object of the 
letter istoinsl met Titus how to canyon the work 
which Paul had left so incomplete, especially 
in organising a regular ministry by the appoint- 
ment of elders, and in combat Lug false teachers. 
In this, the Letter closely resembles I. Timothy, 
which was written about t he same time. Like 
both the Letters to Timothy, it has little or no 
arrangement Subjects are treated as they come 
to the writer's mind, in a natural but not a 
systematic order. The rather long and solemn 
salutation (1:1-1) is followed by a discussion 
of the needs of the Cretan church (1:5-3:11); 
after which we have personal details and con- 
clusion (o: 12-15). Great stress is laid upon so- 
briety in conduct and religion. 



Character.— This exquisite relic stands alone 
among the writings of St. Paul, and almost 
alone in the Bible. It is a private letter from 
an apostle to a private individual. The pastoral 
epistles are addressed to individuals, but they 
are not private. They are partly official, being 
written to persons who hold office in the 
church, and are to be read by others besides 
Titus and Timothy. The letter to Philemon 
is entirely domestic. St. Paul may have written 
many such letters in the course of his long 
ministry, but this is the only one of which 
we have any knowledge; and, short as it is, it 
reveals the apostle to us in a new, but not unex- 
pected character, as the perfect Christian gentle- 
man, with all a gentleman's courtesy and deli- 
cacy of feeling. 

Date.— It was written at the same time as the 
epistles to the Ephesians and the Colossians (a.d. 
63); and Onesimus, the bearer of it, was accom- 
panied by Tychicus, who had charge of the two 
longer epistles. 

Occasion.— Philemon of Colossal had been con- 
verted by St. Paul. Apphia was probably his 
wife, and Archippus possibly his son (v. 2). 
Onesimus, his slave, had robbed him and fled to 
Rome, the common hiding-place of countless 
criminals. His name means "profitable," and 
hence the play on words (v. 11). While he 
was in Home he came in contact with St. Paul, 
who converted him and became deeply attached 
to him. But at great personal sacrifice he re- 
stored him to his master, whom he begs to wel- 
come the former slave and thief as now a 
brother and the apostle's child. Neither here 
nor in other epistles in which he treats of 
slaves and their masters does St. Paul order or 
even recommend emancipation. But he enjoins 
a treatment of slaves which would render 
emancipation either inevitable or unnecessary. 
1 f a slave is treated as a beloved brother, slavery 
has become an empty form. Of the effect of 
this letter we have no certain knowledge; but 
we need not doubt that Onesimus was forgiven 
and kindly received. 


For Whom Written— The title " To Hebrews " 
is very ancient, but is probably not original. 
The addition of " The Epistle "describes the writ- 
ing fairly well; but until near the end of it, it is 
more of an essay than a letter. The writer him- 
self calls it a" word of exhortation "(18: 22). The 
unsupported statement of Clement of Alexan- 
dria (c. a.j). 200) that it was originally "written 

m the Hebrew language (ie., the later Aramaic) I 

and translated by Luke," is contradicted by the 
vocabulary and stvle of the treatise, which is 

written in pure and unfettered Greek, The 
numerous quotations from the Old Testament 
are all of them, excepting that in 10:30, taken 
from the Septuagint, even when the Septuagint 
differs from the Hebrew. The writing is not 
addressed to Hebrews generally, but to some 
definite community of Hebrew Christians in 
which there were few or no Gentiles. Probably 
it is the Christians at .Jerusalem, or at some 
other place in Palestine, that ought to be regard- 
ed as the first recipients of the treatise. It was | 
here that the temptation to apostatize and go 
back to Judaism was specially great; and the 
writer again and again warns his readers against 
this danger as one of a really awful character 
(2: 1-4; 3: 6, 14; 4: 1, 14; 6: 1-8; 10: 23,26r31: 12: 13, 16, 

Date and Place.— The epistle was certainly 
written before the destruction of Jerusalem (a. 
d. 70); and 12: 4 suggests that neither the Nero- 
nian persecution nor the nianvrdom of James 
the Just had taken place. Jf so, the treatise can- 
not be later than a.d. (52. 

The place from which he wrote is quite uncer- 
tain. "They of Italy salute you" (13:24) may 
mean, either that people in Italy send greetings 
to the recipients of the epistle, or that people 
from Italy, i.e., Italians who are away from their 
home, send greetings. 

Authorship.— The chief question regarding this 
epistle is the author, about whom we must 
still confess, as Origen did more than sixteen 
centuries ago, "Who wrote the epistle, God 
alone knows." In the earliest Greek MSS. it is 
placed among the epistles of St. Paul. The 
Syriac, later Greek, and Latin MSS, place it 
where we have it, as an appendix to the Pauline 
collection. The different portions of the church 
were not agreed regarding it. St. Paul, St. Luke. 
Apollos, and Barnabas have all been accredited 
with the authorship. 

Two things are certain: The writer was not 
St. Paul, who did not have the gospel "con- 
firmed unto him by them that heard " (2: 3), but 
by Jesus Christ himself (Gal. 1:1); and the writer 
was under strong Pauline influence, as the whole 
treatise shows. Several other things are proba- 
ble. The writer was a born Jew; a Hellenist, 
well versed in the Septuagint and in the Alex- 
andrian type of Jewish theology; a companion 
of Paul and a friend of Timothy, but working 
independently of the apostle; a person with a 
keen interest in the Hebrews of Palestine. As 
it is possible to place Barnabas among those who 
received the gospel from "them that heard," the 
very early African tradition that he is the author 
may be true. About author, place, and exact 
date of the epistle we must be content to remain 
in uncertainty. However, its apostolic power 
and inspiration, and its right to a place in com- 
pany with the writings of apostles, are indis- 

Summary.— There is no Pauline salutation or 
thanksgiving; the writer goes direct to his main 
thesis: The finality of the revelation made by 
the Son, who is superior to the angels (ens. 1, 2); 
Moses and Joshua, the founders of the old dis- 
pensation, Jesus the founder of the new (ohsi 
3,4): the universal and absolute high-priesthood 
of Christ (chs. 5-7); Christ's priesthood the ful- 
fillment of Jewish expectations (8 : 1-10: 18); ex- 
hortations to use their privileges, to remember 
the triumphs of the faith, and to profit by the 
lessons of the past (10: 19-12: 17); personal in- 
structions and conclusion (13: 18-25). 


St. James and the six writings which follow it 
constitute the group known as "The Catholic 
Epistles." They are called " Catholic," or " Gen- 



era!," because they are not addressed to any 

particular church, but to a wide circle of read- 
ers. St. Paul had written to seven churches— 
Thessalonica, Corinth, Galatia, Rome, Philippi, 
Colossi, Ephesus; and here we have seven 
epistles without address to any particular 
ehurch; therefore, they may be called "Gen- 
eral," or "IJatholic." This group was anciently 
placed immediately after the Acts, a place 
which suits their character very well; and in 
the group itself the Epistle of St. James has 
almost always stood first. 


Author.— There is scarcely any doubt that the 
writer was James the Just, the brother of th-^. 
Lord and the first overseer of the church oi 
Jerusalem. As such he had very great influence, 
and was regarded as of apostolic rank. But the 
fact that he was not one of the Twelve explains 
the ignorance respecting the existence of his 
epistle which prevailed in the early church, es- 
pecially in the West. It was mainly in the East, 
and among Jews and Jewish Christians, that 
James the Just was so revered. As the brother 
of the Lord he had been much in the society of 
Christ before he had learned to believe on him; 
and this accounts for the numerous reminis- 
cences of Christ's wwds which we rind in his 
epistle, and which seem to be independent of 
the reports of his words contained in the Gospels. 

Date.— James was put to death in a.d. 62 or 63, 
and therefore his letter cannot be placed later 
than that date, at which time possibly none of 
our Gospels Avere in circulation. It may, how- 
ever, have been written fourteen or fifteen years 
earlier than 62; and in that case would not only 
be earlier than any of our Gospels, but would 
be the earliest book in the New Testament. But 
a later date is more probable. 

Character.— The letter is addressed to the 
Christian Jews of the Dispersion, i.e., the Jews 
outside Palestine, especially in Syria and Egypt. 
Here and there perhaps the writer turns aside 
and addresses unconverted Jews (4: 1-4; 5: 1-6); 
but the letter as a whole is addressed to humble 
and suffering communities of Jewish Christians. 
There are striking parallels between this epistle 
and that to the Romans (Jas. 1: 3, 22; 4:1, and 
Rom. 5: 3; 2: 13; 7: 23); and also between this and 
I.Peter (As. 1: 2, 3, 10, 11; 4: 6; 5: 20, and I. Pet. 1: 
6, 7, 24; 5: 5; 4: 8). In neither case can we be sure 
which is the earlier writing. 

Summary.— The letter has no plan, and scarce- 
ly admits of analysis. It begins and ends with 
exhortations to patience and practical piety (1 : 
2-27; 5: 7-20), while the central portion (2: 1-5: 6) 
is largely taken up with rebukes. " Deeds, not 
words " is the theme all through. The readers are 
warned against barren orthodoxy, deadly covet- 
ousness, and presumptuous worldliness, and are 
comforted under present and threatening temp- 
tations and sufferings. The famous passage on 
faith and works (2: 14-26) is written without any 
reference to the teaching of St. Paul. St. Paul 
contrasts works of the law with faith in Jesus 
Christ. St. James says nothing about either the 
law or Jesus Christ, and contrasts works of mercy 
with the mere belief that there is a God. 


Author, Date, and Place.— Excepting the four 
great epistles of St. Paul, there is no book in 
the New Testament of which the authorship is 
better attested than the First Epistle of St. 
Peter. The questions open to doubt are when 
and where he wrote it. Peter remained in the 
East after his release from prison at Jerusalem 
(Acts 15: 7), and at Antioch (Gal. 2: 11). It is pos- 
sible rather than probable that he visited Cor- 
inth (I. Cor. 1 : 12). Of a visit to Italy there is no 
trace. When St. Paul wrote to the Romans, a.d. 
58, no apostle had as yet visited Rome (Rom. 1 : 

11-15; 15: 20-21). If such an apostle as Peter had 
preached there, Paul could not have written 
thus. The "fiery trial " which awaits the read- 
ers of I. Peter (4: 12) seems to point to the perse- 
cution under Nero. If this is correct, we must 
place the epistle either in or after a.d. 61, a date 
which fully explains the writer's acquaintance 
with Romans, Ephesians, and St. James. The 
letter itself indicates where it was written. " She 
that is in Babylon, elect together with you, sa- 
luteth you; and so doth.Marcus my son" (5: 13). 
It is scarcely doubtful that this means the 
church of Rome. Babylon had long been a 
name for Rome among the Jews; and such a 
name would have special point during the Nero- 
nian persecution. 

Motive.— The address of the letter is figurative, 
as Babylon is figurative. The letter is written 
" to the elect who are sojourners of the Dispersion 
in Pontus, Galatia," etc. This probably means 
those Christians who had fled from Nero's perse- 
cution and taken refuge in Asia Minor. The 
chief motive of the letter is to inspire patience 
and hope amid tribulation and persecution, and 
steadfastness under temptation. It beautifully 
illustrates the special mission of Peter to feed 
the flock of Christ, in supplying Christians 
through all ages with spiritual sustenance and 
refreshment, especially in times of trial. 

Contents.— There are (1) an exhortation to per- 
severance under persecution (1: 1-2: 10); (2) admo- 
nitions to discharge of particular duties (2 : 11- 
3: 13): (3) the enforcement, by the example of 
Christ, of duties of patience and holiness (3: 11- 
4: 19); directions for officers of the church and 
members, with salutations (5: 1-14). 


Authorship.— The authorship of the Second 
Epistle is one of the most perplexing problems 
in New Testament criticism. The writer of the 
Epistle to the Hebrews veils his personality. 
The writer of II. Peter seems to give every op- 
portunity of identification. He is "Symeon 
Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ " (1 : 1), whose 
death Christ foretold (1 : 14), who was present at 
the transfiguration (1 : 18), and was the author 
of I. Peter (3: 1). The difficulties of admitting 
the writer's claim to be the chief of the apostles 
are serious; but the difficulties of rejecting it 
are not less serious. "In style and diction it is 
very unlike I. Peter." But most of these diffi- 
culties were known in the fourth century, when 
evidence which is no longer available was in ex- 
istence; and in spite of them the epistle was 
finally accepted as apostolic. 

Date and Address.— It was probably written 
shortly before the apostle's death, and therefore 
probably in Rome. It is addressed to all Chris- 
tians (1: 1), but especially to the recipients of 
the First Epistle (3: 1). 

Contents.— There are striking resemblances be- 
tween II. Peter and I. Peter, and between II. 
Peter and the speeches of St. Peter as reported 
in the Acts. In I. Peter there are borrowings 
from St. Paul and from St. James ; and it need 
not startle us if in II. Peter we find borrowings 
from St. Jude. The letter begins and ends in 
exhortations to grow in grace and knowledge 
(1: 3-21; 3: 14-18), the central portion being occu- 
pied with warnings and predictions regarding 
the certainty of the punishment of the impeni- 
tent, and of the future judgment (2: 1-3: 13), 
which are the main object of the epistle. 


Author and Date.— It is admitted on all sides 
that I. John is by the author of the fourth Gos- 
pel, and that testimony to either book may be 
accepted as testimony to the other. The epistle 
was no doubt written at Ephesus, where St. 
John spent most of the last thirty years of his 
life ; and it was probably written a.d. 85-95. 



Characteristics.— The epistle is rightly called 
catholic, or general, as being addressed to the 
church at large. St, John may have had the 
Christians of Asia Minor specially in view when 
he wrote, but he does not specially address 
them, and the writing is more like a homily 
than a letter. It is a companion to the fourth 
Gospel, the thoughts and words of which it fre- 
quently reproduces. It refers to the Gospel, and 
comments on it repeatedly, with a view to com 
firming and enforcing it. The Gospel is histor- 
ical, and only indirectly controversial ; the epis- 
tle is moral and practical, and sometimes is in- 
tentionally polemical. The one exhibits the per- 
son of the Christ; the other sets forth the duty 
of the Christian, who will often have to oppose 
error. It is the final utterance of "the glorious 
company of the apostles" to Christendom. It 
soars above the other epistles and consummates 
them. It breathes an atmosphere in which the 
agitation caused by minor collisions is not felt, 
and every other opposition is merged in the 
great conflict between light and darkness, truth 
and falsehood, love and hate, righteousness and 
sin, life and death. 

Contents.— The epistle is much harder to ana- 
lyze than the Gospel. The divisions melt into 
one another so that the transitions are scarcely 
perceptible. There is an introduction (1: 1-4) and 
a conclusion (5: 13-21). What lies between falls 
into two main divisions, the first of which (1:5- 
2:28) is influenced by the thought "God is light " 
the second (2: 29-5: 12) by the thought "God is 
^L e '" Itls Possible to subdivide these; but it is 
difficult to say where each section begins and 
ends, and also to state satisfactorily the exact 
subject of each. 


Author and Date. — It is generally admitted 
that the Second and Third Epistles are by the 
same hand. "The elder" who wrote these re- 
produces the style of St. John with such mar- 
velous felicity that it is reasonable to believe 
that they, as well as the First Epistle and the 
Gospel, arc by the apostle. This letter was no 
doubt written from Ephesus during about the 
same period of St. John's life as the First Epistle. 

Contents.— The First Epistle is certainly ad- 
dressed to the church universal, the third 
equally certainly to an individual man; the sec- 
ond may be addressed either to a local church or 
to an individual woman. The latter alternative 
is the more probable, owing to the great simi- 
larity between the Second and Third epistles. 
But when we have decided that the "elect 
i?i dy . „ (or the " el ect Kyria," or the "lady 
Electa ") is an actual person rather than a fig- 
urative name for a particular church, we must 
be content to know no more about her than the 
letter itself reveals. Like Philemon, II. and 
111. John are precious examples of the private 
correspondence of an apostle, the one being ad- 
dressed to a Christian lady, the other to a Chris- 
tian gentleman. In the former the apostle 
states that he has seen some of the lady's 
children, who, to his great joy, are leading 
Christian lives. But there are others of hei 
children of whom this could not be said; and 
this painful fact makes him write to her before 
coming to visit her. Has she been indiscreet in 
exposing them to unsound teaching? Hospi- 
tality and benevolence ought not to be exercis- 
evii n S a Way aS t0 further tne success of 

Date and Place. -The Third Epistle was written 
probably about the same time as the other two. 
and from the same place. It is addressed to 
Gaius, who seems to be a well-to-do layman. 

Cnaracteristics.-Like that to Philemon this 
epistle has importance far beyond its length. 
It professes to be written by a person of great 

authority, who speaks of opposition to himself 
as "prating against us with wicked words," and 
as conduct which cannot be passed over. The 
letter is mainly a narration of facts, which un- 
designedly throw valuable light upon the con- 
dition of the churches of Asia, and reveal a 
state of things quite in harmony with what we 
learn elsewhere, showing us episcopacy alreadv 
in existence in a congregation which may easily 
have been founded thirty years previously by 
St.Paul or one of his disciples. All three of the 
epistles differ in one particular from both the 
fourth Gospel and the Revelation ; thev contain 
no quotations from the Old Testament. 

contents.— He is commended for his hospital- 
ity is warned not to imitate the intolerance of 
Diotrephes, and is told by way of contrast of 
the excellence of Demetrius, who is perhaps the 
bearer of the letter. The two contrasted char- 

• + u r{ L are sketched in a few masterly touches 
with the same skill that is exhibited so often in 
the fourth Gospel. The hospitality which Gaius 
practiced and which Diotrephes forbade on 
pain of excommunication, was general in the 
primitive church (Rom. 12: 13; I. Tim. 3: 2; 5: 10; 
Tit . 1:8; Heb. 13:2; I. Pet. 4:9); and at a very 
early date it began to be abused. The "Teach- 
ing of the Twelve Apostles," which is perhaps 
not much later in date than this epistle, rules 
that any teacher who stays more than two days 
with his entertainer, or asks for money when 
he departs, is a false prophet (11:5, 0) ; and an or- 
^ m ^ rv wayfarer is not to exceed three days 


Author.— The last of the Catholic, or General, 
Epistles is not written by "Judas (not iscariot)" 
(John 14: 22), otherwise called Thadda-us, and 
perhaps Lebbseus (Matt. 10: 3; Mark 3: 18) who 
was thesonof James (Luke 6: 16; Acts 1: 13 ; but 
as the letter itself states, by Judas the "brother 
°I James," i. e., the Lord's brother. The writer 
of this epistle is the brother of the writer of the 
Epistle of James; and both of them were 
brethren of the Lord. Religious feeling would 
deter them from stating this; and they knew 
that to be the "servant of Jesus Christ" was 
much more than being his actual brother 
(Luke 11:27, 28). There had been a time when 
they had been the latter, and yet had refused to 
become the former (John 7:5). The writer of 
the letter is evidently a Jewish Christian, who 
while addressing all that are called, has Jewish 

^ r i s + l iar } s .f hieny in his mind - Jt is possible 
that the letter was written about a.d. 66, from 
Jerusalem, though nothing is really known of 
the date and place. 

Object— As to its object, the letter itself in- 
forms us that, while St. Jude was intending to 
write a more comprehensive epistle, the en- 
trance of ungodly men into the church caused 
him to write at once about the crisis which this 
disastrous invasion produced. All Christians 
must forthwith be urged to be unflinching in 
their defense of the truth against errors so 
monstrous and destructive as the libertinism 
which these intruders preached and practiced. 

Summary. -(1) Salutation and reason; (vs 1-4)- 
(2) historical argument regarding punishment 
and its application (vs. 5-10) ; (3) description of the 
evil-doers, and applications of prophecy (vs 
11-19) ; (4) exhortation (vs. 20-23) ; (5) benediction 
and praise (vs. 24, 25). 


Authorship and Date. — Excepting I. Corin- 
thians, no book in the New Testament is quoted 
with the author's name earlier than the Revela- 
tion. Justin Martyr in his Dialogue withTrypho 
the Jew (c.a.d. 140) says, "There was with us a man 



named John, one of the apostles of Christ, who 
in the revelation made to him"— and then he 
gives the substance of Rev. 20: 3-6, very much 
abbreviated ( Try., 81). The book itself nowhere 
expressly claims to be written by the apostle. 
There are some very striking similarities to 
John's Gospel, as well as great differences, but 
the similarities are mainly in details, while the 
differences lie in the general character of the 
books. There are many scholars who hold 
that only in one way is it credible that the 
same person wrote both books, viz. : if the Rev- 
elation was. written first, and a good many years 
elapsed before the Gospel was written. In fif- 
teen or twenty years the rugged Greek of the 
Apocalypse might have been improved into 
the smooth Greek of the Gospel and Epistles, 
and other very considerable changes of style 
might have taken place. At Ephesus St. John 
would be constantly speaking Greek and rarely 
speaking Aramaic, and he would be in contact 
with persons who would influence his style. 
But Irenseus, who was the disciple of Polycarp, 
the disciple of the apostle John, tells us that 
the vision of the Revelation " was seen at the end 
of the reign of Domitian " (a.d. 95 or 96). As St. 
John died early in the reign of Trajan (a.d. 98-100), 
at the age of about a hundred, there is no possi- 
bility of finding the necessary interval between 
the Revelation and the Gospel, if Irenseus is cor- 
rect ; and it is unlikely that St. John wrote any- 
thing when he was nearly a hundred years of 
age. But Irenseus may have been mistaken. 
The apostle may have been exiled when Domi- 
tian was city prsetor after the downfall of Vitel- 
lius (a.d. 69) ; and Irenseus, knowing that Domi- 
tian was connected with the exile, may have 
assumed that it took place when Domitian was 
emperor. When this early date (a.d. 68-70) for 
the Apocalypse is admitted, the apostolic author- 
ship follows almost as a necessity. The place 
where the vision was written down was proba- 
bly Patmos; but what was seen on the island 
may have been recorded after it was left. The 
point is unimportant, for it throws no light on 
the difficulties. 

Characteristics.— Although several books of 
the New Testament were probably written 
after the Revelation, yet its position at the end 
of the series is appropriate. It is the one pro- 
phetic book in the New Testament, which it 
closes. It gathers up preceding prophecies re- 
specting the coming of the Messiah and the 
kingdom of heaven upon earth, and translates 
them into anticipations of the new advent, the 
new heavens, and the new earth. Its main 
theme is, " I come quickly "; and its object is to 
awaken in the believer the response, " Amen : 
come, Lord Jesus." This it does by confirming 
his faith under great tribulation, and by show- 
ing that the church, while in conflict with evil 
and enduring much suffering, is ever winning 
victories, and will absolutely triumph at last. 
The first three chapters of the book, and the 
last two, are comparatively easy to understand, 
and are full of instruction and encouragement 
to the simplest Christian. But the intermedi- 

ate chapters are full of dark visions, the exact 
meaning of which we are not likely to discover 
until the Lord comes. They are allegories and 
parables, for the interpretation of which we 
at present lack the means. But even in this 
obscure portion of the book there are occa- 
sional passages of very great beauty and com- 
parative clearness. 

Interpretations.— There are three schools of 
interpreters, the Prseterist, the Continuous, and 
the Futurist. The Prseterists consider that the 
prophecies refer to events which are now past, 
and especially the overthrow of Jerusalem and 
of heathen Rome. The Continuous, or Historical, 
interpeters regard the book as a series of 
prophecies which have always been, and con- 
tinue to be, in course of fulfillment. Some of its 
predictions have already been verified, others 
are in process of being so, while others again are 
as ye,t wholly unfulfilled. The results reached 
by this method differ enormously in details, e.g., 
as to whether the millennium is past or future, 
and what is the meaning of the number of the 
beast. The Futurists place the fulfillment of 
the whole series of predictions immediately be- 
fore or after the second coming of Christ. 

Summary.— Like the fourth Gospel, the Revela- 
tion has a prologue and an epilogue, between 
which (1: 19; 22: 5) the Revelation proper lies. 
This consists of seven visions, in which the 
symbolical numbers, three, four, seven, and 
twelve, are frequent. There are occasional 
interludes between the parts: (1) The vision 
of the throne of God and of the Lamb (chs. 4, 5) ; 
(2) the vision of the seven seals (6: 1-8: 1); (3) 
the vision of the seven trumpets (8: 2-11: 19); (4) 
the vision of the woman and her enemies (12} 
1-13: 18); (5) the vision of the Lamb and the 
angels of judgment (ch. 14); (6) the vision of 
the seven vials of wrath (15: 1-16: 21); (7) the 
vision of final triumph (17 : 1-22 : 5). The book 
ends, as it began, with the certainty of Christ's 
coming, and of his perfect victory over his 
enemies. Satan, and sin, and death. Those 
who haxe and oppose him shall be destroyed. 
Those who love and serve him shall reign with 
him in everlasting blessedness, in comparison 
with which their sufferings in this life are as 
nothing. And it is the prayer and expectation 
of the seer and of his readers that the glorious 
consummation is near at hand. " Yea: I come 
quickly." "Amen: come, Lord Jesus." 

Books of Reference: Kerr's Introduction to New 
Testament Study; Weiss' Manual of Introduction to the 
New Testament; McClymount's New Testament and Its 
Writers; Bleek's Introduction to the New Testament; 
Godet's New Testament Studies and Introduction to the 
Epistles of St. Paul; Dod's Introduction to the Neiv Tes- 
tament; Salmon's Introduction to the New Testament; 
Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament ; Alford's New 
Testament for English Readers; Upham's Thoughts on 
the Holy Gospels; Gloag's Introductions to the Pauline 
Epistles, Catholic Epistles, and Johannine Writings; 
Westcott's Introductions to the Epistles to the Hebrews 
and Epistles of St. John. Consult books under Part 
II., New Testament Chronology, Harmony of 
the Gospels, Apostolic History, and General 
List, page 144. 

By EEV. WILLIAM HEBER WRIGHT, M.A., Rector of St. George's, Worthing. 

A number of writings professing to supple- 
ment the New Testament, and which may be 
styled for convenience "New Testament Apocry- 
pha," were known in the early ages of the church. 
These writings, which were always carefully 
excluded from the canon, may be arranged in 
four divisions : (1) Gospels, (2) Acts, (3) Apoca- 
lypses, and (4) Epistles. 

I. Gospels.— According to the unanimous opin- 

ion of critics, these are mostly forgeries of little 
value, of no literary merit, and abounding in 
inaccuracies. They throw some light upon 
early Christian thought, are useful in tracing the 
growth of legends, and of value in the defense of 
the canonicity of the genuine writings of the 
New Testament. The apocryphal gospels presup- 
pose the existence of the canonical, as is ap- 
parent not only from their quotations from the 



evangelists, but also from their silence in refer- 
ence to many events in the life of Jesus. 

1. The most important of the apocryphal 
gospels is the Protevcmgelium of Jones, extant in 
some 56 M8&, written in Greek, and containing 
25 chapters, it gi?ves particulars respecting the 
birth of the Virgin Mary, partly in imitation of 
the story of Hannah in the Old Testament. 

2. The Qospel of the Pseudo-Matthew consists of 
42 chapters. This book is extant only in Latin, 
though perhaps originally written in Greek. 
The date of this work is about the fifth century; 
its contents are based upon the Protevangelium. 

o. The Qospei of the Nativity of Mary is a short 
book of 10 chapters, in Latin. The book shows 
the growing veneration for the Virgin. 

4. The History of Joseph the Carpenter was orig- 
inally written in Coptic, but was also translated 
into Arabic. The book was written, probably 
after the fourth century, with the object of giv- 
ing Joseph a share in the honor then accorded 
to the Virgin. 

5. The Gospel of Thomas is contained in Greek 
MSS. probably of the fourteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, though it is probably almost as old as 
the Protevangelium. 

6. The Arabic Gospel of the Infancy also con- 
tains legends of our Lord's childhood. 

7. The Gospel of Nicodemus is divided into two 
portions, treating of different subjects, the first 
being "The Acts of Pilate. 11 The second part re- 
lates Christ's descent into. the underworld. 

8. The Gospel of Peter, discovered in a tomb in 
Egypt in 188(5, published in 1892. 

A few brief documents may be conveniently 
mentioned here, viz.: The Assumption of Mary ; 
The Correspondence between Abgar, King of Edessa, 
and Jesus; TJie Epistle of Lentulus; The Story of 
Veronica ; The Giving up of Pilate, and other doc- 
uments relating to Pilate; Tlw Death of Pilate; 
The Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea; TJie /Sav- 
iour 's Revenge. 

II. The Acts, though abounding in extrava- 
gances, are superior to the apocryphal gospels. 
They are romantic in character, and tinged with 
an Oriental coloring. The principal ones are Acts 
of Peter and Paid, The Acts of Paid and Thecla, The 
Acts of Barnabas, TJie Acts of Philip, The Acts and 
Martyrdom of Andrew, The Acts of Andrew and 
Matthias, Acts and Martyrdom of Matthew, Acts of 
Thomas, The Martyrdom of Thomas, The Martyr- 
dom of Bartholomeiv, The Acts of Thaddceus, The 
Acts of John. 

III. Apocalypses.— Clement of Alexandria, in 
the third century, and other writers, have pre- 
served fragments of the so-called Apocalypse of 

TJie Apocalypse of Paul is a description of what 
the apostle saw and heard when caught up into 
the third heaven (II. Cor. 12). 

IV. Epistles.— The books grouped under this 
head are of real value, and ought not to be 
classed as New Testament Apocrypha. They 
may, however, conveniently be given here, as 
contained in Hilgenfeld's Novum Testamentum 
Extra Canonem, or "New Testament Outside the 
Canon." Fragments of other works included 
by Hilgenf eld are here passed over. 

1. TJie Epistle of Barnabas was probably writ- 
ten during the reign of Vespasian (a.d. 70-79). 
The original Greek text forms a portion of the 
celebrated Sinaitic MS. discovered by Tischen- 
dorf in 18S8L In that important Codex, Barna- 
bas and the Shepherd of Hennas (see below) 
come after the book of the Revelation. The 
author was probably a Gentile Christian, poorly 
acquainted with the Old Testament, who occu- 
pied the position of a teacher in the church of 
Alexandria, to which the letter is addressed. 

2. TJie Epistle of Clement. — The genuineness of 
this epistle is admitted by all. The writer is 
often reckoned fourth bishop of Rome. The 
epistle originated as follows: The church at 
Corinth, distracted by dissensions culminating 
in the dismissal of certain presbyters, appealed 
for advice to the church at Rome. The counsel 
thus solicited came after some delay caused by 
" calamities sudden and repeated." These calam- 
ities were probably entailed by the persecution 
under Domitian, which would fix the date of 
the letter near the close of the first century. The 
epistle contains an earnest exhortation to hu- 
mility and "godly peace," enforced by exam- 
ples and precepts culled from the Old and New 
Testaments. The style approaches most nearly 
that of the apostolic epistles. The writer inci- 
dentally alludes to the martyrdom of Paul at 
Rome, and also of Peter, though where the lat- 
ter suffered is not stated. This epistle is quoted 
by writers of the second century, and was read 
in churches, which shows that it was held in 

3. The Second Epistle of Clement is admitted to 
be spurious. 

4. The SJicphei*d of Hermas occupies a unique 
position among the writings of the sub-apos- 
tolic age. The writer speaks of himself as a 
contemporary of Clement of Rome, which city 
was the scene of his visions. The first part of 
the book contains four visions, in which the 
church is depicted under various forms. The 
second part contains twelve commandments, given 
to Hennas by an angel. The last portion of the 
book contains similitudes, in which the church 
and Christian virtues are represented under 
symbolic forms. The book was intended to de- 
nounce prevalent sins and to announce im- 
pending judgment. 

5. The DidacJie, or Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, 
is in Eusebius' list and in the enumeration of 
Athanasius. The w T ork was practically un- 
known until its discovery by Bryennios in the 
MS. at Constantinople. The first part consists 
of a number of precepts arranged after the order 
of the Ten Commandments, and as comments 
on them. There is reason to believe that the 
precepts may have been derived from some pre- 
Christian Jewish manual of instruction for 
proselytes, and that the author of the Didache 
gave it a distinctive Christian coloring, pre- 
serving at the same time its systematic arrange- 

The accepted date of the Didache is the close of 
the first or the beginning of the second century. 
Its antiquity gives great importance to its con- 



By REV. OWEN C. WHITEHOTJSE, M.A., Professor of Hebrew, Cheshunt 

College, near London. 

I. Eras.— By the use of eras in chronology we 
mean the precise determination of dates, by a 
continuous series of years, reckoned from a 
definite terminus a quo. At different ages in 
the past history of the world, and among differ- 
ent nations at the present time, various eras, 
or chronological starting-points, have been 
adopted, for the purpose of measuring and re- 
cording the progress of time and of events. Thus 
the era in use among European nations is the 
Christian, the starting-point being the assumed 1 
date of the birth of Christ, while that which is 
employed by Turks, Arabs, and other nations 
of Islam is 1 the Mohammedan era of the I-Iejira, 
or flight of the prophet from Mecca to Medina, 
in the year 622 a.d. of our Christian era. 

II. Seleucid Era.— Passing over the numerous 
modes of dating events in use among the na- 
tions of antiquity, the biblical student should 
take special note of the Seleucid era, which 
dates from the occupation of Babylon by Se- 
leucus Nicator, in the year §11 B.C., twelve years 
after the death of Alexander the Great. It 
became the current mode of computing chro- 
nology among all the Greek countries border- 
ing upon the Seleucid kingdom, as well as in 
that kingdom itself. Among the Jews it pre- 
vailed as late as the loth century a.d. It is 
important for us to take note of this system, as 
the writers of the books of Maccabees date 
events according to this chronological method 
of computation, which prevailed in the Seleucid 

III. Persian Period.— As we retrace our steps 
along the centuries, we pass from definite to 
less definite landmarks of time. As we pass 
from the Greek period into the Persian, Baby- 
lonian, and Regal periods, we no longer possess 
the guidance of a definitely fixed chronological 
era which can be reduced readily to terms of 
our own, but with the reign of each successive 
monarch there is a fresh chronological adjust- 
ment, and thus with each fresh adjustment 
arises a possibility of error or inaccuracy. 
Sources of error we shall now find to accumu- 
late, which ultimately render the absolute 
accuracy of chronological statement or adjust- 
ment impossible. During the Persian period, 
however, we have fairly definite data to guide 
us in the literature of the Old Testament 
belonging to that epoch, for in the post-exilian 
period time is uniformly reckoned from the 
accession of the reigning Persian sovereign. 
The last chronological reference of this kind to 
be found in the Old Testament is that of Neh. 
13: 6, where Nehemiah refers to a visit paid to 
Artaxerxes I. (Longimanus) in the thirty-second 
year of that monarch's reign, i.e., 433 B.C. 

IV. Babylonian Period.— Here we find dates 
given sometimes in terms of the years of 
Nebuchadnezzar's reign, and sometimes in 
that of the Judean king. Jer. 25: 1; 26: 1, are 

1 We say assupied date, since our chronology is based 
upon that of Dionysius Exiguus (in the 6th century), 
which places Christ's birth in the year 754 of the Roman 
era (reckoned from the foundation of Rome), But it 
can be shown that Heiod's death did not take place 
later than 750 a.u.c. 

examples of this latter practice, while Jer. 
52:28-30; II. Ki. 24: 12; 25: 8, are examples of 
the former, which is likewise maintained in 
the book of Daniel (2:1; 7:1; 8:1; 9:1; 10: 1). 
We thus see that there is no difference in the 
mode of reckoning time, when we compare the 
annals and prophetic discourses that refer to 
the Babylonian period with those that refer 
to the Persian epoch that immediately suc- 
ceeded it. 

V. The Hebrew Regal Period.— Here again the 
same mode of chronological statement appears 
as in the two preceding periods. Events are 
dated from the year of accession of the reigning 
monarch. But as we enter the 8th century a 
new element complicates the chronological 
problem, and greatly enhances the possibilities 
of error. We refer to the parallel chronology 
of the reigns of the kings of Judah and of those 
of the kings of Israel. It is not possible to enter 
fully into the vexed question of the chronology 
of this period. It is sufficient to say, at the out- 
set, that it is impossible to maintain the abso- 
lute accuracy of the numbers as they stand in 
the biblical records, in the form in which they 
have come down to us. These records have 
passed through repeated transcriptions, and, in 
earlier periods, redaction and revision. This 
alone is sufficient to account for error, espe- 
cially when we consider the many difficulties 
arising from materials, form of Hebrew charac- 
ters, etc. 

But there were doubtless other elements be- 
sides the conditions involved in ancient modes 
of writing which contributed to produce error. 

1. Allusion has already been made to the 
multiplication of the possible sources of mis- 
take from the fact that each successive reign 
formed a fresh point of departure. Add to this 
that we have likewise two series of reigns with 
their synchronistic adjustments or cross-refer- 
ences, and it will be easily perceived that a 
single error in this complex harrnonistic scheme 
will be likely to generate others. 

2. The most serious difficulties in the biblical 
chronology occur during the period covered 
by the Assyrian invasions of northern Israel, 
when the annals of the kings of Israel must 
have been defective because of the ravages of 
the invaders. 

3. Some of the discrepancies are apparent 
rather than real, and were due to the different 
method of reckoning which prevailed among 
the ancients (Romans as well as Jews) as com- 
pared with our own. Thus, in computing time, 
the Hebrews reckoned both the initial and final 
date. What happens on the third day is said to 
happen "in " or "after three days." There does 
not seem, however, to have been any uniform 
mode of applying this principle. We do not 
know for certain whether the final fractional 
year of the king's reign was counted as a whole 
one for that reign or for that of his successor. 
From these considerations it results that, in 
reducing Hebrew chronology to terms of our 
own, it may be possible to lengthen or shorten 
a given reign by a year, without doing any vio- 
lence to the statement of Scripture. 




4. Years were reckoned by months, each 
month being a "moon " of 29 or 80 days. The 
entire year would thus consist of about 854 days. 
To equate this with the solar or astronomical 
year, intercalary months were needed from 
time to time, i See Hebrew Calendar, p. 85.) 

When we examine the biblical chronology, in- 
ternal discrepancies are exhibited as we compare 
the total of successive north-Israelite reigns 
with that of the reigns of successive Judean 

Among the contributing causes which pro- 
duced this discrepancy the most potent were 
probably: (1) the defective record of the north- 
ern kingdom; (2) the synchronistic scheme 
which introduced consequent errors to an even 
more serious extent in Judean chronology. 

VI. Period from the Exodus to the Reign of 
Solomon.— This entire period, dating from the 
exodus to the building of the temple in the 
fourth year of Solomon's reign, is stated in 
I. Ki. 6:1 to be 480 years. On the other hand, 
we have a series of chronological statements in 
the book of Judges. It must be confessed that 
the latter chronology is full of uncertainty. 
The successive periods of rule under the judges 
amount to 410 years. To this we add 40 years of 
Eli's administration, which gives us a total of 
450 years. This exactly coincides with Paul's 
statement in Acts 13:20. But it will be seen 
that, if we add to this, on the one side, 40 years 
of desert wanderings and Joshua's life in the 
promised land, and, on the other, the life of 
►Samuel and Saul, and 40 years of David's reign, 
we reach a total considerably in excess of 480 
years. But there can be little doubt that all 
estimates based on a summation of the num- 
bers contained in the book of Judges are greatly 
in excess of the actual period covered by their 
rule. It is quite possible that some of the rulers 
were contemporaneous, and that the narra- 
tives are not to be regarded as a mere sequence. 
This of course would greatly reduce the length 
of the period. 

VII. Period of the Settlement and Oppression 
Of Israel in Egypt.— Here we are met by two 
traditions respecting the duration of this in- 
terval, based respectively upon the Hebrew 
Masoretic text of Ex. 12: 40, and upon that of 
the LXX. The Hebrew text translated in our 
Revised Version reads thus: " Now the sojourn- 
ing of the children of Israel which they so- 
journed in Egypt was 430 years." But the LXX. 
renders, "Now the sojourning of the children 
of Israel which they sojourned in Egypt and in 
the land of Canaan [Codex Alex, adds, "both he 
and their fathers"] was 430 years." Thus the 
LXX. understood the period of 430 years to in- 
clude the stay of the patriarchs in Canaan and 
the servitude of their descendants in Egj-pt. 
The Septuagint tradition was very largely ac- 
cepted in ancient times. It is adopted by the 
Samaritan version, by St. Paul in Gal. 3: 17, 
where it is said that the law came 430 years 
after the covenant with Abraham; also by 
Joseph us {Antiq., ii., 15, 2), Targum of Jonathan, 
Aben Ezra, Rashi, and other Jewish and Chris- 
tian writers. On the other hand, the Masoretic 
text derives most support from the Old Testa- 
ment itself. In Gen. 15: 13, 400 years are given in 
round numbers as the duration of Israel's afflic- 
tion (so also LXX. on this verse), and this pas- 
sage is cited by Stephen (Acts 7: 6). Moreover, 
the Masoretic tradition is upheld by the Tar- 
gum of Onkelos, Peshitto Vulgate, and Saadia. 

VIII. Patriarchal Period.— Again we are con- 
fronted by diverse traditions. These we shall 
content ourselves with presenting i n a tabulated 
form. From the tables the reader will observe 
that, since the actual passage of time is marked 
by the successive ages of the patriarchs in beget- 
ting their respective first-born sons, recorded 
in the genealogical list, the summation of the 
left-hand column shows us, in the three schemes 

appended below, the length of the patriarchal 
period in each case down to the birth of Abra- 
ham. This period, according to the computation 
of the LXX., is 1466 years longer than the same 
period as measured by the data of our Hebrew 








Age at 
birth of 


Ago at 
birth of 


Ape at 
birth of 


Adam, . . 
Seth, . . . 
Enosh, . . 
Kenan, . . 
Jared, . . 
Enoch, . . 
Noah, . . 
Shem, . . 
(Kainan), . 
Shelah, . . 
Eber, . . . 
Peleg, . . 
Reu, . . . 
Serug, . . 
Nahor, . . 
Terah, . . 








205 I 





















Total yrs. 


1 2247 


IX. External Tests, and Construction of a Def- 
inite Biblical Chronology.— Having traced the 
chronology of the Old Testament through suc- 
cessive periods, we have observed that difficul- 
ties increase the further we ascend the stream 
of time. Archaeology has provided for us cer- 
tain external tests in the shape of the monu- 
mental records of nations whose history was 
contemporaneous with that of God's ancient 
chosen people, and during certain periods was 
intimately bound up with the destinies of 
Israel. These data increase every year with the 
progress of discovery. With the results hither- 
to attained, we will construct, as far as possible, 
a positive chronology reduced to terms of our 
own era. 

1. Egyptology, unfortunately, has not yet 
yielded us chronological results that are suf- 
ficiently definite. Most Egyptologists, however, 
are agreed that the rabbinic date of 1314 for the 
exodus of Israel approximates pretty closely to 
the true one. We must, for this period, content 
ourselves with approximations only. Modern 
research, including the discovery by M. Naville 
in 1883 of the site of the ancient store-city, 
Pithom, establishes the position of the illus- 
trious archaeologist Lepsius, that the Pharaoh 
of the oppression was the great conqueror 
Rameses II., and that the exodus took place 
during the reign of his son and successor, Mer- 
neptah. Assuming, therefore, the date 1320 as 
approximately the most correct, the patriarchal 
history of the Old Testament would take the 
following form when carried back to the times 
of Abraham: 

B.C. 1320. Probable date of the exodus. To this 
add 430 years assigned by our 
Hebrew text to Israel's settlement 
in Egypt. See foot-note ( 2 ), page 60. 

1750. Jacob's entrance into and settlement 
in the land of Goshen. His age at 
that time was 130 (Gen. 47: 9). 

1880. Jacob's birth. At this time Isaac was 
60 (Gen. 25: 26). 

1940. Isaac's birth. At this time Abraham 
was 100 years old (Gen. 21: 5). 

2040. Abraham's birth. 



Now the period of the dominance in Egypt of 
the foreign race of Hyksos, usually called 
"Shepherd" (probably Semitic), kings, extends 
from the latter part of the thirteenth to the 
end of the sixteenth dynasty. To this period 
Prof. George Ebers assigns the dates 2190 to 
1680 r,.c. This is in complete accordance with 
the data set forth above. The visits of Abra- 
ham and the other patriarchs to Egypt, and 
the establishment of the Hebrew Joseph in 
high official authority, obviously belong to this 
same interval. The kings who "knew not Jo- 
seph" arose in the seventeenth and follow- 
ing dynasties, after the Hyksos kings were 
overthrown. The exodus of Israel took place 
under the nineteenth dynasty. A partial con- 
firmation of these results may also be found 
in the facts recently brought to light by ex- 
perts in Assyriology. 

2. Assyriology.— The important publication 
by Mr. Pinches, of the British Museum, of a 
cuneiform list of early Babylonian kings, has 
been made the subject of an interesting investi- 
gation by Prof. Schrader of Berlin, who identi- 

enth centuries B.C., brought over by Layard 
and other explorers from Nineveh. Sir Henry 
Rawlinson snowed these tablets to be lists of 
Assyrian officials, each official representing a 
particular year, like the pair of consuls at Rome. 
The particular year in which an event happened 
was therefore marked by the proper name of 
the official, who was eponym, i.e., gave his name 
to the year. 

Four copies of these canons or lists of rulers 
have come down to us in a more or less muti- 
lated condition, but fortunately they supple- 
ment each other's defects. In addition to these 
we have three other canons, which not only con- 
tain lists of eponym officers, but register a brief mem- 
orandum of some event, such as a campaign, revolt, 
or pestilence, which took place each year. 

One of these brief memoranda is of unique 
importance. It occurs in the eponymate (limu) 
of Purilsagali, and runs thus: "In the month 
Sivan the sun suffered an eclipse." Now this 
eclipse has been calculated by the astronomer, 
Mr. Hind, to have been a remarkable total 
eclipse which took place on June 15, 763 B.C. It 

Campaigns of Assur-nasir-apli, king 

of Assyria, B.C. 884-860. 
(See p. 120.) 

Men and horses crossing a river. 

ties one of these Babylonian kings, Hammurabi, 
with the Amraphel, king of Shinar, referred to 
in Gen. 14: 1, and in this view he is supported by 
Prof. Fried. Delitzsch. As Dr. Schrader points 
out, Hammurabi was a contemporary of a king 
of Larsa named Eriaku. Now this Eriaku of 
Larsa is no other than the Arioch, king of 
Ellasar, referred to in the same passage of Scrip- 
ture. Both of these kings were therefore con- 
temporary with Abraham. Dr. Schrader would 
place the date of these monarchs at 2100 B.C. 
This is of course only an approximate date, and 
other authorities (Tiele and Pinches) differ con- 
siderably. Prof. Sayce, in Ancient Empires of the 
East (p. 478), places Hammurabi's reign about 
2000 B.C. Nevertheless, the results are highly 
important, not only because they throw a most 
valuable light on Gen. 14, the historical charac- 
ter of which they to a certain extent uphold, 
but also because they enable us to fix on 2250 
—2000 B.C. as the probable period in which the 
age of Abraham must be placed. See Postscript, 
page 63. 

Bat cuneiform discovery has given us a far 
more valuable clue to a definite chronology in 
the terra cotta tablets containing the "eponym 
lists," belonging to the ninth, eighth, and sev- 

is not improbable that the prophet Amos refers 
to it in 8: 9. 

Now, as the lists are continuous, both before 
and after the eponymate of Purilsagali, the im- 
portance of determining its date as 703 B.C. is 
obvious; for the entire series of events re- 
ferred to can be determined with nearly as 
much precision as any event of modern times, 
and since some of these events are not only 
contemporary with, but form a part of, the 
incidents described in Scripture, we have now 
some fixed dates to guide us in the formation of 
a correct biblical chronology. Among these 
the following are the most important: 

B.C. 854. Battle of Karkar. In the monolith of 
Shalmaneser II., describing this bat- 
tle, mention is made of a detachment 
sent by "Ahab the Israelite." 

842. Payment of tribute by "Jehu, son of 
Ornri " (a successor of Omri), recorded 
in Shalmaneser II. 's "black obe- 

742-740. Reference to Azariah (Uzziah) of 
Judah as resisting the arms of Assyria 
in the records of Tiglath-Pileser III. 
N.B.— The discovery of the "Baby- 



B.C. 738. 




Ionian list of kings" proves that 
Tiglath-Pileser and Pul are different 
names for 1 be same person. 

Payment of tribute by Menahem of 
Israel, recorded in the annals of 

Defeat and death of Pekah, king of 
Israel; Hoshea (called Ausi in the 
tablet) is placed on the throne by 
Tiglath-Pileser. [It does not follow 
that Hoshea was then recognized as 
king by the people. This may have 
taken place some years later.] 

Pall of Samaria, and deportation of 
the inhabitants mentioned in Sar- 
gon'S annals. 

Campaign of Sennacherib described in 
the Taylor cylinder, in which special 
reference is made to "Hezekiah the 

3. The MoaJbUe Stone, called also the "Stone 
of Diban " or " 1 >ibon," or sometimes " Stone of 
Mesh a," was discovered more than twenty years 
ago by Dr. Klein at Diban, in Moab. It is now 
preserved, though, unfortunately, in a defect- 
ive condition, in the Louvre at Paris. It was 
erected by Mesha, king of Moab, to commem- 
orate his victory over [srael, and corroborates 
in a remarkable manner the history found in 
II. Ki. 3: 4-27. See Plate II. 

4. Among Greek authorities, by far the most 

valuable chronological aid is furnished by the 
Ptolemaic canon of Babylonian rulers. 

5. The Tel-el-Amarna tablets, found in 1887, 
give further chronological aid. They belong to 
the reigns of Amenophis III. and IV. (15th 
century B.C.). See Plate 1. 


§ i 

S o 













Biblicai, Chronology. 

B. C. 

b. c. 

Approximate date for Abraham, 
Israel's entrance into and settlement 

in Egypt, 
The exodus, 



David (Judah, 101S-1011; Israel and 

Judah, 1011-978), 
Solomon (Erection of temple, 975), 






Rehoboam, 938-921 

Siege and capture of 

Jerusalem by Shi- 




Asa, 918-877 

Defeats Zerah, the 

Cushite (Osarkon). 

Alliance with Syria. 

Jehoshaphat, 877-852 

Alliance with Ahab, 

and battle of Ra- 

moth-Gilead, 853. 






Joash. 837-797 

Reformation and re- 
pair of temple. 

Israel (Ephraim). 
Jeroboam I., 938-916 



Omri, 900-875") 

Builds and fortifies 
Ahab, 875-853 

Elijah prophesies, 
and Micaiah, son of 
Imlah. lb 

Ahaziah, 853-852 \ >> 

Jehoram, 852-842 

Career of Elisha as 
prophet. ^ 

Revolution and p 
overthrow of the 
dynasty of Omri. 

Jehu, 842-815 

Hazael, king of Syria, 

takes the east-Jordan 

Jehoahaz, 815-798 

Synchronism with Biblical Chro- 

Babylonia and 


2200 (?), Hammu- 

1350, c., Pudilu. 

1325, c, Ram- 
man-nirari I. 

1300, c, Shal- 
maneser I. 

1150, c, Asshur- 

noo, Tiglath- 
Pileser I. 

911-890, Ram- 
man-nirari II. 

890-884, Tiglath- 
Adar II. 

884-860, Asshur- 

800-825, Shal- 
maneser II. 
Battle of Kar- 
kar, 854, in 
which Ahab's 
troops shared 
in the defeat. 

825-812, Sham- 

812-783, Ram- 
III. 1 

803, Total defeat 
of Syria and 
capture of 


2190-1680, c, 

Hyksos pe- 

13th, 14th. 
15th, and 

19 th dynas- 
ty, begin- 
ning w i t h 
Barneses I. 
1450-1145, c, 

Seti I. 

1 ; 192-1 326,2 c, 

Rameses II. 

1326-i306, c, 

22d dynasty. 

935, c. She- 
shenk (Shi 
shak) aids 
and besieges 
and cap 
tures Jeru- 

Osarkon (Ze- 
rah of the 
Bible) in- 
vades Pales- 
tine and is 
repulsed by 
Asa, accord- 
ing to II. 



II. of Da- 
rn ascus 
by Shal- 

Hazael mur- 
ders Ben- 
hadad and 
the throne. 
es against 

803, Benha- 
dad III. 1 of 
Damas cus 
by Ram- 
ri III. 

1 Both Israel and Judah are hard pressed by 
the invasions of Hazael and of his son and 
successor, Benhadad, kings of Syria. But Jeho- 
vah, in response to the prayers of Jehoahaz, 
sends a " del i verer." The Assyrian records show 
that this was Ramman-nirari III., who in 803 
B.C. inflicted a crushing defeat on Benhadad. 

See Schrader's Cuneiform Inscriptions and the Old 
Testament, vol. i., p. 203 If.; vol. ii., p. 324, and 
cf. II. Ki. 13: 5. 

2 Some Egyptologists consider it probable that 
the reign of Rameses II. should be placed about 
40 years later. This would place the exodus 
about 1280 B.C. 






Azariah, or Uzziah, 

Consecration -vision 
of Isaiah, 786. 
Prosperity and mili- 
tary strength of Ju- 

Jotham, as regent, 



Rev. Chron'y. 



Rev. Chron'y* 

Jehoash, 798-782 

Death of Elisha— Vic- 
tories over Syria. 

Jeroboam II., 782-741 

Victories over Syria, 
Moab, and Amnion— 
Extension of the fron- 
tiers of Israel. 
Amos and Hosea proph- 

Zechariah, 741— End of 
Jehu's dynasty. 

Jotham, as king, 736-735 

Ahaz, 735-726 

war, begun in Jo- 
tham's reign, is con- 
tinued (Isa. 7). 
Alliance with Tig- 
lath-Pileser III. 
Foreign innovations 
— an altar of new pat- 
tern set up in the 

Hezekiah, 1 726-697 

Isaiah continues his 
prophetic activity. 

Ministry of the 
prophet Micah. 

Embassy of Merodach 
Baladan, king of 
Babylon, and illness 
of Hezekiah, 712 (?). 

Campaign of Sen 
nacherib against Ju 
dah — Loss of towns- 
Siege of Jerusalem- 
Destruction of Sen 
nacherib's army by 
pestilence, 701. 




Menahem, 741-738 

Pays tribute to Tiglath- 

Pileser, 738 


Pekah, 736-734 

Alliance with Rezin, 
king of Syria, and in- 
vasion of Judah. 
Invasion of the north- 
ern kingdom by Tig- 
lath - Pileser, 734 — De- 
feat and death of Pe- 

Hoshea, 734 (730)-722 

Revolt of Israel against 
Assyria— Siege and cap- 
ture of Samaria after 
three years, and depor- 
tation of the inhabit- 
ants—Vain is the ap- 
peal to So (Sabaka), 
king of Egypt. 
End of the northern, or 
Ephraimite, kingdom. 


783-773, Shal- 
maneser III. 

773-755, Asshur- 
dan III. 

755-745, Asshur- 

745-727, Tiglath- 
Pileser III., 
called Pulu or 

738, War against 
Azariah (Uz- 
ziah); receives 
tribute from 

734, Expedition 
to Palestine. 

733-732, Cam- 
paign against 
Rezin of Da- 

727-722, Shal- 
maneser IV. 
Siege of Sa 

722-705, Sargon. 

Captures Sa- 
maria, 722. 

Battle of Ra 

Defeat of Sa- 
baka (called 
Sabi), 720. 

Capture of 
Ashdod, 711 
(Isa. 20). 

705-681, Sen 

against Egypt 
and Judah. 

Siege of Jeru- 
salem, 701. 

Installs As- 
shur - nadin ■ 
shum as king 
of Babylon, 


Greece and 

776, First 

753, Founda- 

tion of 


tyrant of 


730, 24th dy- 
nasty, Sa- 
ites — Egypt 
falls into 
the hands 
of Ethiopia. 

730, 25 th dy- 

Sabaka (So 
II. Ki. 17:4) 
Nubia and 
Upper E 


Defeated by 
Sargon at 

734, Founda- 
tion of Sy- 
racuse, by 
Archias of 

710, Croton 

708, Founda- 
tion of 

Taharka ( 
Tirhaka of 
the Bible), 

Tarku of 
the latter at 
Altaku {El- 
tekeh), and 
thus deliv- 
ers Heze- 
| kiah. 

1 In the reign of Hezekiah we are confronted 
by a serious difficulty in chronology. In II. 
Ki. 18: 13 we are told that Sennacherib invaded 
Judah in the fourteenth year of Hezekiah. 
This invasion, we know from the Assyrian 
documents, took place in 701 B.C. On the other 
hand, we read in II. Ki. 18: 10 that Samaria 
was captured in the sixth year of Hezekiah, 
which would place Hezekiah 's accession in the 
year 727-726 B.C., thus making the invasion seem 
to be in the twenty-fourth year. 

Various methods have been adopted for solv- 
ing the chronological difficulty indicated above. 
Among these are: (1) That the writer in II. Ki. 
28: 13 is blending the invasion of Palestine and 
capture of Ashdod by Sargon in 711 B.C., which 

would fall in the fourteenth year of Heze- 
kiah 's reign, 1 with the invasion of Sennacherib, 
which happened ten years later. Cf. Sayce, 
Fresh Light from the Ancient Monuments, p. 136 
ff. (2) That, as in the case of Jotham (II. Ki. 
15: 5), Hezekiah may have been associated with 
Ahaz in the year 726, and hence arose a double 
mode of reckoning, viz., from the year of the 
conjoint reign and from that of the sole reign 
of Hezekiah. 

1 As we have already explained, 726 would probably 
be reckoned as the last year of the reign of Ahaz, and 
725 would count as the first full year of Hezekiah 's 
reign. This date, however, is not free from difficulty 
(cf . II. Kings 18: 10). 




Rev. Chron'y. 
B.C. B.C. 

697 Manasseh, 6^7-641 

Carried prisoner by As- 

shur-bani-pal to Babylon 

(II. Chr. 33: 11). 
Manasseh's repentance 

and restoration. 

Amon, 641-639 

Josiah. Nahum prophesies. 
Great reformation. 
Prophetic activity of Jer- 
emiah, and probably also 
of Obadiah (at a later 

Habakkuk 5111 d Zephaniah 
prophesied during this 

Josiah slain by Pharaoh 
Necho's archers in the 
battle of Megiddo. 

Jehoahaz, 608 

Jehoiakim, 608-597 

Jechoniah, Coniali, or Je- 

hoiachin, 597 

Reigns three months, and 
is carried away by Nebu- 
chadrezzar, with 10,000 of 
the Jewish population, to 
Babylon. Among these 
captives is the prophet 
Ezekiel (II. Ki. 24 : 12). This 
was the eighth year of 
Nebuchadrezzar (Jer. 24: 
I; 29: 1,2). 
Zedekiah, 597-586 

First year of the deporta- 
tion, or exile, of Jehoia- 
chin. This is the event 
from which Ezekiel con- 
tinually dates his events 
(II. Ki. 24: 17; cf. Jer. 37: 1 
and 49: 34). Daniel. 

Beginning of the siege of 
Jerusalem, 589-588 

Ninth year of Zedekiah 
and of the exile; 10th 
Tebet, i.e., near the end of 
December, 589 (II. Ki. 25: 
1; Jer. 52: 4 and 39: 1; also 
Ezek. 21: Iff.). 

Babylonian army before 
Jerusalem, 588-587 

Tenth year of Zedekiah, 
eighteenth of Nebuchad- 
rezzar (Jer. 32: 1). Ezekiel's 
prophecy against Egypt 
(Ezek. 29: 1) on 12th Tebet. 

Capture of Jerusalem, 587 
Eleventh year of Zede- 
kiah (9th Tammuz). 
BMight and capture of 
Zedekiah (II. Ki. 25: 3= 
Jer. 52: (i; 39: 2). 

Jerusalem destroyed, Ju- 
ly, 587, Precise date, 10th 
Ab (II. Ki. 25: 8; Jer. 52: 

Assyria and Baby- 


688, Destruction of 
Babylon by Sen 
681-668, Esarhaddon. 

Overthrow of Si- 
don, 678. 

Royal palace built 
at Nineveh. 

Restoration of Bab- 
ylon, 677. 

Conquest of Egypt 

668-626, Asshur-bani- 

Advances agai n s t 
Egypt and captures 
Thebes— Over- 
throw and death of 
Tirhaka— 668-663. 

These events are 
referred to in Na- 
hum 3: 8-11. 

Rebellion of Sha- 
mash - shumukin 
crushed. 647. 

Manassen, king of 
Israel, mentioned 
in a list of tribu- 
tary vassals. 

625-605, Nabo-palas- 
sar, king of Baby- 

Destruction of Nin- 
eveh, 607. 

foundation of the 

605-562, Nebuchadrez- 
zar ( = Nebuchad- 

All the Assyrian 
possessions west of 
the Euphrates and 
south of the Ama- 
nus subject to Bab- 
ylonia—Neb uchad- 
rezzar rules as far 
as the river of 
Egypt ( W a d y el 
Arish), 600. 

Tyre, besieged by 
the Babylonians, 
holds out success- 
fully for thirteen 
years under Eth- 
baal II. 

Cf. Ezek. 26: 1 If.; 
28: 16-19. 



25th dynasty. 

Taharka's reign. 

Tirhaka= Assyr i a n 

Recapture of Mem- 
phis from Assyri- 

Defeated by the 
troops of Asshur- 


Urdamani, or Rud- 
Amon, succeeds his 
father, and is over- 
thrown by the As- 

A fresh rebellion 
of twelve vassal 
princes against the 
Assyrian rule is led 
by Psamtik, son of 
Necho. It succeeds 
mainly by the help 
of the Greeks of 
Asia Minor. 

Greece and Home. 

26th dynasty. 

650-610, Psamtik I 
[Wiedemann, 660 (?) 

Greek mercenaries 
settled in and near 

610-600, Necho I, 

Defeats Josiah of 
Judah and other 
allies of Assyria at 
Megiddo ; but is 
himself defeated 
by Nebuchadrez- 
zar at the battle of 
Carchemish, 605. 

600-590, Psamtik II. 

590-570, Uaphris, or 
Apries (Egypt. Ua- 
habra, the Hophra 
of the Bible), ren- 
dered uneasy by 
the victorious in- 
roads of the Baby- 
lonians in Pales- 
tine, makes a de- 
scent on Sidon and 
captures it, defeats 
the Cyprians and 
Tyrians in a naval 
battle, and urges 
Zedekiah to con- 
clude an alliance 
(Jer. 37:3-10). 
When Jerusalem, 
after a second siege, 
has been captured 
by Nebuchadrez- 
zar, the king of 
Egypt opens the 
frontiers of his 
realm to receive 
the exiled inhabit- 

625, Periander of Cor- 

624, Legislation of 

612, Cy Ion's attempt 
to seize the gov- 
ernment of Ath- 

610, Sappho, Alcaeus, 
and Stesichorus. 

600, Foundation of 
Massilia (Mar- 

594, Legislation of 




Biblical Chronology. 



The prophecies of Isaiah 40-66 mainly refer to 
the circumstances, events, and anticipations 
of this interval, and herald the coming res- 
toration of the Jews by Cyrus II. 550-536 

Cyrus' edict for the restoration of the Jews. 
First caravan journey of returning exiles 
under Zerubbabel and Joshua. 536 

Rebuilding of the temple commenced, 
opposed by the Samaritans. 

It is 

A letter is sent to the Persian king in opposi 
tion to the rebuilding of the temple. 529 

The building is arrested by decree of the Per 
sian king. 522 

Edict of Cyrus to the Jews is reaffirmed by 
Darius, son of Hystaspes. 521 

Prophetic ministry of Haggai and Zechariah 
commences. Resumption of the building 
(Hag. 1). 

Dedication of the temple. 

Artaxerxes commissions Ezra to go to Judea on 
a journey of inquiry, accompanied by several 
royal counselors and Israelites, priests and 
Levites (Ezra 7). The work of reformation 
and reorganization begins, and continues 
during the following year. Foreign wives 
are put away (Ezra 9). Esther. 

New commission to Nehemiah, the royal cup- 
bearer, who obtains leave of absence with let- 
ters to the governors west of the Euphrates. 
In spite of opposition, plots, and accusations 
the walls are rebuilt. The book of the Law 
is read for seven days, and festival of rejoic- 
ing held (Feast of Tabernacles), followed by 
a fast of humiliation and repentance. 

3 Nehemiah returns to the Persian court and 
again obtains permission to return to Jeru- 
salem. Prophetic ministry of Maiachi. 

Babylonia and Persia. 


568, Nebuchadnezzar in- 
vades Egypt in the 37th 
year of his reign (cf. 
Ezek. 29: 17; 30: 19). 

562, Evil-Merodach 
(Amil (Avil) Maruduk) 
succeeds his illustrious 
Decline of Babylonia 
under his successors, 
viz., (560) Nergalsha- 
rezer and (556) Nabu 
naid {Nabonidus). 

550, Cyrus II., son of 
Cambyses, conquers 
Media, Lydia, and sub- 
sequently Babylonia. 

538, Capture of Babylon 
by Cyrus, and 

Downfall of Babylonian 

and establishment of the 
Persian Dominion. 

538-529, Cyrus. 

529-521, Cambyses ad- 
vances against Egypt, 
the only power 
remained in opposi- 
tion to the supremacy 
of Persia. Conquers 
Memphis,and captures 
Psamtik and puts him 
to death. 
Dies on the march of 
his army to suppress 
the rebellion of the 
Magian, who had given 
himself out to be Bart- 
ja (Smerdis), the king's 
brother, who had been 
put to death some years 

521-485, Darius, son of 
Hystaspes, an enlight- 
ened ruler, improves 
the commerce of his 
kingdom— completes a 
canal from, the Nile to 
the Red Sea. 
His invasion of Scy- 
thia, and disastrous re- 

485-465, Xerxes I. 

465-425, Artaxerxes I 



570-526, Amasis (Ma- 
netho: Amosis) or 
Aahmes makes al- 
liances with the 
Greek despot Poly- 
crates of Sarnos. 

Foreign colonists 
settle in Egypt. 

Prosperity of the 
Greek Naucratis. 

Invasion by the 
Babylonians (568). 

thatf526-525, Psamtik III. 
captured and slain 
by Cambyses. 
27th dynasty (Per- 
525-521, Cambyses. 

Greece and Rome. 

510, Rome : Expulsion 
of the Tarquins. 
The Republic. 

510, Greece: Legisla- 
tion of Cleisthenes. 

500, Ionic revolt, Sar- 
dis burnt. 

495, Battle of Lade. 

490, Defeat of Datis 
and Artaphernes 
at the battle of Mar- 

480, Battle of Salamis. 

479, Battle of Platsea. 
Final defeat of the 
host of Xerxes. 

478, Confederacy of 
Delos, and rise of 
Athenian power. 


431, Outbreak of the 
Career of Pericles. 

Postscript. — Respecting the chronology of the New 
Babylonian and Persian periods, see Oppert in Zeit- 
schrift fur Assynologie, May, 1893, p. 56 ff. Sayce now 
places Hammurabi earlier than 2200 B.C. {Records of 
the Past, new series, vol. v., p. 11.) So also Winckler 
in his History of Babylonia and Assyria. The Assyr- 
ian Eponym Canon, by George Smith, gives lists of the 
eponyms. See Schrader's Cuneiform Inscriptions and 
the Old Testament, vol. ii., p. 198; p. 333; the Babylonian 
Chronicle, by T. G. Pinches, of the British Museum. 

Books of Eefeeence on chronology and the ex- 
tended historv of Old Testament times: Edersheim's 
The Bible History; the series, Men of the Bible; F. B. 
Meyer's Old Testament Heroes, 7 vols.; Dean Stanley's 
History of the Jewish Church; Blaikie's Bible History ; 
Student's Old Testament History; Wilson's Ilosaics of 
Bible History; Ewald's History of Israel; Milman's 
History of the Jews; Hosmer's Story of the Jews. Con- 
sult books under Part II., Part VI., and the other 
topics of this division. 




Prepared by JESSE L. HURLBUT, D.D., Corresponding Secretary of the Sunday- 
School Union op the Methodist Episcopal Church. 


I. Earlier Prophets of Judah: 

Date of 

Isaiah , 

II. Prophets of Israel: 


III. Later Prophets of Judah : 

Jeremiah. .. 


IV. Prophets of the Captivity: 

Obadiah . 

V. Prophets of the Restora- 

Zechariah . 
Malachi . . . 

875-850 B.C. 
750-700 .... 

790-725 .... 


630-585 . 


600-535 . 
595-570 . 






Jotham to Hez 


Jeroboam II... 

Jeroboam II. .. 

Jeroboam II. to 

Josiah . 
Josiah . 

Josiah to Cap- 

zar to Cyrus. 



Darius I 

Darius I 

Artaxerxes I. . 

Subjects of 

The Plagues upon 

The Kingdom of 

The Captivity, and 


The Fall of Nin- 
The Sins of Israel. 

The Sins of Israel. 

The Fall of Nin- 

The Captivity of 

The Captivity of 
Judah. [vasion. 

The Chaldean In 

The Great Empires 

The Captivity and 

The Destruction of 


The Rebuilding of 

the Temple. 
The New Israel. 

[the Messiah. 
Reformation and 

Title or 

The First of the 

Prophets. 1 
The Evangelical 

The Vehement 


The Missionary 

Prophet. 2 
The Peasant 

The Obscure 

Prophet. 3 

The Prophet of 

The Prophet of 

The Weeping 

The PoeticProphet. 

The Princely 

The Priestly 

The Unknown 



The Prophet of the 


The Prophet of 

[Prophets. 4 

The Last of the 

iJoel was the earliest prophet whose message was 3 Referring to peculiarity of style and difficulty of 
committed to writing. [heathen people, interpretation. 

2 Jonah was the only prophet sent to preach to a I 4 With Malachi the Old Testament prophecies close. 

#^ t^T*H>ffrT^ 

fc|p>|=flf^E3J # 


<m np^r >a-:s $=q 



jM^^-es t^ 


Text of Nebuchadnezzar's Brick Inscriptions, found in large numbers at Babylon, Whose temple and 
palace he rebuilt and restored (cf. Dan. 4: 30). The text reads as follows: 1, Nebuchadnezzar; 2, King of 
Babylon ; :<, Patron of E-sagila, 4, and E-zida; 5, Eldest Son, 6, of Nabopolassar; 7, King of Babylon. 







By REV. OWEN C. WH1TEHOUSE, M.A., Professor of Hebrew, 
Cheshunt College, near London. 

History of the Jews. 

Joiada, high priest. 

Johanan (or Jonathan), high priest. 

Murder of Joshua in the temple by his brother 
Johanan, the high priest. 

Jaddua, high priest. 

Alexander besieges Tyre, demands submission of 
the Jews, and marches on Jerusalem. 

Settlement of Jews at Alexandria. 

Onias I., high priest. 

Ptolemy I. Soter takes Jerusalem. 

Antigonus, ruler over Palestine. 

War of the Diadochi, or successors of Alexander, 
brought to an issue by the battle of Ipsus in 

Death of Onias I. Simon I., the Just, high priest. 
He was greatest of the later line of priests, 
last survivor of the "Great Synagogue" of 120, 
who returned with Ezra from the Babylonian 
captivity. The "New Synagogue" succeeded, 
whose office was, according to tradition, to in- 
terpret the Old Testament Scriptures. 

Eleazar, high priest. 

Manasseh, high priest. 

Onias II., high priest. He refuses to pay tribute 
to Ptolemy III. Euergetes. Joseph, son of 
Tobias, high priest's nephew, contrives to ap- 
pease Ptolemy. 

Simon II., high priest. 

Antiochus III., of Syria, overpowers Palestine, 
which is shortly afterwards recovered by Ptol- 
emy IV., of Egypt (Philopator), 217 B.C. 

N.B. — The dates of the high priests down to Onias 
III. are not trustivorthy. 

Death of the high priest Simon II. Onias III., 
high priest. Ecclesiastic us written by Jesus 
Sirachides about 180 B.C. 

Accession of Antiochus IV., surnarned Epiphanes 
(but with the epithet Epimanes," mad "). Onias 
III. visits Antioch to clear himself from the 
charges of Simon, treasurer of the temple. 
Through bribes and promises of tribute Joshua 
(or Jason), brother of Onias, representing the 
Hellenizing party at Antioch, obtains the high- 
priesthood. Onias III. deposed. Temple wor- 
ship neglected. Gymnasium erected for young 

Menelaus outbids Jason in bribes, and supplants 
him. Summoned to Antioch, he sells the tem- 
ple vessels to the Tyrians in order to bribe An- 
dronicus, governor at Antioch. He is accused 
by Onias, and the latter is murdered. 

Deposition of Menelaus by Jason, who assaults 
Jerusalem with 1,000 men. Antiochus invades 
Judea, takes Jerusalem by storm, and slaugh- 
ters without distinction of age or sex ; profanes 
the temple. 

Glorious resistance of the aged priest Matta- 
thias and his sons, who gather Chasidim (Assi- 
deans) around them and retire to mountain 
fastnesses, whence they issue and slaughter the 
idolatrous worshipers. 

Battle of Beth-horon. Army of Apollonius routed 
by Judas, surnarned Maccafcseus (the "Ham- 
merer"), son of Mattathias. 

Persia and 


424, Darius II. 

336, Darius III. 

330, Darius 
slain. End 
of Persian 

Nicator con- 
quers Baby- 
lon. Seleucid 


414,* Egypt and 
from Persia. 

331-320, Jews 
settle at Al- 

323, Ptolemy I. 


187, Seleucus 
IV. Philopa- 
tor ascends 
the throne. 

sent to Rome 
and his suc- 
usurped by 

175, Antiochus 
IV. Epipha- 
nes (Epima- 

phus. LXX. 
of the Old 
This marks 
the epoch of 

succeeds Pt. 
as ruler of 
Egypt at the 
age of five. 
III. (the Gt.,, 
of Syria, 
makes war 
upon him, 
and conq'rs 
Ccele- Syria 
and Pales 
tine (198). 

181, Accession 
of Ptolemy 
VI. Philome 

171, Antiochus 
E p i p h a nes 
Egypt, but 
is compelled 
to withdraw 
by the Ro- 

168, Ptolemy 
reign to 

167, Onias IV. 
takes refuge 
in Egypt, 
and founds 
a new tem- 
ple at Leon- 

Greece and 


359, Philip, 

336, Philip 

334, Alexander 
invades the 

331, Battle of 

323, Death of 
and division 
of his em- 

266, Romans 

masters of 

all Italy. 
264, Beginning 

of Punic 



197, Battle of 


168, Defeat of 
Perseus by 
L. TEmilius 
P a u 1 u s in 
the Battle of 
Conquest of 



Jud< 'i. 

History of the Jews— Continued. 

Battle of Ashaod, Gorgias, attempting t<> sur- 
prise the .I«'\\ ish canip, is utterly routed, with 
immense loss of booty. 

Battle of Bethsum % Lysias, with Q5,000 troops, de- 
feated by Judas with much interior force. Jeru- 
salem retaken. 

Judas cleanses the temple and n places the 
sacred vessels from the captured booty. Sanc- 
tuary is rededteatea and Weastof Dedication insti- 

Death of Antiochus at Tabse. Succeeded by An- 
tiochus V. Eupator. 

Siege ot Bethsura by Lysias with 100,000 troops. 

Alciru us appointed high priest by Antiocb us; is 
supported by Demetrius Soter. Nicanor de- 
feated by Judas at Capharsalama. 

Battle of Adasa (near Beth-horon). Nicanor 
defeated and slain. 

Battle oj Eleasa. Judas attempts to fight 
against overwhelming numbers with a body of 
800 men, and, after defeating the right wing of 
the Syrians, is himself slain. Jonathan, sur- 
named Appnus, youngest son of Mattathias, is 
chosen leader. 

Bacchides makes peace with Jonathan, who gov- 
erns the people from the stronghold of Mich- 

Jonathan's favor is sought by Demetrius against 
his rival, Alexander Balas. The latter nomi- 
nates Jonathan high priest. Jonathan inau- 
gurates the line of Asmonean priest-princes. 

The Jews support Alexander Balas in spite of 
the lavish promises of Demetrius. 

Apollonhcs, governor of Ccele-Syria, adherent of 
Demetrius, defeated by Jonathan at Azotus. 
The latter is established in his position as high 
priest by Demetrius. 

Jonathan confirmed in his authority by Anti- 
ochus VI. Theos. Simon appointed governor 
of the country from Tyre to Egyptian border. 
The followers of Demetrius overthrown by Jon- 
athan near Gennesareth and Hamath. Simon 
takes Ascalon and Joppa. Towns of Judea 
fortified, and walls of Jerusalem heightened. 
Jonathan is slain through the plots and treach- 
ery of Tryphon. 

Simon, surnamed Thassi, last of the five sons of 
Mattathias, becomes high priest. 

Tower of Jerusalem purified and entered. Pros- 
perity and peace enjoyed by Jews (I. Mace. 13: 
48-53; 14: 4 tf.). First year of the freedom of the 
Jews (141). 

Antiochus VII. refuses the aid of Simon against 
the usurper Tryphon. War ensues with Syria. 
In the battle of Jamnia, Cendebeus, the Syrian 
general, is completely defeated by Simon's sons, 
.1 udas and John. 

Simon and his sons Judas and Mattathias treach- 
erously assassinated by Ptolemy. 

John Hyrcanus, second son of Simon, becomes 
high priest. He is compelled by famine to 
surrender Jerusalem and become tributary to 
Antiochus Eusebes. 

Judea recovers independence with the death of 

Hyrcanus conquers the east of the Jordan, de- 
stroys the temple on Mount Gerizim, and 
builds the tower of Baris northwest of the 
Jerusalem temple enclosure (Antonda). In 
consequence of a quarrel with Eleazar, he turns 

Death of Hyrcanus. Aristobulus I. seizes the 
high-priesthood, murders in jealousy his 
brother Antigonus; dies of illness and remorse. 

Alexander Jannseus. The Pharisees instigate a 
rebellion against him (H2). He is expelled, but 
returns to Jerusalem in triumph. 


lf> 4, Antiochus 
V. Eupator. 

Demetrius re- 
turns from 
Horn e a n d 
and reigns 
over Syria 

102, Demetrius 
I. Soter. 

150, Alexander 
Balas usurps 

140, Demetrius 
II. Nicator. 

145, Antiochus 
VI., support- 
ed by Try- 
phon, over- 
powers De- 

143, Tryphon 
puts Anti- 
ochus to 
death and 
usurps au- 

137, Antiochus 
VII. Sidetes, 
second son 
of Demetri- 
us I., and 
brother of 
I) em etrius 
II., defeats 
T r y p b o n 
and besieges 
him in Dora. 

128, Is slain in 
{{(lease of 

More than 10 
rulers fol- 
low in rapid 

83, Tigranes, 
king of Ar- 
menia, be- 
comes ruler 
of Syria. 


150, Marriage 
of Alexan- 
der Balas to 
daughter of 
Ptolemy sup- 
ports Derne- 
his rival, Al 

145, Ptolemy 
or Euerge- 

U7, Ptolemy 
VIII. Lathy 

107, He is ban- 
ished to Cy- 
prus thro 'gh 
his mother, 

106. Ptolemy 

si, Ptolemy X 
so, Ptolemy XI 


146, Destruc- 
tion of Car- 
thage by 
Scipio, and 
capture of 
Corinth by 

132-128, Career 
of Tiberius 

123-121, Caius 
Leges Sem- 
v i a n r e- 

Ill, War with 

I06j Birth of 

102-101, Cimbri 
and Ten to- 
nes defeated 
by Marius. 

100, Birth of 
Julius Csesar. 

90, 1st Mithri- 
datic War. 

86, Death of 

80, 2d Mithri- 
datic War- 
Sulla dicta- 



History of the Jews— Continued. 

Alexander becomes reconciled to the Pharisees; 
dies at the siege of Ragaba. His wife, Alexan- 
dra, succeeds him ; encourages Aristobulus, her 
son, to resist the Pharisees; makes her eldest 
son, Hyrcanus, high priest. 

Hyrcanus II. succeeds on the death of Alexandra, 
and is supported by Phaiixees. Both are de- 
feated by Aristobulus, who captures Jerusalem. 

Aristobulus II., high priest and ruler. Antipater 
supports Hyrcanus. The latter appeal for help 
to Aretas, king of the Nabatheans, who, with 
50,000 men, defeats Aristobulus, and besieges 
him in the temple. 

Scaurus, Pompey's lieutenant, deposes Antiochus 
XIII., and annexes Syria to the Roman domin- 
ions. Rivalry of Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. 

Ponipey holds a court at Damascus. Antipater 
bribes more than 1,000 Jews to support Hyrca- 
nus. Pompey decides in favor of Hyrcanus. 

Resistance of Aristobulus. He surrenders Jeru- 
salem and is himself taken prisoner. The tem- 
ple still resists, and after three months is cap- 
tured and 12,000 Jews slain. Pompey enters 
the holy of holies. 

Hyrcanus II. restored to authority. Judea 
ruled by Rome through Antipater. 

Crassus receives Syria as his province, and is 
overthrown by the Parthians (53). 

Aristobulus, released by Caesar, is murdered by 
Pompeian adherents. 

Antipater aids Julius Caesar in the Egyptian War, 
and is appointed first procurator of Judea, 
with Hyrcanus as ethnarch. 

He appoints his sons Phasael and Herod gover- 
nors of Jerusalem and Galilee respectively. 

Herod is betrothed to Mariamne, granddaughter 
of Hyrcanus, and daughter of Alexander. 

Antigonus, last of the Asmoneans. 

Herod secures the favor of Octavian, and 
also of Antony, and a decree from the Senate 
appointing him king of Judea. 

Jerusalem is besieged for six months, and taken 
after fearful carnage. Antigonus sent in chains 
to Antony, who puts him to death by Herod's 

Herod appoints Aristobulus high priest. 

Herod is defeated by Malchus. 

Is established by Octavian in his kingdom. 

Puts Mariamne to death. 

Builds a theater at Jerusalem and an amphithe- 
ater at Jericho. Games are appointed in honor 
of Augustus. 

Simon appointed high priest, whose daughter 
Mariamne is married to Herod. 

Rebuilding of the temple. Herod visits Rome 
and brings back with him his two sons Alex- 
ander and Aristobulus, who had been sent there 
in B.C. 24. 

Visits Agrippa, whom he invites to Judea. 

Accuses Aristobulus and Alexander before Au- 
gustus, who reconciles them. 

Aristobulus and Alexander condemned to death 
by the Council and strangled. Antipater plots 
against Herod and goes to Rome. 

Simon deposed and Matthias made high priest, 
who is himself deposed in favor of Joazar. 
Two chief rabbis burnt alive for resisting the 
innovation of a golden eagle placed over the 
temple gate. 

Herod orders the execution of Antipater, and 
dies of a painful internal disease. Archelaus 


69, Tigranes 
by the Ro- 
man general 
XIII, set up 
by the Ro- 
mans as 

57, Gabinius, 

54, Crassus 

proconsul, is 
by the Par- 

43, C. Cassius 

After this Sy- 
ria is ruled 
by legati. 


59, By bribes 
obtains rec 
frOm Csesar. 

58, Ptolemy 
Auletes is 
and goes to 

Reign of Be- 
renice and 

55, Gabinius 
Ptolemy Au- 

51, Cleopatra 
and Ptolemy 
XII., and 

48-47 ; Alexan- 
drine War, 

27, Syria is 
made an im- 
perial prov- 
ince, ruled 
by a prefect 
as legatus 

23 2 M. Vipsan- 
ius Agrippa, 
legatus of 

20, Augustus 
visits Syria 
and meets 

16, Agrippa 
once more 

9-8, C. Sentius 

7. Census of 

36-31, Antony 
and Cleopa- 

an imperial 


67, Pompey's 
war against 
the pirates. 
Lex Manilla. 

%, He defeats 

63, Consulship 
of Cicero and 
of Catiline. 

60, 1st Triumvi- 
rate of Julius 
Caesar, Pom- 
pey, and 

58-51, Caesar's 
in Gaul. 

49, Civil war 
Pompey and 

48, Battle of 

44, Assassina- 
tion of Caesar. 

43, td Triumvi- 
rate of Octa- 
vian, Anto- 
ny, and Lep- 

42, Battle of 
Philippi. De- 
feat of Bru- 
tus and Cas- 

40, Antony 
and O c t a - 
vian recon- 
ciled at 

37-36, War 
against Sex- 
tus Pompey. 

31, Battle of 
Actium. De- 
feat of An- 

30, Octavian 
to Egypt, 
Death of 
Antony and 

29, Closing of 
the temple 
of Janus. 

27, Octavian 
assumes the 
name Au- 

21, Augustus 
winters in 

20, Passes into 

taken from 
Crassus re- 
stored by 

8, Census of 
Roman citi- 
zens insti- 




By REV. J. B. HEARD, M.A., Caius College, Cambridge; Vicar op Queen-Charl- 
ton, Bath; Late Hulsean Lecturer in the University of Cambridge. 

A Preparation for Christ.— It is not without 
significance that the genealogical tables, as re- 
corded by St. Matthew, are divided into three 
sections, each containing fourteen generations. 
In all probability they are rounded off into 
equal portions by the omission of one or two 
insignificant names here and there; but the 
substantial fact remains that Hebrew history 
from Abraham to Christ falls into three equal 
portions— the patriarch and prophet, or tribal, 
stage of the nation's growth; the kingly, or 
national, type properly so called; and lastly, 
the stage from the captivity to Christ, the third 
and last evolution of Hebrew history. This is 
its decline and fall, as the secular historian 
would describe it; but, viewed from within, it is 
its preparation for the last consummation of all 
in the times of the Messiah. As the keynote of 
all Jewish story is the "travailing of Israel " in 
birth for the appointed seed, under the twofold 
conditions of Adamic birth and Abrahamic 
descent,— "made of a woman, made under the 
law,"— so the stages onward towards that con- 
summation could only attain to their full real- 
ization when the seed of the woman and the 
son of the law found their meeting-point in 
the one perfect flower of humanity. The course 
of history is thus tracked to the point when 
Jew and Gentile flow together as rivers meet 
and mingle in the common ocean. The cap- 
tivity, though a judgment on the people for 
their sins of unfaithfulness to the covenant, 
was in reality an unconscious preparation for 
the times of the Messiah. Their national loss 
was turned to gain: not only were they weaned 
from their proneness to idolatry, but their de- 
partures from monotheism were, after meeting 
with Persian types of thought, corrected and 
reformed. Instead of a local covenant God, the 
patron deity of a solitary Syrian tribe, whose 
power as El-Elohim was too vague to become 
the object of a definite worship, they rose to 
the clear conception of their God being also the 
God of the whole earth, and the All-Father of 
men. The God of their fathers Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob was in future to be approached as 
Absolute and Relative in one, as Jahveh-Elo- 
him in the deepest and strictest sense of the 

The return from captivity is thus the third 
and final stage in the growth of Israel as the 
covenant people. Monotheism, exceptional in 
the days of Elijah and the earlj^ prophets, was 
burned into them by the fires of persecution. 
This highest stage of monotheism was the ele- 
vated point of view which they had reached 
in the third and final stage of their spiritual 
growth on the return from captivity. 

But we must not exaggerate or antedate events. 
The times of the fullness of the Gentiles, when 
Jew and Gentile were to mingle in one com- 
mon stock in Messiah's day, were not yet come. 
If the Hebrews went into captivity for their 
proneness to idolatry, and were at last weaned 
from that tendency under the chastisement of 
a seventy years' separation from their land, 
they only returned to develop a fresh spirit 
of separation. They came back monotheists, it 
is true, and zealous for the law, but in a nar- 
row, exclusive spirit. More than ever they 

regarded themselves as the one covenant peo- 
ple, and they learned to hate and despise the 
Gentiles in proportion as they passed under 
their yoke. It was the same theocracy before 
and after the captivity; but it had changed 
its character. From a state which was also a 
church it became only a church, in which the 
priests ruled, and in which the prophetic order, 
that admirable safeguard of spiritual liberty, 
sank into comparative insignificance. 

The Return from Captivity.— Cyrus, the con- 
queror of Babylon, in the first year of his reign 
(B.C. 536), seventy years after the captivity, but 
fifty-two after the destruction of Jerusalem and 
the temple, caused a decree to be proclaimed 
by a herald throughout the whole of his vast 
empire, that all the people of the God of 
heaven were free without exception to return 
to Jerusalem and rebuild the temple. This 
general permission therefore extended to the 
children of the ten tribes dispersed through- 
out Assyria, Halah, Gozan, and Media, as well 
as to the children of Judah and Benjamin, 
whose settlements were confined to Che bar and 

The return of the remnant of the tribes, the 
difficulties they encountered, the wise leader- 
ship of Zcrubbabel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, the 
building of the temple, and the delays and 
obstacles put in the way by the mongrel races 
remaining in Palestine, are fully detailed in 
the Scriptures. 

Persian and Greek Periods.— History is almost 
silent regarding the condition of the Jews dur- 
ing the century and a half extending from the 
times of Nehemiah and Malaehi, during that 
transition time between the dominion of Per- 
sian and Greek, down to the period of the wars 
of Alexander. Alexander's brief reign of five 
years as master of Asia and the East left little 
or no impression on the Jews, who became sub- 
ject successively to Ptolemy, then to Antigo- 
nus, and finally to the Seleucidse. So quiet was 
this last period that it was accepted by the 
Jews as a recognized starting-point of their 
chronology. The situation changed when the 
Roman entered into the struggle of a century 
before the Seleucian dynasty was finally broken. 

The Maccabees (Asmoneans), b.c. 167-63.— 
In 170 the unwise decision of King Antiochus 
to force on the Jews entire conformity with Hel- 
lenistic practices, civil and religious, set in 
motion a rising of the Jews to recover their 
religious, which ended in their regaining 
civil, independence. At the head of the party 
in Judea attached to the old order of theocratic 
ideas at the time when Antiochus Epiphanes 
ascended the throne, stood the high priest 
Onias III. The leader of the Hellenizing party 
friendly to the Greeks was his own brother, 
Jesus, or, as he is better known under his Greek 
name, Jason. In Jerusalem Antiochus sought 
to force idolatry upon the Jews, to compel them 
to burn the Scriptures, and to forbid circum- 
cision. He profaned the temple, and carried 

1 The dates of the leading events, are given in the 
preceding table; this article .seeks only to summarize 
the drift of the history and to indicate the causes of 
the changes. 



away its greatest treasures, and deported many 
of the inhabitants of Jerusalem. 

Mattathias, an aged priest of Modein, with 
his five sons, John, Simon, Judas, Eleazar, and 
Jonathan, led a national rising, the hill country 
of Judea being their stronghold. In 106 B.C. 
Judas succeeded to the leadership, which re- 
sulted in the establishment of a new native 
dynasty— the Asmoneans. Alert of foot and 
quick of brain, Judas soon had organized a 
small but trained army, which by a series of 
decisive victories drove out the Syrian and 
strengthened the nation. The temple was re- 
dedicated, and forever after its restoration by 
Judas Maccabeus the worship of the covenant 
God of their fathers was maintained in all its 
integrity. Judas was killed in battle at Eleasa 
in 1(51 B.C., and was succeeded by his brother 
Jonathan, and later by Simon. The high office 
of king-priest, or priest-prince, was conferred 
upon Judas, and later upon Jonathan and Si- 
mon. For a century at least, until the subjuga- 
tion by the Roman, Judea had rest. 

But success was transient, and after the death 
of the last of the sons of Mattathias the family 
began to degenerate almost as quickly as it had 
sprung into greatness. Quarrels, acceptance of 
the Hellenizing customs, irregularities in vari- 
ous forms, soon brought the Jews to the last 
of the independent princes of the Asmonean 
dynasty. Hyrcanus II., high priest, weak and 
indolent, permitted the power to pass to the Idu- 
mean, Antipater, father of Herod the Great, at 
the time of the taking of Jerusalem by Pompey. 

The Roman Period.— Herod.— Even Judas had 
sought an alliance with Rome against Anti- 
ochus, and each succeeding generation bound 
Judea more closely under the control of Rome, 
the world-governing empire. Antipater, as the 
actual ruler, kept in favor with the Roman 
powers, and in B.C. 47 was appointed by Julius 
Csesar procurator of Judea. His son Herod suc- 
ceeded him in B.C. 43. 

The reign of Herod as supreme ethnarch of 
the whole of Palestine extended from b. c 
37 to a.d. 4. It was distinguished, as perhaps 
no monarch's before or since ever was, by the 
most brilliant achievements worthy of the Au- 
gustan age, and darkened at the same time by 
atrocities which would have disgraced a Nero 
or a Domitian. Pie laid out a new palace on 
Zion, renewed the city walls, and rebuilt the 
temple in great magnificence. But he used his 
power to betray his country, to foster immoral- 
ity, to weaken the religious faith, to corrupt the 
priesthood, and to destroy all that was noble in 
the Jewish character. The gospel narrative 
throws a side-light on his character, which, per- 
haps, is all the more instructive because the 
corroboration of other historians is an object of 
the sacred record. The motive of the massacre 
of the innocents of Bethlehem is distinctly 
ascribed to suspicion of the coming of a possi- 
ble Messiah, to whom he knew he must yield, 
when challenged, the place. 

The brief success of the Maccabees had only 
inspired the Jews with false ideals as to the 
true nature of the kingdom of the Messiah for 
whom they were looking. The subsequent loss 
of political liberty filled them with hatred of 
their oppressors, drove them into greater ex- 
clusiveness, and intensified their spiritual pride 
and extreme formality. The numerous sects 
and parties (see chapter on Sects, etc.) simply 
expressed in outward form the varied opinions 
and ambitions of a narrow, dogmatic, and dis- 
putatious people. It was into the midst of such 
a people, at such a time of oppression, that the 
Messiah came. 

Books of Reference: Schiirer's Jewish People in 
the Time of Christ; Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews; 
Ewald's History of Israel; Hosmer's Story of the Jews; 
Milman's History cf the Jews. See under Old Testa- 
ment Chronology. 



Antipater, an Idumean, made procurator of Judea by Julius Caesar, B.C. 47, m. Cypros, an Arabian. 

Phasael. Herod the Great, " the king V (Matt. 2:1; Luke 1: 5). 

Made by Antony joint tetrarchs of Judea, B.C. 41. Herod, made by 
the Senate king of Judea, B.C. 40. After battle of Actium, Octavian 
confirmed him in the kingdom, B.C. 31. Died, B.C. 4. 

m. 1. Mariamne, grand-dau. of Hyrcanus. 

Aristobulus m.Berenice. 

m. 2. Mariamne, 
daughter of Simon, high priest. 

Herodias, wife of Herod Agrippa I. ra.Cypros, 

(1) Philip I., and (Acts 12: 1.) a cousin. 

(2) Herod Antipas 
(Matt. 14 : 3-11 ; Mark 6 : 17-28 ; Luke 3 : 19). 

Herod Philip I. m.Herodias. 


m. 3. Malthake, a 


Agrippa II. 

(Acts 25: 13.) 

Bernicem. her uncle, 
Herod, king of 
Chalcis, at whose 
death she returned 
to her brother (Acts 
25: 13, 23), Agrippa 
II., with whom she 
was suspected of 
intimacy. He and 
she heard Paul's 
defense before Festus 

Drusilla, a 
(Acts 24:24), 
m. 1. Aziz, king 

of Emesa 
m. 2. Felix. 

Salome m. Herod Philip II., 
son of Herod the 
Great and Cleo- 
patra. Tetrarch 
of Itursea and Tra- 
chonitis (Luke 

Herod Antipas (" the > 
tetrarch, " Matt. 14 : 1 ; 
Luke 3:1, 19; 9:7), . 
called "KingHe rod," f 
Mark 6: 14. Deposed. 
A.D. 40. 

m. Herodias. 

Archelaus (Matt. 
2:22). Deposed 
and banished, 
a.d. 6. 





By REV. OWEN C. WHITEHOUSE, M.A., Professor of Hebrew, 
Cheshunt College, near London. 








( ! II K I ST f A N H ISTOR y. 

[For details of incidents in our Lord's life, con- 
sult the Harmony, p. 76.] 

x Probable date of our Lord's birth. Herod's 
death. Archelaus becomes ethnarch of Judea, 
Samaria, and klnmea. 

Jesus visits Jerusalem at the age of twelve, and 
converses with the rabbis in the temple. 

Ministry of John the Baptist. 

Baptism of Jesus Christ at the age of thirty. 

First Passover. First Galilean Circuit with the 
disciples (Matt. 4:23-25; Mark 1:35-39; Luke 

March 29. Christ's Second Passover (John 5). 
Second Galilean Circuit (Matt. 13: 1-53). 

Third Galilean Circuit (Matt. 9: 35 ft'.; 10: 1; Mark 
6:7-13; Luke 9:1-6). Third Passover, April 16, 
Jesus stays in Galilee (John 7:1) 2 . 

Feast of Tabernacles (October) (John 7). 

Feast of Dedication (December) (John 10:22). 

March 30. Arrives at Bethany six days before 
the Passover. Passion Week. 

April 6. Crucifixion. Third day after, Resurrec- 

May 17. Ascension. 

Day of Pentecost and descent of the Holy Spirit 
(Acts 2). 

Imprisonment of Peter and John by order of 
Sanhedrin (Acts 4). 

Growth of the Christian community. Death of 
Ananias and Sapphira. Increasing activity 
and influence of the Christians awaken the 
hostility of the Sanhedrin. Imprisonment of 
the apostles. They are miraculously liberated, 
and are ultimately allowed to depart by the 
Sandedrin on the advice of Gamaliel. 



4, Birth of Jesus Christ. 
Death of Herod the Great. 
Archelaus, ethnarch in Ju 

dea, Samaria, and Idumea. 
Herod Antipas in Galilee 

and Perrea. 
Philip in Au ran His and 

Trachonitis, etc. 


6, Archelaus banished by Au 
gustus. Judea incorporated 
with Syria, under a procura 

7, Coponius, procurator. 
Ananus made high priest in- 
stead of Jesus. 

9, M. Ambivius, procurator in 

12, Annius Rufus, procurator 

in Judea. 

15, Valerius Gratus, procura 
tor in Judea. Ishmael, and 
afterwards Eleazar, made 
high priest. 

16, Eleazar deposed for Simon. 

17, Simon deposed and Caia- 
phas made high priest. Cn. 
Calpurnius Piso, governor of 
Syria. Terrible earthquakes. 

19, Death of Germanicus near 

26, Pontius Pilate, procurator 

in Judea. 



27, Augustus 

14, Accession 
of Tiberius. 

'Note on the Birth of Our Lord.— From Jose- 
phus {Antiq., xjvii., 8, 1; Wars, i.,33, 8) we learn 
that Herod died in the thirty-seventh year of 
his reign. Now Herod was made king in the 
consulship of Cn. Domitius Calvinus and C. 
Asinius l'ollio, i.e., B.C. 40 (714 A.u.c). Most 
writers have supposed thatthe year is reckoned 
by Joseph us from the month Nisan; moreover, 
we may conclude from Josephug (Anti(/. xvii. 9, 
3) that Herod died at the beginning of the 
thirty-seventh year, or immediately before 
Passover, Consequently we must add thirty- 
six years to 71 1 a.u.c. Hence we get 750 
B.C. 4 as the date of Herod's death, and since 

this took place subsequent to the birth of Jesus, 
B.C. 1 is the latest possible date that can be assigned 
to the birth of our Lord. (See Wieseler's Chrono- 
logical Synopsis of the Four Gospels, sec. i., chap. 2.) 

Thus, our Christian era is really calculated 
from a wrong starting-point. This was derived 
from the defective chronology of Dionysius Exig- 
uits (0th century) who made the year of our 
Lord's nativity, or a.i>. 1, correspond to 754 a.u.c. 

2 At this point in the life of our Lord it becomes 
especially difficult to arrange the events with 
any approximation to their actual sequence. 
Wieseler's Chronological Synopsis considers the 
topic with great care and fullness. 





Christian History. 

Trial and martyrdom of Stephen (Acts 6: 9-7). 

Rapid growth in numbers of the Christians. 
They are persecuted by their Jewish brethren, 
in which persecution Saul takes an active part. 
Philip the deacon preaches in Samaria, 
whither St. Peter and St. John follow. Philip 
converts the Ethiopian eunuch (Acts 8). 

Conversion of Saul. He spends three years in 

Paul returns to Jerusalem. The Jews plot to 
take away his life. He departs for Tarsus 
(Acts 9). 

Cessation of persecution and increase of Chris- 
tian believers. 

Peter visits and baptizes Cornelius, a Roman 
centurion. Christianity extended to the Gen- 
tiles (Acts 10-11: 18). 

Growth in numbers of the Gentile Christians in 
Antioch. They are visited by Barnabas. They 
are now first called Christians. 

Paul brought by Barnabas from Tarsus, and they 
labor together at Antioch. Severe famine 
prophesied by Agabus (Acts 11 : 21-30). 

Herod Agrippa puts James, brother of John, to 
death, and imprisons Peter. He dies at 
Csesarea (Acts 12). 

Paul and Barnabas set apart to preach to the 
Gentiles. Their first missionary journey (Acts 
13, 14). 

Dissensions awakened by the Judaizers at An- 
tioch. Paul and Barnabas sent as representatives 
to Jerusalem. Decree in favor of Gentile liberty. 

St. Paul's second missionary journey, with Silas 
(Acts 15-17). 

After preaching in Phrygia, Galatia, Mysia, and 
Troas, he is joined by Luke, and crosses over 
into Macedonia and visits Philippi, Thessa- 
lonica, and Berea, whence Jewish opposition 
drives him to Athens. 

Paul at Corinth with Aquila and Priscilla. Epis- 
tles to Thessalo7iians. 

Proconsulship of Gallio in Achaia. Paul quits 
Corinth for Ephesus (Acts 18: 1-22). 

Paul at Jerusalem. Third missionary journey. 

Sets out from Antioch for Galatia and Phrygia. 
Paul at Ephesus for two years. Writes perhaps 
First Epistle to Corinthians, and perhaps also 
Epistle to Galatians (see below). 

Compelled by a tumult at Ephesus to leave for 
Macedonia (Acts 18: 23-19). 

Writes Second Epistle to Corinthians (and about 
this time perhaps the Epistle to Galatians). Paul 
reaches Corinth probably at the end of the year. 

Stays three months at Corinth. Epistle to the 
Romans. He quits Corinth in the early part of 
the year, returns to Macedonia, revisits Philippi 
in company with Luke, and departs after Pass- 
over (Acts 20: 1-6). Leaves Troas, bids farewell 
to Ephesian elders at Miletus (Acts 20: 7-38). 

Visits Tyre, then Csesarea, and arrives at Jerusa- 
lem before Pentecost. Violent outburst of feel- 
ing against Paul. Pie is rescued by Claudius 
Lysias at the head of his troops. Defends him- 
self before the Jews; is sent to Csesarea. Defends 
himself before Felix (Acts 21-24). 

Paul still prisoner at Ceesarea. Defends himself 
before Festus and Agrippa (Acts 25, 26). He is 
delivered with other prisoners to the centurion 
Julius. Voyage to Rome. Shipwreck at Melita, 
where he winters. 

Sails for Rome. Visits Syracuse, Rhegium, Pu 
teoli. At length he reaches Rome, and is placed 
under custody of the pretorian prefect Burrus. 
Lives two years in his hired house (Acts 27, 28). 

Writes Epistles to the Ephesians and Colossians, to 
Philemon, and to Rhilippians. Close of book of 

Neronian persecution. 

Note.— Conybeare and Howson continue the life of 
Paul as follows: 

Voyage to Spain. 



34, Vitellius, legal us in Syria. 

36, Deposition of Pilate. 

37, Caiaphas deposed, and 
Jonathan made high priest 
by Vitellius. 
i, Marcellus, procurator in 

39, P. Petronius, legatus of 

41, Herod Agrippa appointed 
over the kingdom of Judea 
and Samaria. 

42, Matthias made high priest ; 
Elionseus, high priest in 43. 

44, Herod dies at Csesarea. 
Cuspius Fadus, procurator 
in Judea. 

45, TJieudas executed. Joseph, 
high priest, 

46, Tiberius Alexander, pro 
curator in Judea. 

47, Joseph deposed and Ana- 
nias made high priest by 

48, Cumanus, procurator in 

51, Quadratus, legatus of 
Syria, deposes Cumanus and 
sends Ananias, high priest, 
a prisoner to Rome. 
Antonius Felix, procurator 
in Judea. 


37, Caligula, 
Agrippa re- 

39, He endeav- 
ors to place 
his statue in 
the temple 
of Jerusa- 

59, Ishmael, made high priest 
in place of Ananias. 

60, Felix recalled; Porcius 
Festus, procurator. 

62, Gessius Floras, procura- 

Jewish war begins. 

41, Claudius, 


52, Agrippa II. 
(son of Her- 
od Agrippa 
Impleads for 
the Jews at 

54, Nero, em- 





Christian History. 

Visit to Asia Minor. 

Writes First Epistle to Timothy and Titus. 

Second imprisonment. Second Epistle to Timothy. 
Martyrdom of Paul. 

Persecution of Christians by Domitian. 
St. John m till living. 


70, Siege and capture of Je- 
rusalem by Titus. 


OS, Galba, em- 

09, Otho, em- 

69, Vitellius, 

09, Vespasian, 

79, Titus, em- 

81, Domitian, 

96, Nerva,em- 

98, Trajan, 

Note. — The details of the writing of the Gos- 
pels, Acts, Revelation, and Epistles other than 
Paul's are too uncertain for insertion in this 
table. For full diseussion regarding each, con- 
sult the article by Dr. Plummer on the Books of 
the New Testament, p. 43. 

Note by Prof. Whitehouse.— The chronological 
scheme set forth above can only be regarded as 
the best approximation that can be obtained 
from a careful examination of the facts of the 
narrative both of our Lord's life, described in 
the Gospels, and of the followers of our Lord, 
related in the Acts of the Apostles, supple- 
mented by occasional references in the Epis- 
tles. Particular importance belongs to all allu- 
sions to the occurrence of Jewish festivals as a 
means of marking the progress of time. The 
occasional mention of the name of the reigning 
Roman emperor also furnishes certain time 

Books of Referexce: On the apostolic period the 
most valuable authority is the treatise by Wieseler on 
the Chronology of the Apostolic Age. An appendix 

(containing tables of dates) on the " Chronology of the 
Life of St. Paul," in Archdeacon Farrar'B Life and 
Work of St. J ?aul, will be found useful. With regard 
to the Gospels, the problem is complicated by questions 
regarding the structure of the Gospels. On these the 
reader is referred to Prof. Sunday's article " Gospels," 
in the last edition of Smith's Dictionary of the Bible. 

Schiirer's Jewish People in the 'rime of Clirist; Stu- 
((> nt's ftew T( stament History; Dolitzsoh's Jewish Art- 
izan Life; Merrill's Galilee in the Timrof Christ; Stapf- 
er's Palestine in the. Tune of Clirist; Delitzsch's A Bay 
in Capernaum; Fisher's Beginnings of Christianity. 

SchatPs Apostolic Christianity; Neander's First Plant- 
ing of Christianity; Vedder's Iknm of Chr,s(ianity; 
Stirrer's Introduction to the Bool: of Acts; Pileiderer's 
Influence of the Apostle Paid on. tin Development of 
Christianity; Bartlett's Early Church History. 

Lewin's life and Epistles of St. Paul; Conybeare & 
Howson's Life and Epistles of St. Paul; Farrar's Life 
and Work of St. Paid; Stalker's Life of St. Paul; Tay- 
lor's Paul the jrissionaryimd Peter 1 he Apostle; Mathe- 
son's Spiritual Development of St. Paul; Ciloag's Intro- 
duction to the Pauline Epistles. See under Summary 
of Gospel Incidents and under Books of the 
New Testament. 






By Rev. A. R. FAUSSET, D.D., Canon and Prebendary of York; Sometime Uni- 
versity Scholar and Senior Classical Moderator of Trinity College, Dublin. 


The separation of the sacred Scriptures from 
uninspired writers is sealed by the twofold in- 
spiration, (1) that of the inspired authors, and 
(2) that of the judges, i.e., the prophets and "the 
discerners of spirits" (I. Cor. 12: 10; I. John 4: 1). 
Paul appeals to the latter as attesting his epistle 
(I. Cor. 14: 37). First came belief in Christ, the 
incarnate Word; then the oral word, about Christ; 
then gradually arose the written word, which ul- 
timately, with the other Scriptures, was formed 
into a canon, The gospel was first spoken whilst 
the apostles were living; but before their death 
provision was made for their testimony becom- 
ing a continuous legacy for the church. The four 
therefore, and no more, were recognized by the 
Christian church at that early date. The con- 
currence of the four in certain unusual expres- 
sions, and in the choice of incidents, implies 
that there was at first a common oral gospel 
(referred to in Luke 1:4, as "taught by word 
of mouth" to Theophilus, R. V. margin). The 
three synoptical Gospels are called so from their 
giving a synopsis (in the main alike) of Christ's 
ministry in Galilee. St. John, long after, treats 
of Christ's ministry in Judea, His incidents are 
new, except the events of Passion Week, the 
feeding of the five thousand, and the storm 
at sea (recorded to introduce the discourse in 
Galilean Capernaum, eh. 6) ; also incidents of his 
Galilean ministry in chs. 2, 7, and 21, which they 
have not. They also hint at Christ's ministry in 
Judea (Matt. 23 : 37 ; Luke 13 : 34). If the total con- 
tents be taken as two hundred, there are seven 
peculiarities in Mark, forty-two in Matthew, 
fifty-nine in Luke, ninety-two in John (West- 
cott). Mark is no mere copyist of Matthew; for of 
all four he has the most graphic touches, as of 
an eye-witness of the scenes (for internal evi- 
dence confirms the saying of the fathers that 
he was "Peter's interpreter"), though his Gospel 
is shortest. Luke's details are almost peculiar to 
himself, from 9:51 (which refers to Christ's last 
journey towards Jerusalem) on to 18: 15, the bless- 
ing of the children, where he joins Matthew and 
Mark. Matthew writes for Jews, his theme being 
"the kingdom of heaven" (in Mark and Luke, 
"the kingdom of God") as opposed to the earth- 
ly kingdom, which the Jews were then expect- 
ing. Mark's Gospel has a Roman aspect; his 
theme is Christ's practical service as the serv- 
ant of God for man. His very name is Roman. 
The Gospel of Luke, whose name is Greek, has 
a Greek aspect; his theme is Christ "the Son 
of man " in his sympathizing humanity. John 
writes for the spiritual of every race; his theme 
is the Son of God manifested as our light and 
life. His Gospel is the complement of the three 
synoptists. Christ appears as— (1) the Son of 
David in Matthew ; (2) the Servant of God in 
Mark; (3). the Son of man in Luke; (4) the Son 
of God in John. As Matthew's Gospel is charac- 
terized by discourses of Jesus, so Mark's Gospel 
by his acts. We have thus the three chief hu- 
man civilizations meeting— the Hebrew theoc- 
racy answering to Matthew's aspect of Christ, 
the Roman polity answering to Mark's, the 
Greek literature and art answering to Luke, 
whilst in John the spiritual predominates. John 
forms the climax, portraying Christ's divinity, 
as the synoptists portray his humanity. 


Seeming discrepancies occur. The modes of 
harmonizing these may not be the right ones, 
but they prove at least that the discrepancies 
are not necessarily irreconcilable. Reconcilable 
diversity is a confirmation of the truth, because 
it disproves collusion and shows the witnesses 
to be independent. Sameness in all four would 
make all but the first mere copies. Variation 
in the order of events in different Gospels shows 
that chronological sequence is not the aim al- 
ways, but that the spiritual connection is as 
true in those Gospels which do not observe the 
chronological ordei\as in those which do. There 
are not four different gospels, but one fourfold 
gospel of Jesus Christ from the Holy Ghost, 
who inspired four intelligent writers to present 
him from a fourfold point of view, forming one 
complete whole. 


The inspired summary of Jesus' life is, "God 
anointed him with the Holy Ghost and with 
power: who went about doing good, and healing 
all that were oppressed of the devil; for God 
was with hirn " (Acts 10: 38, R. V.). In Jesus God 
is manifested as he is, and man as he ought to 
be. He brings back to man the image of God in 
which man was made, but which man had lost. 
"If the apostles or any one else had invented Christ, 
the inventor would be more wonderful than 
the hero" (Rousseau). His claim to Godhead 
and Messiahship rests on — (1) Fulfilled prophecy, 
as Isa. 53, and Holy Scripture (John 5: 39) ; (2) Mira- 
cles, confirmed by Scripture (John 5:36; 7:31; 
10: 25, 38); (3) His peerless character, excluding 
alike the theory of fanaticism and of impos- 
ture; (4) His resurrection (Rom. 1:4); (5) The moral 
and social changes wrought in the world through the 
church of Christ, in which his Spirit works (Col. 
1: 0); (6) The transformation of individuals (I. Cor. 
6: 10, 11), the witness of his Spirit with their 
spirit that he satisfies all their soul's needs 
(Rom. 8: 16; Eph. 3: 17-20). 

Jesus is the Greek form of Joshua (Acts 7: 45; 
Heb. 4:8); it means Jehovah- Saviour, for "he 
himself [Greek] saves his people from their sins" 
(Matt. 1 : 21) ; not merely as Joshua, God's instru- 
ment; Christ (Greek), Messiah (Hebrew), anointed 
as Prophet, Priest, and King, alone combining 
the three. Others, as Moses, David, etc., were 
only anointed to one or two of the three offices. 

Books of Reference: Westoott's Introduction to 
the Study of the Four Gospels; Dale's Jiving Christ and 
the Jour Gospels; Thompson's Four Evangelists ; Greg- 
ory's Why Four Gospels? Genung's The Fourfold 
Story ; Robinson's Harmony of the Gospels; Cadrnan's 
Critical Harmony of the Gospels; Broadus' Harmony 
of the Gospels (Revised Version); Strong's Our Lord's 
Life; Geikie's Life of Christ; Andrews' Life of Our 
Lord; Stalker's Life of Christ ; Edersheirn's Jesus the 
Messiah (1 vol.) and Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah 
(2 vols.); Farrar's Fife of Christ; Kephart's Jesus the 
Nazarene and Public Life of Christ (chart) ; Weiss' Life 
of Christ; Wendt's The Teachings of Jesus; Schaff's 
Person of Christ; Hurlbut's Studies in the Four Gospels; 
TJllmann's Sinlessness of Jesus; Bushnell's Character of 
Jesus; Broadus' Jesus of Nazareth; Fairbairn's Place 
of Christ in Modern Theology; Geikie's New Testament 
Hours: The Gospels. 











Incidents of the Birth and Boyhood of Jesus Christ 
Till He Was Twelve Years of Age. 

1. Introduction, 

2. The genealogies— Matthew the legal, Luke the 

natural descent, ------- 

3. Birth of John announced to Zacharias, - 

4. Birth of Jesus announced to Mary at Nazareth 

six months later, ------ 

5. Mary's visit to Elizabeth, and her hymn, - 

6. John the Baptist's birth, and Zacharias' hymn, 

7. The angel appears to Joseph, - 

8. Birth of Jesus at Bethlehem, - 

9. Angelic announcement to the shepherds. (In 

spring flocks are watched by night.), 

10. Circumcision of Jesus, and presentation in the 

temple, where he is welcomed by Simeon and 
Anna, 41 days after nativity (Lev. 12: 3, 4) - 

11. Visit of the Magi, in the house— no longer in 

manger; epiphany to Gentiles, - - - 

12. Flight into Egypt, 

13. Herod's murder of the innocents, - - - 

14. Return to Nazareth, fearing Archelaus' cruelty, 

shown from the first, 

15. Jesus, at the age of twelve, goes up to the Pass- 

over, and is found with the doctors in the 
temple ; then follows his 18 years' retirement, 

Inauguration of Christ's Public Ministry. 

16. Preparatory preaching of John the Baptist, 

17. Christ's baptism in river Jordan at Perean 

1: 1-4 

3: 23-38 
1: 5-25 

1: 26-38 
1 : 89-56 
1: 57-80 

1: 1-14 

1: 1-17 

6, Nov. 

5, May 


1: 18-25 

4, Feb. 1 

2: 1-7 
2: 8-20 

2: 21-38 


2: 1-12 
2: 13-15 
2: 16-18 

2: 19-23 

3, Apr. 

2: 39,40 

2: 41-52 

3: 1-18 
3: 21-23 
4: 1-13 



27, Jan. 

3: 1-12 
3: 13-17 

1: 1-8 
1: 9-11 
1: 12,13 

18. The Spirit leads him to desert of Judea, where 

Satan tempts him, - 

19. The Baptist's witness to Jesus, - - - - 

20. Two of John's disciples follow Jesus; Andrew 

brings his brother Simon, - 

21. Christ returns to Galilee ; finds Philip, who in 

turn finds Nathanael, ----- 

22. First miracle at Cana, and visit to Capernaum, 

Public Ministry of Christ from the First Passover 
to the Second. 

23. Christ goes up to Jerusalem for the Passover, 

and, with a scourge, expels the sellers and 
money-changers from the temple; works 
miracles, convincing many, - 

24. Nicodemus is convinced; has a night inter- 

view with Jesus, 

25. Christ leaves Jerusalem, stays eight months in 

N. E. Judea, and baptizes by his disciples, 

26. John, baptizing in iEnon, again witnesses to 

the Christ, 

27. Imprisonment of John, 

28. John being cast into prison, Jesus leaves Judea 

for Galilee; John beheaded— not till 28 a.d. 
(Matt. 14: 12-21), 

29. Passing through Samaria, he converts a wom- 

an of Sychar, and through her many of the 
Samaritans, four months before harvest, - 

30. Commencement of his public ministry in Gal- 


31. Visiting Cana again, he heals a nobleman's son 

sick at Capernaum, ------ 

From His Second to His Third Passover. 

32. Returns to Jerusalem at the Passover, "the 

feast." His second Passover. From this t<> 
the third, his main Galilean ministry. Jesus 
cures an infirm man at Bethesda pool on the 
Sabbath. The Jews seek to kill him for declar- 
ing himself one; with the Father in working. 

4: 1-11 

"l: 15-34 

1: 35-42 

1: 43-51 

2: 1-12 



2: 13-25 

3: 1-21 

3: 22 

"3: 19, 20 
4: 14,15 

3: 23-36 


4: 12 

1: 14 

4: 1-3 
4: 4-42 

4: 17 

1: 14,15 

4: 14,15 

4: 43-45 
4: 46-54 


5: 1-47 

1 The date of the birth of Jesus is usually given as Where this is accepted the preceding month should 
December, b. c. 5, a difference of about two months. I be changed accordingly.— Editor. 







33. Returns to Galilee. A chasm between the 

earlier visit to Nazareth, whilst fresh from 
the Spirit's baptism, and this later visit to 
Galilee, and his sermon at Nazareth, as Luke 
4: 23 proves, 

34. He settles at Capernaum, and teaches in public, 

35. Miraculous draught of fishes; call of Simon, 

Andrew, James, and John, - 

36. Jesus casts out a demon, ------ 

37. Cure of Simon's wife's mother, and other sick 

people, -- 

38. Circuit with the disciples through Galilee, - 

39. He heals a leper, and, shunning popularity, 

retires to the desert, 

40. Returning to Capernaum, he heals a palsied 

man let down through the roof, - - - 

41. Call of Matthew, the feast, and discourse at his 

house— the new garment and new wine, - 

42. He answers objections as to the reason of his 

not fasting, 

43. Returning towards Galilee, the disciples pluck 

corn ears on the Sabbath, - 

44. Healing a man's withered hand on the Sabbath, 

the Pharisees plot his death with the Hero- 
dians, --------- 

45. He withdraws to the lake and heals many, 

46. Ascending a hill west of the lake, after prayer 

all night, he chooses the Twelve; his charge, 

47. Sermon on the mount, on the level below the 

hilltop, --------- 

48. Healing of the centurion's servant, - - - 

49. Raising of the widow's son at Nain, - - - 

50. John Baptist's mission of inquiry from his 

dungeon at Maehserus, 

51. Jesus upbraids Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Caper- 

naum , and invites the heavy-laden, 

52. Anointing of his feet^ in the Pharisee Simon's 

house, by the sinful but forgiven woman, - 

53. Short circuit of two days' preaching through 

Galilee ; women ministering, - - - - 

54. Returning to Capernaum, he heals a blind and 

dumb demoniac, the Pharisees attributing 
the miracle to Beelzebub, - 

55. Seeking a sign, and the answer, - - - - 

56. His kinsfolk try to lay hold on him as mad, 

57. From a- fishing vessel he speaks a series of 

seven parables, beginning with the parable 
of the sower, -------- 

58. Jesus crosses the lake with his disciples, and 

calms a storm, ------- 

59. He cures two demoniacs of Gadara, one being 

prominent, --- 

60. Returning to the west shore, he raises Jairus' 

daughter, and heals a woman with an issue 
of blood, -------- 

61. He heals two blind men and casts out a demon, 

62. Jesus visits Nazareth again, when his country- 

men disbelieve in him, - 

63. Christ teaches throughout Galilee, - - - 

64. Sends forth the Twelve, 

65. Herod, who has murdered John the Baptist, 

fears that Jesus is John risen from the dead, 

66. The Twelve return to Jesus, telling all they have 

done and taught. He withdraws with them 
to a desert on the other side of the Sea of 
Galilee, and feeds five thousand people, - 

67. He sends the disciples across the lake westward 

to Bethsaida (close to Capernaum, distinct 
from Bethsaida Julias, northeast of the lake, 
Luke 9: 10), and at night comes walking to 
them upon the water, 

68. The miraculously-fed multitude seek and find 

Jesus at Capernaum. His discourse in the 
synagogue and Peter's confession, - - - 

From the Third Passover to the Beginning of the 
Last Passover Week. 

69. Healings in the Gennesaret plain for a few days, 

70. Pharisees from Jerusalem object to his neglect 

of washing hands, ------- 

4: 13-17 
4: 18-22 

8: 11-17 
4: 23-25 

8: 1-4 

9: 2-8 

9: 9-13 

9: 14-17 

12: 1-8 

12: 9-14 
12: 15-21 

10: 1-42 

8: 5-13 

11: 2-19 
11: 20-30 

12: 22-37 
12- 38-45 
12: 46-50 

13: 1-53 

8: 18-27 
8: 28-34 

9: 27-34 

13: 54-58 

9: 35-38 


14: 1-12 

14: 13-21 

14: 22-33 

1: 21,22 

1: 16-20 
1: 23-28 

1: 29-34 
1: 35-39 

1: 40-45 

2: 1-12 

2: 13-17 

2: 18-22 
2: 23-28 

3: 1-6 
3: 7-12 

3: 13-19 

4: 14-30 
4: 31,32 

5: 1-11 
4: 33-37 

4: 38-41 
4: 42-44 

5: 12-16 

5: 17-26 

5: 27-32 

5: 33-39 

6: 1-5 

6: 6-11 

6: 12-19 

6: 20-49 
7: 1-10 
7: 11-17 

7: 18-35 

3: 22-30 


4: 1-34 

4: 35-41 

5: 1-20 

5: 21-43 

7: 36-50 

8: 1-3 




8: 19-21 



8: 40-56 

6: 1-6 
6: 6 
6: 7-13 

6: 14-29 
6: 30-44 

6: 45-56 

9: 1-6 
9: 7-9 

9: 10-17 

14: 34-36 
15: 1-20 

6: 55,56 
7: 1-23 




Mutt. Mark. Luke. John. 

.. Jesus goes northward towards Tyre and Sidon. 
The Syrophenician woman's faith gains a 
cure for her daughter, 

72. He returns through Decapolis, and, ascending 
a mount near the Sea of Galilee, heals many 
and feeds four thousand, 

73. He crosses the lake to Dalmanutha, 

74. Pharisees and Sadducees require a sign, - 

75. Embarking in the ship, he comes to Bethsaida 

(Julias). He warns against leaven of doctrine, 
7G. Healing of a blind man, 

77. Journey to the region of Ceesarea Philippi. 

Peter's confession, ------ 

78. He foretells his death and resurrection. Re- 

proof of Peter, ------- 

79. The t ransnguration on Mount Hermon six days 

80. Descending, the following day he casts out a 
demon which the disciples could not cast out, 

81. Jesus again foretells his death and resurrection, 

82. Temple-tribute money miraculously provided 
from a fish at Capernaum, 

83. The disciples strive which shall be greatest. 

Jesus teaches a childlike, forgiving spirit. 
John tells of the disciples' forbidding one 
who cast out demons in Jesus' name, - 
Journey to the Feast of Tabernacles, six months after 
the third Passover; this period ends tvith his ar- 
rival at Bethany before the last Passover, - 

84. He goes up from Galilee about the midst of the 

feast and teaches in the temple, - - - 

85. The people are .divided in opinion; the rulers 

try to seize him; Nicodemus remonstrates, 

86. His charity, yet faithfulness, towards the adul- 

teress, --------- 

87. Jesus in the temple declares himself the Light 

of the world, preexi stent before Abraham. 
The Jews seek to stone him, - 

88. Healing of the beggar, blind from his birth, - 

89. Christ's discourse on himself as the Good Shep- 

herd and the Door, 

90. Final departure for Jerusalem from Galilee 

through Samaria, ------ 

91. Warnings to certain who would follow, 

92. Sending forth of the seventy, - 

93. The seventy return, announcing their success- 

ful mission, 

94. In reply to a lawyer's general question about 

the whole law, Christ speaks the parable of 
the good Samaritan, ------ 

95. Jesus in Bethany visits Mary and Martha, - 

96. He again teaches the disciples how to pray, 

97. Cure of the dumb demoniac; the Pharisees 

again attribute his miracles to Beelzebub; 
dines with one* woes to hypocritical law- 
yers ; doom of the nation, 

98. Exhortation to disciples, 

99. Appeal to Jesus to arbitrate about inheritance ; 

parable of the rich fool, - 

100. Discourses,- - 

101. God's judgments; motive to repentance, 

102. Parable of the barren fig-tree, - - - - 

103. Cure of a woman with a spirit of infirmity, 

104. Jesus, at the Feast of Dedication in Jerusa le in, 

proclaims his divine oneness with God. The 
Jews a third time seek to kill him, when 
consequently he withdraws to Pera?a, - 

105. His second journey toward Bethany on hear- 

ing of the sickness of Lazarus, - 

106. Pharisees urge him to depart quickly from 

Persea, on the plea that Herod will kill him, 
and his answer, 

107. Cure of a man with the dropsy, - 

108. Parable of the great supper, - - - - - 

109. He warns the multitude to count the cost of 


110. Many publicans crowd to him, and on the 

Pharisees' murmuring, he utters the para- 
bles of the lost sheep, the lost coin, and the 
prodigal son, 

15: 21-2S 



16: 4-12 





17: 24-2 

18: 1-35 

J: 24-30 

8: 10 
8: 11,12 

S: 13-21 
8: 22-26 

8: 27-30 

8: 31-38, 

[9: 1 

9: 2-13 

9: 14-29 
9: 30-32 

9: 33-50 

9: 18-21 

9: 22-27 
9: 28-36 

9: 37-43 

9: 44,45 

9: 46-50 

9: 51-56 

9: 57-62 

10: 1-16 

10: 17-24 

10: 25-37 

10: 38-42 
11: 1-13 

11: 14-54 

12: 1-12 

12: 13-21 

12: 22-59 

13: 1-5 

13: 6-9 

13: 10-17 

13: 22 

13: 31-35 
14: 1-6 
14: 7-24 

14: 25-35 


7: 1-10 
7: 14 
7: 11-53 
8: 1-11 



: 12-59 
: 1-21 

10: 22-42 
11: 1-16 








111. To the disciples he speaks the parables of the 

unjust steward and the rich man and Laza- 
rus, -- 

112. Sayings as to offenses; mutual forgiveness 

and profitableness never exceeding duty, - 

113. Arriving at Bethany, he raises Lazarus from 

the dead, - 

114. Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin determine to put 

Jesus to death ; unconscious prophecy, 

115. Jesus withdraws to Ephraim on the borders of 

Samaria, -------- 

The Last Journey to Jerusalem through the midst 
of Samaria and Galilee. 

116. He heals ten lepers on the Samaritan frontier, 

117. The Pharisees ask when the kingdom of God 

shall come; he foretells its concomitants, 

118. Parables of importunate widow, and the Phar- 

isee and publican, ------- 

119. Journey from Galilee through Peraaa, - 

120. Pharisees question him about divorce, 

121. Parents bring their children to Jesus to bless 

them, --------- 

122. The rich young ruler declines the discipleship ; 

Peter contrasts the disciples' self-sacrifice, - 

123. Parable of the laborers in the vineyard to 

warn against mercenary service, - - - 

124. Jesus goes before on his way to Jerusalem, 

and a third time foretells his death and res- 
urrection, -- 

125. James and John desire highest places next to 
Christ in the temporal kingdom, - 

126. He heals two blind men near Jericho, 

127. Zaccheus climbs a sycamore tree, and is called 
down by Jesus; salvation comes to his house, 

128. Nigh Jerusalem, when men think the king- 
dom of God shall immediately appear, Jesus 
checks this thought by the parable of the 
pounds, --------- 

The Last Sabbath, Saturday, beginning at Friday 

129. The hostile Jews seek him at Jerusalem ; Phar- 
isees command to take him. Jesus reaches 
Bethany six days before the Passover. In 
the house of Simon the leper, Mary anoints 
his head and feet, 

130. Jews come to Bethany to see Jesus, - - - 

The Last Passover Week, Ending with the 

First Day of the Week — Sunday, April 2. 
Jesus triumphantly enters Jerusalem. He 
weeps over the city as doomed. At eventide 
he returns to Bethany, having first entered 
the temple, and sternly looked round about 
upon all things (Zeph. 1 : 12), - 

Second Day—Monday, April 3. 

On his way from Bethany, Jesus curses the 
barren fig-tree. He purges the temple at the 
close of the ministry as at the beginning, but 
without the scourge, and again returns to 
Bethany, after detecting at a glance the dese- 
cration in the court of the Gentiles, 
Third Day— Tuesday, April h. 

On his way to Jerusalem, the fig-tree being 
now withered up, Jesus teaches the lesson 
"that believing prayer can move mountains 
of hindrance," ------- 

Teaches in the temple. Deputation from the 
Sanhedrin challenges his authority. Parables 
of the two sons and the vineyard, 

Parable of the marriage feast, - 

The Pharisees, with the Herodians, try to en- 
tangle him in his words. His reply from 
Csesar's image on the coin, - 

He baffles the Sadducees' cavil about the res- 
urrection, -- 








17: 1-10 

11: 17-46 
11: 47-53 
11: 54 

19: 1,2 
19: 3-12 

19: 13-15 

19: 16-30 

20: 1-16 

20: 17-19 

20: 20-28 
20; 29-34 

10: 1 
10: 2-12 

10: 13-16 
10: 17-31 

17: 11-19 
17: 20-37 
18: 1-14 

18: 15-17 
18: 18-30 

10: 32-34 

10: 35-45 
10: 46-52 

18: 31-34 

19: 2-10 

19: 11-27 

26: 6-13 

14: 3-1 

[12: 1-8 
12: 9-11 


[18, 19 

21: 20-22 

21: 23-46 
22: 1-14 

22: 15-22 
22: 23-33 

11: 1-11 

11: 12-19 

11: 20-26 

[12: 1-12 

19: 29-44 

19: 45,46 

12: 12-19 

20: 1-19 

12: 13-17 
12: 18-27 

20: 20-26 
20: 27-40 






Mark. Luke. 




138. He replies to a lawyer on which one is the 

great commandment, - 

139. Our Lord leaves them without answer to his 

question, If Christ be Son of David, how 
does David call him Lord? - 

140. Warns against scribes and Pharisees. Woe to 

Jerusalem, -------- 

141. He commends the widow's offering to God's 

treasury, --------- 

142. Some Greeks desire to see Jesus. He accepts 

this as a pledge of his coming glory and the 
gathering in of the Gentiles. Jesus' prayer 
and the Father's answer heard by the disci- 

143. Leaving the temple, Jesus, sitting on Olivet, 

with Peter, James, John, and Andrew, fore- 
tells the destruction of the temple and Jew- 
ish theocracy. The last days, - 

144. Parables: The goodman of the house, the 

wise and the evil servant, the ten virgins, the 
talents, the sheep and the goats, - - - 

Fourth Day — Wednesday, April 5. 

145. Beginning at sunset: Jesus, two days before 

the Passover, announces his betrayal and 
crucifixion; the Sanhedrin consult to kill 
Jesus by subtlety. Judas, availing himself 
of his Master's retirement from them, cove- 
nants to betray him. Most disbelieved ; some 
rulers believed, but loving men's praise con- 
fessed him not. Jesus' judgment, - - - 

Fifth Day—TJiursday, April 6. 

146. Jesus sends two disciples into the city to pre- 

pare for the Passover; follows with the rest 
in the afternoon, ------- 

Sixth Day —Friday, April 7. 

147. At sunset: Jesus celebrates the Passover by 

anticipation, -------- 

148. Reproves the ambition of disciples, yet prom- 

ises the kingdom, - 

149. He teaches love and humility by washing dis- 

ciples' feet, -------- 

150. He indicates his betrayer, who, however, did 

not leave till after the Lord's Supper (Luke 

151. He foretells Peter's sifting by Satan, and res- 

toration by his intercession; and scattering 
of the Twelve, -------- 

152. Ordains the Lord's Supper (I. Cor. 11: 23-25), - 

153. Farewell address and intercessory prayer in 

the paschal chamber, all standing (John 

154. His agony in Gethsemane, - - - - 

155. His betrayal with a kiss, and apprehension. 

Peter cuts off. and Jesus heals, Malchus' ear, 

156. He is brought before Annas first at night. 

Peter's three denials: (1) The flesh (Mark 14: 
54); (2) the world (Matt. 26: 70— first cock- 
crowing, Mark 14: 68); (3) the devil (Mark 
14: 71, 72— the second cock-crowing; Ps. 1:"1), 

157. Before Caiaphas, at first dawn, Jesus avows 

his Messiahship and Godhead. He is con- 
demned for blasphemy and mocked, 

158. Brought before Pilate for sentence of cruci- 


159. Pilate sends him to Herod ; Herod sends him 

back to Pilate, 

160. Pilate seeks to release him, but the Jews de- 

mand Barabbas. To appease them, Pilate 
scourges him; the Jews clamor for his cruci- 
fixion as making himself a king. Pilate, 
notwithstanding his wife's warning, sen- 
tences him, -------- 

161. Jesus mocked by Roman soldiers with scarlet 

robe, crown of thorns, and reed, - 

162. Judas' remorse; he presumptuously enters the 

temple, flings down the silver, and hangs 
himself (Acts 1: 18, 19), 

22: 35-40 

22: 41-46 

24: 1-42 



26: 1-5, 



26: 20 

26: 21-25 

26: 31-35 
26: 26-29 



26: 47-56 


26: 59-68 

27: 1,2, 

27: 15-26 
27: 27-30 

27: 3-10 

12: 28-34 

12: 35-37 
12: 38-40 
12: 41-44 

13: 1-37 

14: 1,2, 
[10, 11 

14: 12-16 

14: 17 

14: 18-21 

14: 27-31 
14: 22-25 

14: 26, 

14: 43-52 



14: 55-65 
15: 1-5 

15: 6-15 
15: 16-19 

20: 41-44 
20: 45-47 
21: 1-4 

12: 20-36 

21: 5-36 

22: 1-6 

22: 7-13 

22: 14 
22: 24-30 

12: 36-50 

22: 21-23 

22: 31-38 
22: 15-20 

22: 39-46 
22: 47-53 

22: 54-62 

22: 63-71 
23: 1-5 
23: 6-12 

23: 13-25 

13: 1-20 
13: 21-35 

13: 36-38 

14-17: 26 
18: 1,4 

18: 2-12 


18: 19-24 

18: 28-38 

18: 39, 
[19: 1-16 













Jesus bears his own cross to the city gate, 
where he is relieved by Simon of Cyrene; 
refuses stupefying myrrhed wine, - 

Crucified at Golgotha, probably outside the 
Damascus gate. Seven sayings on the cross, 
three relating to others, four to himself: (1) For 
his murderers— "Father, forgive them,'''' etc. 

(2) The penitent thief promised paradise—'' To- 
day." etc., - - - - 

His garments divided and vesture cast lots for ; 
(3) commends his mother to the care of John 
—"Behold thy son," etc., 

Darkness over the land from sixth to ninth 
hour. Jesus' loud cry, (4) "Eli, Eli," etc. 
Saith, (5) "I thirst," and receives the vinegar 
to fulfill Scripture; (6) "It is finished"; (7) 
"Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit"; 
gives up the ghost; the veil of the temple 
rent. Centurion's testimony, - 

The side pierced by the soldier's spear and the 
blood and water attest his death and the 
truth of Scripture (Gen. 2: 21-23; Eph. 5: 30, 
32 ; I. John 5:6; Zech. 12 : 10). The body, taken 
down, is wrapped up with Nicodemus' aloes 
and myrrh, and buried in new tomb of Joseph 
of Arimathea, ------- 

Seventh Day — Saturday, April 7. 
Pilate grants a guard, and they set a seal upon 
the sepulcher, 

Christ's Resurrection, His Appearances during Forty 
Days, and Ascension. 

First Day—Easter Sunday, April 8. 

Resurrection at first dawn, ----- 

The women, coming with spices, find the sep- 
ulcher open and empty. Mary Magdalene 
returns to tell Peter and John, - 

The other women, remaining, see two angels, 
who declare the Lord's resurrection, - 

Mary Magdalene returns to the sepulcher. 
Jesus reveals himself to her. She reports 
to the disciples— First appearance, - - - 

Jesus meets the women (Mary mother of 
James, Salome, and Joanna) on their return 
to the city — Second appearance, - - - 

Peter and John find the sepulcher empty, 

Report of the watch to the chief priests, who 
bribe them, -------- 

Jesus seen by Peter (Cephas, I. Cor. 15:5)— 
Tliird appearance, ------- 

Seen by the two disciples on way to Emmaus 
—Fourth appearance, ----- 

Jesus appears to the ten, Thomas being absent 
—Fifth appearance, ------ 



Apr. 15 

May 17 









Subsequent Appearances. 

Evening of Sunday after Easter day. Jesus 
appears to them again, Thomas being pres- 
ent— Sixth appearance, ------ 

The eleven go into Galilee, to a mountain ap- 
pointed. Jesus appears, and commands them 
to teach all nations — Seventh appearance, - 

Jesus shows himself at the Sea of Tiberias— 
Eighth appearance. Charges Simon to feed 
his lambs, sheep, and young sheep, - - - 

Seen of above five hundred brethren at once 
(I. Cor. 15 : 6), probably along with the eleven— 
Ninth appearance, ------- 

He is seen by James, then by all the apostles 
(Acts 1:3-8; I. Cor. 15: 7)— Tenth appearance. 
In all, 538 (549 if the eleven (Matt. 28: 16) be 
distinct from the 500) persons are specified as 
having seen the risen Saviour ; also, after his 
ascension, St. Paul (I. Cor. 15 : 8), - 

The ascension, forty days after Easter (Acts 

Purpose and conclusion, - 

27: 31-34 

27: 35-44 

15: 20-23 

15: 24-32 

27: 45-54 

27: 57-61 




15: 33-41 

15: 42-47 










23: 26-32 

23: 33-38 
23: 39-43 

23: 44-49 

23: 50-56 

19: 16,17 

19: 18-27 

19: 23-27 

19: 28-30 

19: 31-42 



















Octr authority for the foundation and first ex- 
tension of the Christian church is the book of 
Acts of the Apostles, the remaining historical 
book of the New Testament. Chrysostom calls 
it "the Gospel of the Holy {Spirit ": for as in the 
Gospels the presence of Jesus in the flesh is de- 
scribed, so in Acts his presence with the church 
by his Spirit. It links itself with the Gospels 
by continuing the work begun in them, the 
foundation of the church, as Christ had prom- 
ised; and with the Pauline and Petrine Episl Les 
by undesigned; because not obvious, coinci- 
dences. Thus the four Gospels and Acts fonn 
one Christian historical Pentateuch, on which 
the Epistles are an inspired commentary. 

There is a unity and a progressive develop- 
ment in this history, of which Christ's words 
(I : S) are the summary— "Ye shall be witnesses 
unto me" (1) "in Jerusalem," 6-8: 1; (2) "in all 
Judea," 8: 1; (3) "in Samaria," 8: 1-25; and (4) 
4i unto the uttermost part of the earth." It be- 
gins wit h Jerusalem, the metropolis of Judaism, 
and ends with Rome, the metropolis of the Gen- 
tiles. The book is divisible into three portions— 
(1) From the ascension to the close of ch. 11, which 
describes the rise of the first purely Gentile churcJi, 
viz., Antioch, where, accordingly, the disciples 
were first called Christians; (2) Thence down to 
the msiori at 7 Voas, which caused the passing over 
of the gospel to Europe (10: 9); (3) Thence dbivn to 
its reaching Rome (eh. 28). In the first period the 
aspect of the church was Jewish; in the second, 
Gentile, but with a strong Jeimsh element; in the 
third, the Gentiles preponderate. At first the gos- 
pel was preached to the Jews (chs. 1-7); then to 
the Samaritans (8: 1, 5); then to the eunuch, "a 
proselyte Of righteousness," i.e., a " circumcised 
Jew by religion^ though not by birth " (8 : 27) ; then 
to Cornelius (ch. 10), "a -proselyte of the gate," 
i.e., a Jew in religion, though not circumcised 
(had he been circumcised there would have been 
no need of a special revelation to Peter as his 
warrant, forthere wasnone such in the eunuch's 
case); then to the Gentile Greeks (as the oldest 
MSS. read, not Grecians, which would mean 
Greek-speaMng Jews) at Antioch (11: 20, 21, 26). 
Then Peter, who, as "the apostle of the circum- 
cision," in the first portion was the chief 
preacher, gives place (from ch. 13 forwards) to 
Paul, the "apostle of the unci rcumcision," who 
proclaimed the word successively in Asia Minor, 
Greece, and Rome. 


First Period, A.D. 30-U. 
Chapters 1-11. 

The period of earliest development of the 
Church includes Pentecost (ch. 2); the healing 
of the lame man by Peter and John, and the 
consequent arrest of the apostles (3-1: 22); their 
release and successful preaching with "bold- 
ness" (1: 23-31); t lie selling of the lands and dis- 
tribution to the needy (4: 32-37) ; death of Anan Las 
and Sapbhira .(5:1-11); the apostles' second 'arrest 
and release hy the "angel of the Lord" (.">: 17-19); 
t he choice of deacons, of whom Stephen was the 
most prominent (6: 1-7); Stephen's trial and 
martyrdom (6:8-7:60). In the persecution by 
the Sanjhedrin the gospel was carried into Sa- 
maria, by Philip and others (ch. 8) and the eunuch 
was converted (ch. 8). Saul's conversion while 

leading the persecutions (ch. 9) was the most 
important incident Which prepared the way for 
the second period of the church; for his work 
was to preach to the CrCntiles. At this time, too, 
Peter is senl fc6,1 he Roman centurion (ch. 10) and 
the idolatrous Greeks are taughtat Antioch (11: 
20), win ire the disciples are first called Christians 

Second 7V/ i •-,', A.D. U1-U9. 
Chapters U-15 : 35. 

In the begin ning of the second period was Her- 
od's persecution and the martyrdom of James 
(12: 2 it'.). It was at this time, while working at 
Antioch, that Saul and Barnabas were sent by 
the Spirit to the Gentiles, and the first mission- 
ary journey was begun. 

First Mis.sionai // ,/ou> neti. — Leaving Antioch (13: 
1) Barnabas, Saul, and John Mark sail from Se- 
ieucia to (Cyprus, stopping first at Salamis. At 
Paphos,in the western partof the island. Sergi us 
Paulus is converted, and Elymasis struck blind 
(13: G-12). Paul, as he is now called, and his com- 
panions sail to Perga in Pamphylia, from which 
point John Mark returns home (13 : 13). Paul and 
Barnabas then go to Antioch in Pisidia, preach- 
ing two sermons (13: 14-50). Driven hence, they 
come to Iconium (13: 51), from which they are 
driven to Lystra (11: G). Here they are at first 
worshiped, then stoned. Thence they go to Derbe 
for rest, p reaching and teaching (14: 20). From 
Derbe they return by way of Lystra, Iconium, 
Antioch, and Perga to Attalia, from which they 
sail for Antioch to report 1 14: 21-28, R.V.). While 
here the First Council at Jerusalem was| held, at 
which it was decided that the ©entiles need not 
be circumcised. 

TJiird Period, A.D. A9-63. 
Chapters 15:36-28. 

Second Missionary Journey.— -In the year A.D. 49 
Paul and Silas begin the second missionary 
journey (15:40, 41); leaving Antioch and passing 
by land through Syria and Cilicia to Derbe and 
Lystra, where Timothy joins them (16: 1-3). In 
Phrygia and Galatia they establish churches, 
being detained at Galatia because of sickness 
(Gal. 4: 13). Forbidden by the Holy Ghost to 
preach in Asia and in Bithynia, they pass 
through Mysia t o Alexandria Troas, where Ln ke 
joins them. Here Paul's vision of the man of 
Macedonia leads them to sail for Europe (16:0). 
By way of Samothracia they sail to Neapolis, 
thence to Phiiippi, where the first converts in 
Europe are gained (16: 12-40). Leaving Luke and 
Timothy at Phiiippi for a time, Paul and Silas 
pass through Amphipolis and Apollonia to« 
Thessalonica, Here Paul labors day and night 
for his living, and teaches v ith much success 
(17: 1-9). He is, however, d riven out and goes to 
Berea, where lie has many followers (17: 10-14). 
He is sent away by sea to Athens, where he 
preaches on Mars' Hill, going thence to^ Corinth 
(17: 1,3-18: 1). He is jomnl again by Silas and 
Timothy, and makes Corinth his headquarters 
for about eighteen months (IS: 1-18). lie- then 
sails with Aquilla and Priscilla to Syria byway 
of Cenchrea, Fphesus, and C;esare;i; thence he 
goes to Jerusalem for tin teas! oi Pentecost, 
afterward returning to Antioch i\X: 18-22). 

Third Missionary Joumt -//.—After remaining 
some time at Antioch, Paul] with Timothy and 
perhaps Titus, begins his third missionary 
journ [siting Phrygia and Galatia, and 



proceeding to Ephesus (18:23). Here he labors 
and preaches for two or three years (19:1-20). 
After the uproar created by Demetrius he goes 
to Philippi, where he meets Titus, who is re- 
turning from Corinth. Traveling probably as far 
as Illyricum, he comes again to Corinth for three 
months (20:3). To avoid a Jewish plot he and 
Luke (20:5) return through Macedonia byway 
of Philippi, Troas, Assos. Mitylene, Chios, Samos, 
and Trogyllium to Miletus. Here the elders of 
Ephesus meet him and take final leave of their 
leader (20: 17-38). Sailing by Coos and Rhodes to 
Patara he reaches Tyre, where he remains seven 
days with the disciples ; thence by way of Ptol- 
eniais he goes to Csesarea, and from thence to 
Jerusalem for his last visit (21: 1-17). 

Arrest at Jerusalem, A.D. 58.— By the counsel of 
James, to conciliate the prejudices of the Jewish 
converts, Paul, with four men, completes a Naz- 
arite vow (21: 20-26). Near the close of the seven 
days he is seized by a mob of Jews, alleging that 
he' brought Greeks into the temple. Rescued by 
Claudius Lysias, commander of the castle, he 
addresses the crowd from the stairs, proclaiming 
his commission to the Gentiles (21:27-22:29). 
After an examination before the Sanhedrin (22: 
30-23: 10), he is sent to Felix at Cwsarea (ch. 23). 
Having passed two years of varied experience, 
Paul finally appeals from the tribunal of Festus 
to that of the emperor at Rome (25: 11). 

Voyage to Borne, A.D. 60 ichs. 27, 28).— Paul, under 
care of a centurion, with Luke and Aristarchus, 
sets sail from Csesarea, touching at Sidon, sailing 
" under the lee " of Cyprus and coming to Myra 
in Lycia. Taking another ship, of Alexandria, 
they sail for Italy. Passing Cnidus and Salmone, 
on the island of Crete, they reach Fair Havens 
on its southern shore. Instead of wintering 
here, they seek to reach Phoenix, R.V. (Phenice, 
A. V.). Driven by a violent wind, Euraquilo 

[27: 14, R.V.), they pass under the lee of Clauda 
(Cauda, R. V.), and to avoid the " quicksand " 
(Syrtis, 27 : 17, R.V.) drive slowly before the wind. 
After fourteen days they are shipwrecked on 
the island of Malta (27 : 21-28: 10). Three months 
later they sail for Italy, via Syracuse and Rhe- 
gium, landing at Puteoli, in the Bay of Naples. 
Here brethren meet Paul, and again at Appii 
Forum and The Three Taverns. At length Paul 
reaches Rome, where he " dwelt two whole years 
in his own hired house " (28 : 30, 31). Here, though 
a prisoner, he preached and wrote with freedom 
and success. 


The formal history of the New Testament ends 
with the book of Acts. From the Epistles are 
evident Paul's release and second imprisonment. 
He was at Ephesus again (I. Tim. 1:3; 4: 13; II. 
Tim. 1: 18), at Crete (Tit. 1:5), Asia Minor (Tit. 
3 12), Miletus and Corinth (I. Tim. 1: 3; II. Tim. 
4: 20), Troas (II. Tim. 4: 13). and perhaps other 
cities. He was sent to Rome in bonds (II. Tim. 
2: 9). Here Luke alone was with him, and here 
he suffered martyrdom with the sword. 

Of the other early leaders Peter seems to have 
spent his later years at Babylon, a seat of the 
dispersed Jews (I. Pet. 5: 13) . and to have suf- 
fered martyrdom some time after the death of 
Paul. John presided over the seven churches 
of western Asia, and after Paul's martyrdom 
wrote his Gospel, Epistles, and Revelation, and 
was banished to Patmos under Domitian (prob- 
ably in a.d. 95). He lived to a great age, spending 
many years in directing and teaching. 

The church organization was now more set- 
tled and its growth fully begun. 

Books of Reference : Consult list of books on New 
Testament, Apostolic History, and under Chron- 
ological, Table, page 72. 



HENEY COWAN, D.D., Professor of Church History, University 
of Aberdeen. 

The sub-apostolic age extends from the death 
of St. John, about 98 a.d., to the martyrdom of 
Polycarp, one of his last surviving disciples, in 
155. It is the period during which the church's 
life and development, work and worship, were 
under the guidance mainly of those who had 
been personally associated with the apostles. 

I. Prominent Names.— Among these leaders 
were: Clement, leading bishop of Rome, author 
of an epistle. Tradition says he was martyred 
in 102. Simeon, bishop or presiding presbyter of 
Jerusalem, brother of James, was crucified, at 
the age of 120, in a.d. 107. Ignatius of Antioch, 
thrown to the wild beasts of the Coliseum at 
Rome in 115. Telesp>horus, the earliest bishop 
of Rome to endure martyrdom— in 138. Papias. 
bishop of Hierapolis, "a disciple of John and 
friend of Polycarp." Polycarp of Smyrna suf- 
fered death at the stake in 155. Justin Martyr, 
the strong defender of the Christian faith, was 
born about 100, and educated in the pagan phi- 
losophies. After conversion he wrote his Apol- 
ogies. He was martyred in Rome about 166. 

II. Christian Literature of the Age.— The prin- 
cipal writings of this period are included in the 
so-called apocryphal books of the New Testa- 
ment (see p. 55). Besides the Epistles of Clement 
and Barnabas and the Shepherd of Her mas, there 
are the seven Ignatian Epistles, vindicated by 
Bishop Lightfoot, written not later than 115; 
Epistle of Polycarp, written to the Philippians 
116-140 ; fragments of a lost Exposition of Our Lord's 
Discourses by Papias. These constitute the "Apos- 
tolic Fathers. " In addition the Didache, or Teach- 
ing of the Twelve Apostles, the Apology of Aristides, 
the anonymous Epistle to Diognetus, the two Apol- 

ogies of Justin Martyr, are all intrinsically in- 
teresting and historically valuable. 

III. Missionary Activity.— Within apostolic 
times Christianity had been diffused from 
Babylon to Rome, and also, according to ante- 
Nicene traditions, in Scythia, Persia, and "In- 
dia" (perhaps Arabia); while a statement by 
Clement that St. Paul "reached the furthest 
bounds of the West" gives countenance to the 
early belief that the apostle accomplished his 
"journey into Spain." Records of sub-apos- 
tolic missions are scanty; but Pliny, governor 
of Bithynia, reported to Trajan in 112 a.d. that 
"even through the villages and rural districts 
the Christian contagion had spread," and Justin 
testifies, rhetorically, yet significantly, that 
" there is no single race of men . . . among whom 
prayers are not offered up in Jesus' name." 

IV. Persecutions.— Down to near the close of 
the apostolic age Christians were regarded by 
the Roman government as a Jewish sect, and 
the toleration accorded to national religions was 
thus extended to the Christian faith. Roman, 
as distinguished from Jewish, persecution of the 
apostolic church, accordingly, was mainly due, 
not to the Christians' creed, but to alleged crime, 
as when Nero accused them of burning Rome, or 
to supposed revolutionary aims, as when Domi- 
tian regarded expectations of Christ's millennial 
reign as incipient treason. In the sub-apostolic 
age circumstances changed. The emperors- 
Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius— were too 
just to punish Christians for imaginary crimes, 
and too enlightened to fear them as political 
revolutionists. But a new peril arose. Christian- 
ity was now recognized to be independent of 



Judaism, and thus, having no national connec- 
tion, became an "illicit religion," whose adher- 
ents were liable to prosecution according to old 
Roman laws. Christianity was officially pro- 
scribed as penal, hut prosecution was not encour- 
aged, while informal charges were disallowed: 
search tor christians and anti-Christian clamor 
were prohibited. During this age, persecution 
arose not from imperial hostility, but from per- 
sonal animosity and local fanaticism, through 
winch here and there the imperial statutes were 
put in force, as at Jerusalem, Ant inch, Smyrna, 
At lu-ns, and Rome. 

V. Christian Life.— The sub-apostolic church 
has its moral shadows. Clement rebukes Corin- 
thian strife; Aristides represents the church 
weeping over members who have died in sin; 
i olycarp deplores a backsliding presbyter; the 
Lhctac/ie alludes to covetous prophets: germs of 
false asceticism appear. Yet Christian life as a 
whole is depicted by contemporaries in bright 
colors, as if, after the sun of apostolic ( Jurist ian- 
ity had gone down, there remained a spiritual 
afterglow. Justin, Pliny, Galen, Lucian, Aris- 
tides. Clement, and others testify to the purity 
devotion, charity, industry, high mechanical 
skill, and beneficence of the Christians of their 
time, who "did good to their persecutors" and 

comforted those who made them grieve." 

VI. Worship and Sacraments.— Partly through 
poverty, and still more for privacy (to avoid per- 
secution), social worship was held chiefly in pri- 
vate nouses. Catacombs were also used, but only 
to a limited extent, for in none of them could 
more than thirty persons conveniently congre- 
gate. Christians usually met for worship "before 
dawn "on the Lord's day; on the Sabbath, also, 
where Jewish believers abounded. On Wednes- 
day and Friday a fast was held. The anniversary 
of our Lord's death and resurrection was observ- 
ed. Lord's day worship culminated in the holy 
communion. In apostolic times this sacrament 
was celebrated along with a love-feast {aqape) in 
the evening; and traces of this custom are found 
in the beginning of the second century. Early in 
that century, however, partly perhaps to avoid 
risk of profanation and to silence the pagan cal- 
umny of "secret orgies," but chiefly to remove the 
suspicion that the Christian brotherhoods might 
become semi-political clubs, the agape and com- 
munion were dissociated, and the eucharist be- 
came part of the morning service. The worship 
r,V; ls 'c to a eon siderable extent, non-liturgical. 
Ihe Scripture was read, including parts of the 
New Testament, an exhortation was given, pray- 
ers were offered, bread and wine were distributed, 
and a collection w r as taken, each giving what he 
pleased. Besides the Psalter, Christian hymns 
were used. In baptism the general usage was 
triple immersion; but affusion was permitted 
when immersion was inconvenient. Catechet- 
ical instruction preceded, and not only the cate- 
chumen, but the celebrant and friends, fasted 
beforehand. The first reference to infant bap- 
tism is by Irenreus (c. 180 a.d.) ; but Origen traces 
the usage to apostolic sanction. Adult baptism, 
however, of the offspring of Christian parents 
was a frequent practice. 

VII. Ecclesiastical Organization.— In two par- 
ticulars our period is one of transition. (1) In apos- 
tolic times, while the church was being founded 
extraordinary office bearers— apostles, apostolic 

delegates, and prophets— were naturally more 
prominent than locally appointed presbyters or 
bishops, whose original function w T as govern- 
mental, although aptness to teach ere long be- 
came a requisite (I. Tim. 5:17). Early in the sub- 
apostohe age, special honor and authority con- 
tinued to belong to extraordinary office bearers 
(2) During this period, mainly, the transition was 
accomplished from the original episcopate, iden- 
tical with the presbyterate, to monarchical epis- 
copacy. Mono-episcopacy became general in 
Christendom about the close of the sub-apostolic 
age. The episcopacy, however, thus established 
Was congregational, not diocesan. Diocesan epis- 
copacy was the later outcome of congregational 
missionary effort combined with the natural ten- 
dency to centralization. The distinction of clergy 
from laity as a separate priestly caste is not found 
in the sub-apostolic age, though Clement and the 
Didaehe tract' analogies between the Christian 
ministry and Jewish priesthood. Ignatius never 
ascribes priest hood to bishops; Justin refers to all 
believers as "the true high-priestly race of God." 

VIII. Bible and Creed.— The New Testament 
canon was in course of formation, the standard 
of canonicity being apostolic authorship actual 
or virtual. No extant canon belongs to this age, 
except that of the Gnostic Marcion (including 
ten epistles of Paul and a mutilated Luke); but 
from our knowledge of three independent lists 
of New Testament books which existed about 
170 a.d. (Canon Muratori, Syriac version, and 
Old Latin) we conclude that the New Testament 
of the sub-apostolic church was substantially 
that of later times. The so-called Apostles' 
Creed is not found in present form before the 
sixth century, and was gradually built up from 
apostolic times on the basis of the baptismal 
formula. Sub-apostolic theology, as a whole, 
embraces the cardinal doctrines of the faith, 
without that precision of conception and state- 
ment which is the outcome of controversy. 

IX. Sub-Apostolic Heresy was JudaisticGnos- 
tic, or both combined. After the destruction of 
Jerusalem, moderate Jewish Christians amalga- 
mated with Gentile believers, but some stood 
aloof: (1) Nazarenes, who constituted an ortho- 
dox schism, observing the Mosaic Law; (2) 
Lbionites, who denounced Paul as heretic, de- 
clared circumcision essential for salvation, and 
accepted Jesus as a mere human Messiah, di- 
vinely inspired. A section of these, the Elke- 
saites, represent Christ as Lord of angels, and 
the Holy Spirit as a divine female essence. They 
constitute a bridge between Judaistic and 
Gnostic heresy. (For further details see p. 1(3.) 

Bo °* s °, F Reference: Li^htfoot's Apostolic Fath- 
ers; Schaff 's Antc-Nicene Christianity; Bunsen's Hip- 
polytus and His Age; Crutt well's Literary History of 
Early Christianity; Roberts <fc Donaldson's Ante-Ki- 
cene Fathers; Farrar's Lives of the Fathers; McDon- 
nell's Bay Barvn of Christianity; Harris' Great Commis- 
sion; Early Christian Literature Primers; Hurst's Short 
History of the Early Church; riumruer's Church of the 
Early Fathers; Conybeare's Monuments of Early Chris- 
tianity; Lea's Historical Sketch of Sacerdotal Celibacy in 
the Christian Church; Etter's Doctrine of Christian Bap- 
tism; Dale on Baptism; Hitchcock & Brown's Teach- 
ing of the Twelve Apostles; Schaff's Teaching of the 
1 welve Ajyostles; Neandor's, Fisher's, and other Church 
Histories; Biekell's Lord's Supper and BassoverBitual- 
Bamsey's The Church in the Roman Empire, before 


By EEV. OWEN C. WHITEHOUSE, M.A., Professor of Hebrew, 
Ciieshunt College, near London. 

The word festival is employed to designate 
certain regularly recurring days or periods cele- 
brated in some marked manner, i. e., by special 
acts, as sacred. In Israel these occasions and 

gatherings were for special acts of homage to 
God, and for celebrating the fellowship of a peo- 
ple with their divine Founder and Lord, and of 
members of the race with one another. The 



Beginning with the Sabbath, there were week- 
ly monthly, and annual days of worship and 

0e r S Th n eVaUat e h.-Bot n h new moon and Sabbath 

nbPtio oracles. Isaiah (1: 13, 14) expresses xne 
Lorn and disgust of Jehovah for the weari- 
some iteration of these recurring festivals with 
thSr formal [offerings and crowded assemblies 
Compare Hos. 2 : 13 (11 He h.). The invective of the 
prmmlt Amos (8: 5) against the grasping trader 
shows that abstinenc? from buying and selling 
on Sabbath and new moon was strictly enforced. 
Thfsabbath is the only season of worship to 
which the decalogue makes any reference and 
It stands first among the ; "feasts' m the ^cata- 
logue contained in Lev. 23. Like the otner ies 
tivals, it is called a "holy convocation." Its 
maintenance as a strict day of wrtj w« \™*%d 
on even in the "earing time" and harvest 
(Ex. 34: 21). In the later days of the exile, the 
prophets gWspecia^ 

ing to the sanctity of the Sabbath (Ezek. 22 26 
cf Jer 17:19-27; Ezek. 44:24; Isa. 56: 2; 58: lo), 
enforcing the precepts that found legislative 
expression in stringent regulations (Ex. 31. 14 
|?-2 3- Num. 15: 32-fe, and in the reforming zeal 

° f What mf pfflL of Sabbath worship 
was, both before and after the exile, we cannot 
determine. Probably in earlier times it .mamly 
consisted in sacrificial acts; probably also it was 
employed as a day for consulting the prophets 
incases of difficulty, or the priests for responses 
with ephod or with Urim and Thummim (cf. 
II Kings 4: 23). During the Greek and Roman 
periods? when synagogue worship became estab- 
lished among all the Jewi sh settlements throu gh- 
out Asia Minor, Egypt, and Europe, the reading 
of the Jewish Scriptures-more especially of 
the Torah and Prophets-became the regular 
characteristic feature of Sabbath ritual. 

Sabbatic Cycles.— Starting from the sacred sev- 
enth day of the week-cycle of days, we next 
observe the cycle of seven months, the first da> 
of the seventh month being a ''solemn rest' 
and " holy convocation," celebrated by Wowing 
of trumpets and "an offering made by fire" 
(Lev 23:24,25). Next in order comes the seventh 
orsacredyearoi release. The regulations respect- 
ing the sabbatic year are clearly set foith in 
Ex. 21: 2-6; 23: 10, 11; Deut. 15: 1-18. Lastly came 
the year of jubilee, which marked the close ot 
the seventh in the series of seven-year periods. 
It is not easy to determine satisfactorily whethei 
this meant the fiftieth or the forty-ninth year 
(Lev. 25 : 10, 11). From Lev. 25 : 8-18 we learn that 
the jubilee year was inaugurated on the 10th ol 
the seventh month (Tishri) by a loud blast on 

th II tl NewMoon.-Respecting the new moon fes- 
tival, we have no information as to its inaugu- 
ration among the local sanctuaries in the earlier 
period of Israel's national history. From I. 
Sam. 20: 5, 6, 24-29 we learn that in the days of 
David each clan had its new moon celebration 
at its local sanctuary. Once yearly every mem- 
ber was expected to be present, even the younger 
sons. The practice in the post-exilian days, 
and perhaps in the reformed cultus of the se\ - 
enth century, seems to have followed the rule 
laid down in km. 10: 10 that on the first day of 
the month the blowing of trumpets should 
accompany the celebration of burnt-offerings 
and peace-offerings. To this we have an allusion 
fn Ps. 81 : 3°4 Hebf). The special detailed regula- 
tfoni will be found in Num. 28: 11-14. .A so com- 
pare the following references in exilian and 
post-exilian literature: Ezek. 46: 1, 3, b, Ezra 6. 
5; Neh. 10:33, 34. 

III. Annual Festivals.-There were three great 
yearly festivals, at which every male Israelite 

romtwelve years of age (Luke 2: 42) was com- 
manded to "appear before the Lord," in .the 
court of the tabernacle or temple (Ex. 23. 14-17, 
34-23; Deut. 16: 16). These were the Passover, 
Pentecost, and Tabernacles. There were other 
annual gatherings, which will be fully explained. 
1 Passover and Unleavened Bread.-For the 
institution and meaning of this feast consult Ex. 
12 The Passover was the covenant feast ol Isi ael, 
kept on the 14th Abib, or Nisan, followed by the 
Feast of Unleavened Bread, which lasted seven 

d ?t was Itrictfy ordained that all leaven should 
be removed from the dwellings of the Hebrews 
on the 14th Nisan. This was the preparation for 
the Passover {napaoncevr) tov -naaxo-) W°i -?ni 'r £ti 
The presence of women, boys, and little ^chil- 
dren, as well as men was permitted at this as 
well as other festivals (Luke 2: 41; cf. I. Sam. 
1- 24) for the festival, though national, was 
domestic. The victim might be either a lamb 
or a kid (Ex. 12: 5), and it was to be selected four 
da|s beforehand,! e., 10th Nisan, by the head of 
the family. If a household was too small, .it 
might unite with another small household in 
moviding a single lamb for both. The lamb 
v/as slalnat sunset of the 14th Nisan, and what- 
ever remained uneaten was consumed by me. 
The blood of the animal was sprinkled with a 
bunch of hyssop on the two side posts and lintel 
o?the house door. The paschal feast was eaten 
bv the family with unleavened cakes and bittei 
herbs? with loins girded, sandals on the feet, and 
staff in hand. The animal was eaten entire,— 
head, legs, and entrails -without breaking a 
bone (Ex. 12: 7-11), so far as this was possible. 

Later Jewish usage enacted elaborate details. 
There were extended ceremonies at the temple. 
Probably at the commencement of the least in 
the house a wine cup was filled and the bene- 
diction was pronounced. After the wine was 
drunk! a basin of water with a towel was handed 
round, and the members of the party washed 
their hands (cf. John 13: 4-12). Bitter herbs 
and unleavened bread were then brought m, as 
well as the haroseth made of dates, raisins, etc., 
also the paschal lamb and the chagigah or festal 
offering The president at the table then took 
bitter herbs and dipped them in the haroseth, 
and, after takin g a small portion himself, handed 
alike morsel to the other members who partic- 
ipated. It is possible that we ought to compare 
with 'this Matt. 26: 23; John 13: 26 Before the 
lamb was eaten, a second cup of wine was 
poured out (cf. Luke 22: 17,20), and then the 
formal questions were asked in accordance with 
Ex. 12: 26, to which suitable replies were given, 
affording instruction as to the meaning of the 
feast. The first part of the Iiallel (Ps. 113, 114) 
was then sung, after which the lamb was divided 
and eaten. Then followed a third cup succeeded 
bv the chanting of the second part of the Hallel 
(Ps. 115-118) u Compare Matt. 26: 30; Mark 14: 26. 
1 The 15th Nisan Vas a day of ''holy convoca- 
tion," and also the 21st. On the former the rules 
prohibiting all manner of work were almost as 
rigidly applied as on the Sabbath day. The 16th 
was rendered memorable by the presentation of 
the omer, or first harvest sheaf (of barley), which 
was waved by the priest before the Lor(L The 
Passover corresponded in the year to our Easter 
2. Feast of Weeks, or Pentecost.-Pentecost is 
a Greek word, rj irevnjKocrn) U^epa), the A/"^a«2/- 
This followed the last day of the seven weeks 
reckoned from "the morrow of the babbath 
f£ev 23 • 1 1 15716). The Feast of Weeks thus fell 
on the etri Sivan. This day of Pentecost was 
marked bv the offering of two loaves made with 
Saven tobe T presented by way of Tenufah as 

a first-fruit. They Y ere ^ acco ?Ji pan + ie KiP^^ ril nf 
offerings of seven lambs without blemish, ot 
a year old, together with meat-offerings and 



drink-offerings. In addition to these there was 
a sin-offering of a he-goat and a peace-offering 
consisting of two male Lambs of the first year 
these likewise were to he presented as a wave- 

<;<'<; ring by the priest (Lev. 28: 16-20; Num. 28: 

Pentecost corresponds to the Whitsuntide of 
the modern church, in commemoration of the 
great day of Pentecost when the Holy Spirit 
was bestowed upon the church (Acts 2). 

3. The Feast of Tabernacles, beginning on 
the loth day ot the seventh month, or'Tishri, and 
continuing for one week. Fruit, palm branches, 
boughs of Large trees, and willows from the 
brook were gathered by the pilgrim crowd, and 
booths erected. The first day (the 15th) was a 
day of holy convocation or public worship, on 
which there was to be a cessation from all servile 
labor i Lev. 23: 35). In Num. 29 we have special 
details respecting the sacrifices to be presented 
on this day, both for burnt*offerihgS)fd#ink-oflfer 

... ^x*,., ,,..,, ,,,.,, ii iui uiiiiii-«)iiiiiim^!uu] K-oirer- 
jngs, and meat -offer in us, and for the daiJv obla- 
tions which followed. The following six days, 10th 
to 2ist, were devoted to the free "enjoyment of 
this festal season. 

_ We find a variation upon the usage prescribed 
in the Pentateuch in the book of Nehemiah 
(<s: 15, 16). The branches for the booths are there 
specially determined as olive, wild olive, myrtle 
and palm. Moreover, the booths Werei erected on 
the roofs of the houses, or their courts— " in the 
courts of the temple, in the open street of the 
Watergate, and in that of the gate of Ephraini." 
In later limes a part of each day's ceremony 
was the drawing of water from the pool of Si- 
loam, so intimately connected with our Lord's 
words m John 7: 37, 38. They were uttered in 

?£ fer £ nce to tnis act on tne last di W of the feast 
(21st ris&ri). Another feature was the lighting 
of four great candelabra, which were set up in 
the middle of the court, and illuminated all 
Jerusalem. Compare John 8: 12. 
Connected with these great festivals: 

1. Feast of Trumpets, called in Lev. 23: 24 
a "blowing commemoration" by trumpets 
marked the commencement of the seventh' 
month (Tishri) of the ecclesiastical and of the 
first of the civil year. It was therefore a new- 
year festival {JR6sh hash-shanah). It was a sol- 
emn rest day, or Sabbath, on which no work was 
done, being a new moon feast. In Num. 29: i-ti 
we have detailed regulations respecting the 
burnt-offerings and meat-offerings which were 
to be offered on this day. 

In the modern Jewish worship there are serv- 
ices not only on the 1st Tishri, but also on the 
preceding day. 

2. Day of Atonement was a fast of peculiar 
solemnity, hence called in Acts 27:9 ij vyjareia, 
"the fast." It was, moreover, a day on which 
no work could be done. This day was called 
a '-high Sabbath" as well as a day of "holy 
convocation" (Lev. 1G). 

It lasted from the evening of the 9th Tishri 
till that of the 10th. The ritual acts were per- 
formed by the high priest. Having bathed his 
body in water, he clothed himself with a white 
linen coat, hose, and girdle, and with a white 
J men turban. Then he brought a young bullock 
a ,' a sin-ottering for himself and his house, and 
a ram as a burnt-offering. In making atone- 
ment for the people, there were two hergoats 
selected, as well as a ram for a burnt-ottering 
(eh Heb. 7: 27). Lots were cast with respect 
to the two he-goats, and thereby it was deter- 
mined that one he-goat was for Jehovah and 
the other for Azazel. The builook was then 
slaughtered as an expiation for the high priest 
himself and his family. Taking then a censer 
lull ot coals from off the altar, and having tilled 
his hands with sweet incense pounded small, 
the high priest entered the holy of holies (cf. 
Heb. 9: 7, 11, 24-26). As he east the ineense upon 
the coals, the clouds rose in thick volumes, and 

enveloped the covering of the ark (or "niercv- 
seat ")• The blood of the high priest's sin-offer- 
ing was then sprinkled seven times upon and 
gerore the oovering of the ark with the fingers 
Emerging from the holy of holies, the Eteh 
priest nexl sacrificed the goat reserved as a sin- 
ofienng lor tne people to .Jehovah. The blood 
was then conveyed by him -within the veil" 
and sprinkled in like manner both on the cover- 
ing of the ark and before it. Coming once more 
out ol the holy of holies, he made atonement 
for the hojy place, some of the blood, both of 
the bnllock and the goat, being sprinkled on 
the altar ol ineense (Ex. 30: 10). During these 
proceedings the high priest was the only per- 
sonage that could remain within the "tent of 
meeting.'' 1 he goat devoted to Azazel was then 
hi ought forward, and tie- high priest, laving 
both his hands upon it, confessed over it all the 
iniquities ot the Israelites. The goaf was then 
consigned to the care of an appointed person, 
who carried him ohto a lonely, untrodden spot 
and set him free. The high priest then disrohed 
himself of his holy linen vestments in the tent 
ot meeting, and, having resumed Ins ordinary 
garb, made burnt-offerings for himself and for 
the people, and also consumed upon the altar 
the fat of the sin-offering. After the man ap- 
pointed to set free the goat for Azazel had dis- 
charged his task, he was regarded as unclean, 
and was not permitted to return to the camp 
until he had bathed his flesh in water. 

IV. Post-Exilian Festivals.-l. The Feast of 
Acra, on the 28d of the second month (Jvvar) 
was established by Simon the Maecabce, in 141 
B.C., to celebrate the capture and purification of 
Acra, and the expulsion of the Hellenizing party 
from Jerusalem (1 Mace. 13: 50-52). This festival, 
however, appears to have soon become obsolete 
°« ln T , Jo,seijhu,s there is no mention of it. 
< 2 - ,, Fea ft of Wood-Carrying ft w £vAo(/,o P «d„ 
eoprr?) on the 15th of the fifth month ( \b) The 
institution of this festival dates from an earlv 
period after the return from the Babylonian 
captivity (Nch. 10: 35; cf. 13: 31). According to 
Josephus ; ( Wars, ii.,17, 6), it was the custom on 
this day for the people to bring wood to supply 
the ever-burning altar tire in the temple. 

3. Feast of Dedication, still called among the 
Jews Chanuccah. St. John in his Gospel ilo- 22) 
gives it the current name r* ey K aivta. This festi- 
val was instituted by Judas Maccabseus in com- 
memoration of the purification of the temple 
on the 2oth Kislev (about December), 164 bc 
this purification took place exactly three years 
after the pollution of the temple with heathen 
sacrifices by Antiochus Epiphanes, 167 b c The 
festival lasted eight days, corresponding to the 
full duration of the Feast of Tabernacles (if we 
include the final day of holv convocation) 

4. Feast of Nicanor, called in Megillatli Taa- 
nith "day ot Nicanor," was instituted by Judas 
Maccabaais as a festival to be commemorated 
on the 13th day of the twelfth month, viz., Adar 
(February-March), in remembrance of the vic- 
tory achieved over Nicanor in B.C. 161 

T-h f ® ast \ of Purim took place on the 14th and 
lath of the twelfth month (Adar), to commemo- 
rate the deliverance of the Jews from destruction 
p I°A t( ^ a ^ inst them by Hainan. In the book 
of Esther it is expressly laid down that the Jews 
should make these two days "days of feasting 
and gladness, and of sending portions to one 
another, and gifts to the poor" (Ksth. 9: 22). The 
day preceding the festival (13th) is called the 
Fast of Esther (Esth. 4: 16). 

Books , op Reference: The following should be 
consulted respecting Hebrew festivals: Articles on 
the separate leasts in Kitto's Cyclopedia of Biblical 
Literature (chiefly by Dr.'Gihsburg)- Smithes JHdttdh- 
aryof th< Bible; Riehm'a WanUwtirterMieh des biblisbhen 
Alterfhums; Sohenkel's BtoUlcccicon* KwuUVxAnrrt/rii- 
mrr; Encyclopcedia BrUdnnim d»lh e<U: iSchafi-Her- 
zog's Religious Encyclopaedia. 




By REV. OWEN C. WHITEHOUSE, M.A., Professor of Hebrew, 
Cheshunt College, near London. 

The Year.— The primitive character of the 
arrangement of the Jewish year is shown by its 
close correspondence to the course of agricul- 
tural life, beginning in early times after the 
close of harvest. This earlier method is reflected 
in what is called the Jewish civil year. The Jew- 
ish sacred or ecclesiastical year, on the other hand, 
follows the Babylonian system. One main stim- 
ulating cause for the adoption of this new ar- 
rangement, which made spring, and not autumn, 
the commencement of the year, was the great 
importance of the Passover festival, which 
marked the commencement of the Jewish festal 

The Months.— The year consisted of twelve 
lunar months, and the month contained from 
twenty-nine to thirty days. The Jewish, like 
the Babylonian, month began with the evening 
when the new moon was first observed, and the 
entire length of the year of twelve months was 
three hundred and fifty-four days. This dis- 
crepancy between the.* lunar and the solar year 
made intercalary months necessary, both in the 
Babylonian and Jewish systems. Thus we have 
an intercalary (or second) Adar, called Ve-adar. 

The Day and the Night.— The civil day of twen- 
ty-four hours was reckoned from sunset to 
sunset. This is clear from the express injunc- 
tion in Lev. 23: 32 to reckon the Sabbath from 

evening to evening. The reference in Gen. 1: 5 
is far from clear, and therefore should not be 
quoted in this connection. 

The following terms were employed by the 
ancient Hebrews to mark the progress of the 
day: (1) Shachar, the early dawn; (2) Boker, 
early part of the morning; (3) "Heat of the 
day," about ten o'clock (Gen. 18: 1); (4) Noon 
(Gen. 43: 16; Deut. 28: 29); (5) "Cool {lit. breeze) 
of the day," near sunset (Gen. 3: 8); (6) Evening. 

{Note.— The later division of the day was: 
Third hour, 6 to 9 A.M. ; Sixth hour, 9 to 12 a.m. ; 
Ninth hour, 12 to 3 p.m. ; Twelfth hour, 3 to 6 p.m.) 

The night was divided by the ancient Hebrews 
into three watches, so far as we can gather from 
scattered notices. The first probably lasted till 
about ten at night (Lam. 2: 19), the second till 
about two in the morning—" the middle watch " 
(Judg. 7: 19), and " the morning watch " till sun- 
rise (Ex. 14: 24). But in the Greek and Roman 
periods there were four watches, viz. : (1) From 
six till nine (Mark 11 : 11 ; John 20 : 19, 6^e, 6i/u'a 
wpa) ; (2) from nine till midnight (Mark 13: 5) ; (3) 
from midnight till 3 a.m. (Mark 13: 35) ; (4) from 

3 A.M. till 6 A.M. (John 18: 28, 7rpcoi' Or irptota u>pa). 

The following table will be found useful as 
containing the Jewish calendar for the entire 
jea,r, with the accompanying festivals and 

fasts : 

TO tS 

























Abib or Nisan (March- April). 
1st— New Moon. Beginning of the Sacred Year. 14th— 
Preparation for Passover — paschal lamb eaten in the evening, 
15th — Sabbath and Holy Convocation.^ Week of unleavened, 
bread begins. 16th— The offering of Omer or First Sheaf i^Lev. 
23: 10-12). 21st— Holy Convocation. 
Iyyar or Zif (April-May). 
1st— New Moon. 10th— Fast to commemorate the death of 
Elijah. 14th— Second or Little Passover. 28th— Fast for the 
death of Samuel. 
Sivan (May- June). 
1st— New Moon. 6th and 7th— Pentecost or Feast of Weeks, mark- 
ing the close of harvest. 
Tammuz (June-July). 
1st— New Moon. 17th — Fast to commemorate the breach in the 
wall of Jerusalem (Jer. 52: 5-7). 
Ab (July- August). 
1st— New Moon. 9th— Fast for the destruction of the temple 
by Nebuzaradan. 
Elul (August-September). 
1st— New Moon. 7th— Feast for the dedication of the walls by 
Tishri or Ethanim (September-October). 
1st — New Moon. New- Year's Day. Beginning of the Civil. Year. 
Feast of Trumpets. 3d — Fast for Gedaliah's" assassination (Jer. 
41: 2-6; II. Kings 25: 25). 10th — Kipxyurim or Day of Atonement. 
15th-22d— Feast of Tabernacles or Booths. 2lst~Feast of Branches 
or Palms. 
Marehesvan or Bui (October-November). 

1st— New Moon. 
Kislev (November-December). 

1st — New Moon. 25th — Chanuccah — Feast of Dedication. 
Tebet (December- January). 
1st— New Moon. 10th— Fast commemorating the beginning of 
Nebuchadnezzar's siege of Jerusalem (II. Kings 25: 1). 
Shebat (January-February). 

1st— New Moon. 
Adar (February-March). 

1st— New Moon. 13th— Fast of Esther. 14th and 15th— Peast ofPurim. 
Veadar (intercalary month). 

Latter or spring rains 

(Deut. 11: 14). 
Barley harvest begins. 

Barley harvest (Ruth 


Wheat harvest. 

Grapes, figs, and olives 
begin to ripen as the 
month progresses. 

Vintage begins, also 
harvest of maize. 
Pomegranates ripen. 

Former or early rains 
(Joel 2: 23). Plowing 
and sowing begin. 

Wheat and barley 

Almond tree blossoms. 

Books of Reference: Sayce's Hibbert Lectures 
on the Religion of the Ancient Babylonians; Sayce's 

Assyria: Its Priests and People ; Sclirader's Cuneiform 
Inscriptions; Delitzscli r s Commentary on Genesis. 




By C. R. BLACKALL, D.D., Editor of Periodicals, American Baptist 

Publication Society. 

It is entirely impossible to understand the 
attitude our Lord maintained toward the exist 
ing religious and political parties among the 
Jews of his time without a clear comprehension 
of the status of these parties, their relation to 
each other, and the striking difference between 
their teachings and his own. With the possible 
exception of the Essenes, neither of these par- 
ties was i o any true sense a " sect," as they were 
not separated by materially divergent views 
from the Jewish economy, and all participated 
alike in the temple and synagogue services. In- 
deed, it was the purpose of each to preserve all 
the peculiarities of Judaism and to strengthen 
and protect the national religious belief, and all 
were essentially close adherents of whatever 
pertained to the rites of the Mosaic law and the 
legal requirements of the Mosaic system. 

The origin of these parties mav be clearly 
traced to the religious and political conditions 
that were especially marked during and subse- 
quent to the captivity. The Pharisees and the 
Sadducees were the most prominent; the can- 
onical books of the Old Testament do not men- 
tion either of them, and they are the only par- 
ties directly named in the New Testament. 
The people, as a whole, were not, however, di- 
vided between them. In order to understand 
the subject properly, it will be necessary to con- 
sider the racial conditions that formed their en- 
vironment, the several classes to which they 
were more or less directly related, and the char- 
acter and quality of the religious cult of the age. 


The Canaanites were the original inhabitants 
of Palestine; they claimed descent from Canaan, 
the son of Ham, whence their name. When 
the Canaanites were subdued by the Hebrews, 
the latter called their new home the Land of 
Israel. The greater portion of the Israelites 
who returned from the exile were remnants of 
the tribe of Judah, whereupon Palestine was 
designated the Land of Judah and its people 
were first called Jews. Its boundaries were re- 
ligious rather than political, though the latter 
were the more definite and of greater extent, 
including Persea, Idumea, Abilene, etc. The 
political additions were made for the conven- 
ience of their Roman masters in administering 
the government. In the time of our Lord, Pal- 
estine was divided into three parts, or provinces, 
not now easily defined with exactness— Judea 
in the south, Galilee in the north, Samaria in 
the center. 

In their religious and political concepts, the 
Jews were a people distinctly separated from 
surrounding nations, holding themselves as the 
peculiarly chosen ones of Jehovah. In every 
principle and practice they were, as a rule, 
especially hostile to their Roman oppressors. 
Hence, all who were outside their own religious 
fellowship were stigmatized as foreigners and 
heathen, under the general term of Gentiles. 
Because of the more or less necessary conditions 
of mercantile and social life that prevailed, 
however, this foreign element became closely 
intermixed with the Jews, yet, not, assimilated. 
The true .lews looked with contempt upon 
Gentiles, counting them as utterly unclean; they 

hated them intensely, (railing them dogs, and 

other opprobrious uames. The very dust of 

Gentile lands and houses was regarded as a de 
filement, whence came the direction by the | 

scribes to "shake off the dust of your feet' 
upon leaving Gentile possessions. This hatred 
was cordially and bitterly reciprocated. In the 
light of these facts, our Lord's recognition of 
certain Gentiles would seem surprising, and the 
almost insuperable difficulties in the early 
spread of Christianity become apparent. 

The language of Palestine was as varied as 
were its people. Hebrew was "the tongue of 
the learned," understood by the scribes and 
doctors of the law, and used by them in teach- 
ing, but held as sacred, and not spoken by the 
common people. In course of time the pene- 
trating and pervasive influence of Hellenism 
led to a wide use of the Greek language, at least 
by the more cultured classes. Under the Ro- 
mans, Latin became the official language, and 
was in general use by the court, the soldiers, 
publicans, and tax-gatherers; but it was thor- 
oughly despised by the Jews, who persistently 
and stubbornly refused to employ it. The 
Aramaic or Syriac dialect was spoken by the 
people in general; its name derived from Aram, 
fifth son of Shem, progenitor of the Syrians. 
Pilate's reason for writing in three languages 
the inscription upon the cross of Jesus is thus 
made evident. 

Judeans.— The people of Judea may be re- 
garded as typical Israelites, the pure-blooded. 
They were in possession of the temple and its 
impressive ritual, and had within their territory 
most of that which made the Jewish people 
great— Jerusalem the capital, the national center 
of intellectual activity, the home of the strong- 
est elements of both political and religious life 
among the Jews. 

Galileans.— In the province of Galilee, a large 
proportion of the population consisted of 
heathen elements, which gave it the name of 
" Galilee of the Gentiles." among them being 
Phenicians, Arabians, Syrians, and Greeks. 
These people were not lacking in courage, but 
were given to change, sedition, and tumult. 
They were loyal to the temple and its services, 
but would be regarded religiously as more liberal 
than the inhabitants of Judea. As a result of 
this the stricter party, the Pharisees, would have 
less influence in Galilee. The provincial dialect 
was corrupt, as compared with that of Judea, 
and because of their inferior education and their 
intercourse with the heathen, Galileans were 
counted in a great degree as unclean, hence were 
despised by their brethren in the south. This 
explains the Judean prejudice against Jesus, 
from the fact that he and all of his disciples, 
except Judas, the betrayer, were Galileans. 

Samaritans.— Between the above were the Sa- 
maritans, descendants of the mixed race that 
was formed by the imported colonists and the 
Israelites who remained in the land when the 
bulk of the ten tribes were carried into captiv- 
ity. Gradually the heathen immigrants assimi- 
lated with the Jews. Upon the return from 
the captivity, the bitterness between the Jews 
and Samaritans grew into open hatred, so that 
the latter erected on Mount Gerizim, which they 
claimed to be the only place not covered by the 
flood, a temple of their own to Jehovah. They 
accepted Moses as the ctiief lawgiver,;! nd the Pen- 
tateuch as their law, but rejected the traditions 
and rules of the Pharisees. They observed the rite 
of circumcision, the requirements of the Sab- 
hath and the yearly Jewish festivals, but denied 
the Jewish priesthood, and refused to accept 
Jerusalem as the one place where God's temple 



should stand. They believed in the coming of a 
Messiah, and expected that he would eventually 
convert all nations to Samaritanism. Samaria 
was not regarded by the Jews as belonging to 
the Holy Land, but simply as " a Gentile tongue," 
—a strip of foreign country. The very term Sa- 
maritan was one of reproach. It is evident that 
Jesus and his immediate disciples did not share 
in the bitterness and hatred shown toward the 

Proselytes. —Gentiles who were won to Juda- 
ism were called proselytes, of whom there were 
two classes— one known as "proselytes of the 
gate," and the other as "proselytes of righteous- 
ness." The latter entered into full Jewish fel- 
lowship, fulfilling all requirements, while the 
former mainly observed the obligations of the 
law but did not submit to circumcision. All 
proselytes were admitted by immersion in water, 
which symbolized purification, after which offer- 
ings of sacrifices were required. Proselytes cast 
oil the usual ties of kindred and affection, and 
were absolved from previous obligations. But 
proselytism had a dark side. In large cities 
they were frequently the subjects of insult and 
persecution. Even among the Jews the prose- 
lyte gained but little honor, as it was an accepted 
maxim that no wise man would trust a prose- 
lyte, even to the twenty-fourth generation. 

Hellenists.— The Jews may be said to have 
been divided into two sections— the eastern, in- 
cluding the inhabitants of Palestine and Syria, 
under the general term Hebrews, from the lan- 
guage they spoke; and the western, who were 
called Hellenists or Grecians. The latter term 
indicates not original ancestry but the charac- 
teristics that resulted from contact with the 
Greeks. The wide adoption of the Greek lan- 
guage, which became universal, had the greatest 
influence in impressing Greek ideas and cus- 
toms upon the people. Hence there was a sort 
of dualistic Judaism. The two systems thus 
brought together were antagonistic, and the 
Grecian eventually prevailed over the other. 
The Hellenists were members of the priestly 
and wealthy class, who had become fascinated 
by Greek life and affected in their religion by 
Greek philosophy. Hellenism found good 
ground for development among the Sadducees. 
The Greek translation of the Old Testament was 
venerated as the oldest, and in the time of 
Christ held honorable place and was freely 
quoted, being the only complete Scriptures at 
command. This translation, known as the 
Septuagint, was regarded as equally inspired 
with the original. The scribes, as a class, 
steadily fought Hellenism, and through their 
influence there were times when the national 
religious fervor and faithfulness were partly 
restored. But while they succeeded in keeping 
heathen worship out of Judea, the Hellenist 
spirit constantly increased. It has been well 
said: " Grecian worldliness dashed against He- 
brew religion ; Greek freedom encountered He- 
brew legalism; Greek philosophy was met by 
Hebrew simplicity; Greek radicalism was op- 
posed by Hebrew conservatism. It was the 
shaping of progress, and each had something to 
gain from the other. The meeting of two such 
contrary forces proved rich in results for the 
whole world." 

Herodians.— These were partisans of Herod 
Antipas, described by Josephus as " people who 
supported Herod's cause." Outwardly they 
maintained a friendly attitude to the Romans. 
They were developed naturally from the Saddu- 
cees. They saw through Herod a possibility of 
preserving Jewish national existence, notwith- 
standing the Roman control. Like Herod, they 
were not closely observant of the Mosaic require- 
ments, and were ready for any compromise that 
was necessary between their faith and the civil- 
ization of which Herod was the representative. 
They did not form a strong party, and their im- 

press upon the community was neither great 
nor enduring. The intrigue of the Pharisees 
with the Herodians in the effort to fix a political 
stigma upon Jesus was despicable, and charac- 
teristic of the unscrupulous partisans of so 
wicked a king. It will be observed that the 
Pharisees, rather than the Herodians, sought 
this alliance. With the passing away of the 
Asmonean or Herod family, Herodian influence 
would inevitably cease. 

Publicans. — Under Roman domination the 
Publicani at Rome bought the revenues of the 
country at a fixed price and employed local 
subordinates to gather the taxes at the cost of 
the people. These latter formed the publicans 
of the New Testament. Their duties were to 
levy taxes of all sorts, and all classes were sub- 
ject to their extortions. The rabbis despised 
them, and forbade any one to receive their 
charitable gifts or even to make them the 
medium of changing money, ranking them as 
outcasts, highwaymen, and murderers. By a 
decree of Ceesar the taxes of Judea were levied 
by publicans in Judea and paid directly to the 
national government, the officials being ap- 
pointed by the provincial officers. This made 
the publicans yet more unpopular, because they 
were the direct officials of a heathen power. 
Matthew would naturally be regarded not only 
as a publican, but one of the worst kind, who 
himself stood at the place of custom, and one in 
whom repentance would be deemed especially 


Temple and Synagogue.— Although the tem- 
ple in Jerusalem was the place to which every 
devout Jew looked, and toward which he 
prayed, the necessities of the Jewish people 
during the captivity led to the institution of 
the synagogue, or school of religion. In the 
time of Christ the synagogue system was at the 
height of its prosperity. Sacrifices were, of 
course, legal only in the temple, but prayers 
were offered and the Scriptures were read and 
expounded in the synagogue. In Jerusalem 
there were nearly five hundred such Jewish 
schools or synagogues, while every city and 
town had one or more, according to population. 
Certain men were appointed to maintain order, 
and these were called elders. As the ancient 
Hebrew was an unknown language to many, an 
interpreter translated the Scriptures into Ara- 
maic, the dialect of the common people. Prayer 
w T as offered standing, while the teaching was 
conducted in a sitting posture. Chief seats were 
arranged for the rulers, the rabbis, and distin- 
guished men who might be present. Attendance 
on the services was imperative, and while there 
the people were to behave in a suitable manner. 
Although there were some occasions when eat- 
ing and drinking, and even sleeping, were allow- 
ed in the synagogue, as a rule the house was 
regarded as sacred to God and his worship. All 
the movements and postures in prayer and in 
other public services were defined with great 
punctiliousness. It will be remembered that 
our Lord frequently attended the synagogue in 
his youth and early years, and he evidently ob- 
served the usual forms of worship. In syna- 
gogues he wrought some of his greatest works of 
healing, and uttered many of those wonderful 
words that beyond measure touched human 
hearts. While the synagogue did not wholly 
take the place of the temple, it was second to it 
only in point of importance. 

Sanhedrin.— This was the great council of the 
Jews, who designated it as the "Great Court of 
Justice" and the "Great Sanhedrin." This 
national council remained in existence and 
authority until the Jews ceased to be a nation, 
ending in the ruin of the people in a.d. 70. It 
consisted of seventy persons, who are designated 
in the New Testament as "chief priests," "eld- 



ers," and "scribes." While required to be of 
mature age, it was not necessary that its mem- 
bers should be the eldest of the people. The 
priestly portion of the body were Sadducees and 
the most distinguished, hut the Pharisees were 
more numerous and possessed greater influence. 
The high priest, by virtue of his office; was the 
-president. The Sanhedrih originally possessed 
supreme religious and sec alar jurisdiction. In 
the days of our Lord it determined all questions 
that were not reserved for the Roman authori- 
ties. Its functions were to "watch over the 
genealogies of the people, so as to guard the 
purity of the hereditary priesthood; to an- 
nounce feast days; to make calculations for the 
calendar; to adjust the solar yesbt to the lunar 
month; to fix dates for the festivals; to decide 
matrimonial cases; to punish infringements of 
the law; and even to exercise judicial control 
over the chief priests. The confirmation and 
execution of death sentences were taken from 
the national council and reserved for the Roman 
procurator." The power of the Sannedrin was 
recognized beyond the limits of Palestine — Jew- 
ish communities in distant countries submitting 
to its direction and decisions. 


Scribes.— The scribes can scarcely be called a 
party, but may better be designated as a class. 
Originally they were men who were appointed 
secretaries to the king. Even in the time of the 
judges they are spoken of as those who 
" handled the pen of the writer." Hezekiah 
fostered the growth of a body of men whose 
specific work was to transcribe the old records 
and to put into writing that which had been 
handed down orally. Gradually they became 
students of the law, and easily from that the 
interpreters of the law; and by natural grada- 
tion, while aiming to promote reverence for the 
law and make it the groundwork of the life of 
the people, they came to be regarded as author- 
ity upon all questions concerning it, sometimes 
perverting its applications and requirements, 
and adding new burdens that the law did not 
originally contemplate. 

The necessity for a class such as the scribes is 
readily apparent when it is recalled that the 
law was written in a language that had ceased 
to be spoken. They claimed that apart from 
the six hundred and thirteen commandments 
of the Pentateuch alone, there were a multitude 
of traditional requirements that had been 
added. Under these circumstances the people 
generally could scarcely be expected either to 
understand or to carry out so complicated a 
system. In the Old Testament the scribes are 
known as the Sapharin. In the New Testament 
they are spoken of as men of learning, ac- 
quainted with the law, lawyers, or teachers of 
i he law. 

The Jews believed that Moses received on 
Mount Sinai, in addition to the series of laws 
which he wrOte down, a second series known as 
ihe oral law, which he gave first to Aaron, then 
lo l he sons of Aaron, and lastly to all the Isra- 
elites. This oral law was handed down from 
father to son, and from age to age, in course of 
lime, with -traditions and corruptions, making 
a mass of ceremonial requirements. After the 
captivity, piety was made to consist in the 
strictest conformity to the multitudinous pre- 
cepts of this double and complicated code. 

The office of the scribes was not only to pre- 
pare copies of the sacred records, but also dis- 
courses for those who were gathered in the syna- 
gogues. In the time of Christ the scribes were 
also jurists, judges, and public instructors. They 
met together ror the discussion of legal ques- 
tions, but their decisions were required to be 
confirmed by the Sanhedrim Their places of 
meeting for teaching the law were called 

" houses of assembly," or " houses of the rabbis." 
One of these was in the temple, where Jesus, 
when a hoy of but twelve years of age, awakened 
so much Interest by his knowledge and his 
questionings and answers. A scribe was ad- 
dressed as Rabbi, or Master. The scribes usually 
performed (heir duties without pecuniary gain, 
giving themselves lo some useful calling in 
order to personal support. Great deference was 
paid them, and they both sought and received 
salutations in the market-places and distin- 
guished seats of honor at feasts and synagogues. 
hi the time of our Lord, the methods by which 
they aimed bo impress (lie people, and the per- 
versions and absurdities which they indulged 
in with regard to the law, gave rise to strong 
denunciations on the part of Mesas. 

The outward form was to them more than the 
inwardspirit. Their teaching was more a recall- 
ing of the words of their predecessors, "the 
traditions of the elders," than an effort to reach 
the true inwardness of the law, by this means 
placing the expositor of the law on a higher 
plane than the law itself; which led to the state- 
ment of Matthew, that Jesus "spoke as one 
having authority and not as the scribes"; he 
had compassion on the multitude and taught 
independently of the traditions of the fathers. 
Although their character as a class was possibly 
one of unconscious hypocrisy, yet it is fair to 
say that some among them were wise in matters 
of Christ's kingdom. They represented that 
Avhich was best, as well as that which was 
worst, in Judaism. 

Pharisees.-— Mention has been made of the 
written law and the oral code, and the part 
which the scribes had taken in making the lat- 
ter known and its precepts observed. But many 
of the Jews set aside the oral code, because they 
regarded the regulations of the written law as 
being sufficient for their guidance. The larger 
number, however, held also to the traditional 
law, or oral code. 

The word Pharisee is derived from the Hebrew 
word meaning to separate, and this title was 
given to the Pharisees because of their superior 
strictness in adhering to the law. They held 
themselves apart from all Gentile contact, ob- 
served the most minute injunctions of the oral 
law, professed faith in washings and vows, and 
were intolerant of those who differed from 
them. They formed a large class, including 
many of the scribes. They were not identical 
with the scribes, but were rather a, class among 
the scribes. So exact were they in their cere- 
monial requirements that the ordinary Jew 
was to the Pharisee an unclean being, no better 
than a heathen. They were sanctimonious in 
manner, and hypocritical in character, trans- 
forming religion into the mere outward observ- 
ance of acts and ceremonies. 

They were ready for a Messiah of their own 
order, but not for the one who came. It is not, 
therefore, singular that they hated Jesus with a 
perfect hatred, and were not satisfied until they 
had killed him. In doctrine they held to free- 
dom of the will and also predestination, the im- 
mortality of the soul, the resurrection of the 
body, and the existence of angels and spirits. 
The teachings of Jesus were in large degree 
contrary to theirs, and his unmasking of them 
severe in character, and his charges of hypocrisy 
were unqualified. 

They were spiritually proud, and in great part 
without moral excellence. Their estimate of the 
common people is very well indicated in our 
Liord's parable of the Pharisee and (he Publican. 
Vet there were notable exceptions. Some of the 
best names in Jewish literature are those of 
Pharisees, and they really had within their 
number much that was best and bravest in 
Israel. They contended for liberty of con- 
science in worshiping God, and so thoroughly 
devoted were they to the observance of the law 


tbat they would submit to butchery by their 
enemies rather than violate any of its precepts. 
The distinction between the Pharisees and 
the Sadducees was not so much religious as 
political. The Pharisees were really the party 
of the people, while the Sadducees were the 
party of the aristocracy. In number the Phari- 
sees did not exceed about six thousand. 

Sadducees.— Effort has been made to trace 
the history of the Sadducees back to an earlier 
time than the facts would seem to warrant. 
The essential principle of the Sadducees was to 
observe the simple letter of the law, whatever 
the consequences might be. Primarily, they 
did not absolutely deny the doctrine of the 
resurrection as promulgated by the Pharisees, 
but only that the resurrection could be proved 
from the law. Yet between this and the direct 
denial of the doctrine there was but a step. 
They believed that earthly recompense and 
happiness, with long life and numerous de- 
scendants, constituted the only immortality. 

It seems entirely clear that the origin of the 
Sadducees was simply in a negation of the views 
held by the Pharisees. While the latter added to 
the law, the Sadducees would stand upon its bare 
letter, and would not be over-righteous. While 
the Pharisees represented the better class among 
the Jews with regard to learning, the Sadducees 
were representatives of the priestly families of 
the aristocracy; hence the latter had more con- 
trol than the Pharisees in the services of the 
temple, although they were less in numbers. 

The principles of the Sadducees were as secu- 
lar as those of the Pharisees were religious. 
They held many of the important offices, as 
high priests, priests, and judges. They allowed 
themselves a great deal of latitude with regard 
to the pleasures of the table and the luxuries of 
the court. By the people generally they were 
regarded as possessing hereditary nobility and 
as entitled to class privileges. As a rule, they 
were proud and arrogant. Necessarily they were 
sharply opposed to Jesus, whom they hated as 
a fanatic. So far as known, not one of them 
accepted the Christian religion, yet with a single 
exception they were not the subjects of severe 
denunciation by Jesus, as were the Pharisees 
and scribes. They rapidly disappeared from 
history after the first century. 

Zealots.— The Zealots formed the nationalistic 
party of the Jews, deriving their name from their 
intense zeal for the law. The people were ranged 
either with or against them. They refused 
to call any human being absolute lord, reserv- 
ing that title for God alone. The Zealots arose 
in Galilee in the early days of Herod, and 
during his reign he endeavored by every possi- 
ble means to suppress them. They were not 
destroyed, however, but only held in check. 
Their original leader was Judas the Galilean or 
Gaulanite, who was associated with a Pharisee 
named Saduc. They were most naturally allied 
to the Pharisees, from whose ranks they were 
chiefly recruited. They refused to pay tribute 
to foreign governments, holding that Jehovah 
alone, as Supreme Ruler, was entitled to tribute. 

They organized armed resistance against the 
taxation of Israel, and made open rebellion 
against Rome. The center of their influence 
was not so much in Judea or Jerusalem as in 
Galilee; but Rome had strong friends among 
those who were considered the better portion of 
the community, including persons of high rank 
among the priesthood and aristocracy and lead- 
ing business men who were satisfied with for- 
eign rule because of the personal advantages 
gained therefrom. They expected an earthly 
Messiah who would restore the kingdom of 
Israel. This question came to our Lord at 
an early period in his life, but before he began 
his public work his separation from such possi- 
ble associations was made clear. If he had 
y ielded to the pressure of the Zealots, and identi- 

fied himself in any degree with this nationalist 
party, there is no doubt that he would have met 
the fate of Judas the Galilean. Simon, a disciple 
of Jesus, was at one time a Zealot. The movement 
of rebellion against Rome was an ill-starred one, 
however; the destruction of the leaders was fol- 
lowed by a war that broke out in the years 6 and 
7 A.D., when the Zealots were exterminated. 

Essenes.— The origin and many things con- 
nected with the Essenes are involved in mys- 
tery. The earliest mention of them is about 
150 B.C. They came into more prominent no- 
tice in the time of our Lord's ministry upon 
earth. The word Essene has been variously 
interpreted as healer, teacher, and baptist. Con- 
trasted with the Pharisees, the Essenes were not 
a party, but a communistic religious order. 
Their dread of any unclean ness was so exagger- 
ated that social intercourse between them and 
others became almost impossible. Retiring 
from the towns and villages, where it was found 
impossible to avoid contamination from the 
world about them, they sought refuge in the 
solitudes of Engedi, on the shores of the Dead 
Sea, where they lived in isolated communities. 
They were opposed to marriage, and their num- 
ber was increased for the most part by the 
adoption of children. 

There was absolute equality among them as 
to property. Agriculture was their chief occu- 
pation. Their habits were simple and austere. 
Every meal was regarded as sacrificial, indeed 
the only sacrifice that they acknowledged. No 
trace of Messianic expectation entered into their 
creed. Practically, in great measure they were 
outside of Judaism as represented either by the 
Pharisees or Sadducees. Their order included 
four degrees, and when one of a higher stage 
came into contact with one of a lower, he was 
considered defiled. A three years' probation 
was required of every candidate. At the end of 
the first year, the novice was admitted to special 
privileges; if during two years he maintained a 
satisfactory course, he was admitted to full 
membership by an oath that bound him to 
conform to every requirement of the organiza- 
tion and never to reveal its mysteries. 

In numbers they did not at any time exceed 
four thousand. In zeal for the absolute su- 
premacy of God, the Essenes went beyond the 
Pharisees. They believed that the body per- 
ished after death, the soul only being immortal, 
and that between the soul and the body there 
was no indissoluble connection, the body being 
merely the temporary abiding place of the soul. 
At death, the souls of the wicked were punished 
with eternal torment, and the souls of the good 
were transported to the islands of the blessed. 
They made offerings to the temple services, 
although they refused to enter the temple 
itself. They rejected all images, even those 
stamped on coins. They neither ate flesh nor 
drank wine. Their outer clothing consisted 
mainly of a white linen garment. 

The Essenes are not mentioned in the New 
Testament. They formed the extreme opposite 
to the Zealots, in that they lived and died for 
themselves alone, having no interest in the 
morals or the government of their country, and 
holding strictly aloof from the struggles that 
were in progress with a view to establishing the 
nationality of their own people. Their history 
ceased with the destruction of Jerusalem, al- 
though there are some traces of them up to the 
fifth century. 

Books of Reference: For a more thorough 
study of this subject the reader is referred to the fol- 
lowing works that are generally accessible: Eder- 
sheim's The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah: 
Edersheim's Sketches of Jewish Social Life in the Lays 
of Christ; Stapfer's Palestine in the Time of Christ; 
Seidel's Jn the Times of Jesus; Fairweather's From 
the Exile to the Advent; Smith's Bible Dictionary, una- 
bridged edition. 


the t\i:ki;n \<le and the temple. 


I. the mosaic tabernacle. 

1. The Tabernacle in General— Outward Court 
and Its Furniture.— The tabernacle erected by 
Moses in the wilderness is described in Exodus 
26 and 27. It was divided into three main por- 
tions, the outer court, the sanctuary, and the 
holy of holies. The outer court was surrounded 
by fine twined linen screens, 5 cubits in height, 
hung by silver hooks upon pillars of brass rest- 
ing in sockets of brass. Of these pillars there 
were twenty on the southern side, twenty on 
the northern, and ten on the western. The east- 
ern side had also ten pillars. On four of the six 
pillars in the center was hung the screen of 20 
cubits of "blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine 
twined linen," which served the purpose of an 
entrance gate. The six other pillars were placed 
three on either side, and from them were hung 
fixed screens, as on the north, south, and west. 
The space thus enclosed was 100 cubits by 50, or 
in round numbers 150 feet by 75. 

In the outer court, which was accessible to all 
the Israelites, stood the altar of burnt-offering, 
square in shape, 5 cubits in length and breadth, 
and 3 in height (Ex. 27: 1-8). It was made of 
acacia wood, covered with brass. The laver of 
brass, with its pedestal of brass, placed between 
the tabernacle and the altar, is most minutely 
described in Exodus 30: 17-21. This outer court 
was a perfect square (50 cubits by 50), occupying 
exactly half of the space of the whole enclosure. 

2. The Tabernacle Proper, Its Construction 
and Coverings.— Inside the enclosure, 50 cubits 
from the entrance into the outer court, towards 
the western end, was the tabernacle proper 
(mishcan), covered by a large tent (ohel) spread 
"over it," thus protecting it from sun and rain 
(Ex. 26: 7; 36: 11). The tabernacle proper was 30 
cubits long, 10 broad, and K) high. It was ex- 
ternally a parallelogram, with an entrance on 
the eastern side; its innermost shrine, the holy 
of holies, was towards the west. The two longer 
sides, the northern and southern, were each 
composed of twenty boards of shittim or acacia 
wood, overlaid with gold, each board being 10 
cubits in heightand \\u in breadth. The western 
side was formed of eight such boards (Ex. 20 25), 

two of which formed the posts at the angles 
(Ex. 26: 22-24). On the eastern side was the 
entrance, closed by the curtains of "blue, and 
purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, the 
work of the embroiderer." This curtain was 
suspended by golden hooks from five pillars of 
acacia wood, overlaid with gold, which rested in 
sockets of brass (Ex. 26: 36, 37, R.V.). The gen- 
eral structure will be best understood from the 
illustration above, drawn from the article in 
Smith's Bible Dictionari/ (vol. iii.) on "The Tem- 
ple," by Jas. Fergusson, F. R. S., Fellow of the 
Royal Institute of British Architects. 

The ceiling of the tabernacle was formed of 
"ten curtains; of fine twined linen, and blue, and 
purple, and scarlet, with cherubim the work of 
the cunning workman." Each curtain was 28 
cubits long by four broad. These curtains were 
coupled together, five and five united together 
by fifty loops of blue and fifty clasps of gold. 
The covering composed of these curtains, when 
joined together (40 cubits long by 28 wide), suf- 
ficed to cover the tabernacle above, with its 
northern and southern sides, leaving only a 
small space uncovered near the ground on each 

Such was the mishean, or tabernacle proper. 
Over the whole of this splendid structure an 
outer tent was pitched. In order to give the 
fullest protection to the interior tabernacle, the 
outer tent had three special coverings. (1) The 
first and innermost was composed of eleven 
curtains of goats' hair, each curtain 30 cubits 
long by 4 wide, sewn together so as to form two 
larger curtains of unequal size, one composed of 
six, the other of five, of the smaller curtains. 
Over this goats' hair covering was further 
thrown (2) a curtain of rams' skins, with their 
wool dyed red (Ex. 26: 14). This bright red cov- 
ering was that seen by all Israel. (3) The third 
covering appears to have been merely a coping 
along the ridge, extending a little way down the 
sides, it was composed of the skins of some spe- 
cies of porpoise or dolphin (Ex. 20: 14). ("Badgers' 
skins," given by the A.Y., is erroneous.) 

3. The Holy Place and Its Furniture.— The 
sanctuary, or the holy place, was 20 cubits long 
by 10 wide, and 10 cubits in height, the curtain 



on the western end dividing it from the holy of 
holies. This outer chamber of the tabernacle 
proper was accessible only to the priests. In it 
stood the altar of incense, the seven-branched 
candlestick, and the table of showbread. 

(1) The Altar of Incense was also square, 1 cubit 
long bv 1 cubit broad, and 2 cubits in height 
(Ex. 80: 1-10). It was formed of acacia wood, 
overlaid with pure gold, with horns of gold, and 
a crown or rim of gold round its sides, with 
golden rings on two sides, and staves overlaid 
with gold, by which it could be carried. In- 
cense only was burned thereon. 

(2) The Candlestick was of pure gold, of beaten 
work. It had seven arms, the center one being 
the shaft, formed on each side of three cups of 
almond blossoms, their knops and flowers (Ex. 
25 : 31-40). The lamps, which were placed on the 
tops of the seven branches, were separate from 
the candlestick itself, and were supplied with 

were formed of the acacia boards covered with 
gold noticed before, its fourth side being formed 
by the curtain, or veil, suspended from four 
pillars, which veil screened off the most holy 
from the holy place. Into the holy of holies no 
one was permitted to enter except the high 
priest on the annual day of atonement, de- 
scribed in Lev. 16. 

The sole furniture of the holy of holies con- 
sisted of the ark of the covenant. The latter 
was an oblong chest made of acacia wood, over- 
laid within and without with gold. Its dimen- 
sions were 2% cubits long by V/ 2 in breadth and 
depth. Its lid, termed "the mercy-seat," was 
also overlaid with gold, with a golden rim, or 
crown, round it; out of the same piece of beaten 
gold were formed two cherubim, one cherub at 
the one end and one cherub at the other end of 
the lid. These cherubim spread out their wings 
on high, covering the mercy-seat with them, 




o o o o o o 
100 Cubits, or 150 Feet. 

Veranda, or Porch, 5 Cubits. 

6 ■ 


c8 . . 





i i 




ww ' 


i i 

W ■ 

Veranda, or Porch, 5 Cubits. 




u £ fe 


















100 Cubits, or 150 Feet. 

o o o o o o 

I. Outer Court, 50x50. 


a. Altar of Incense, b. Table of Showbread. c. Candlestick. (A cubit is 1% feet.) 

oil from oil vessels which are not specially de- 
scribed. The height of the candlestick is not 
mentioned. Its lamps were lighted and trim- 
med daily by the priests, and kept constantly 
burning (Ex. 27: 20, 21). 

(3) The Table of Showbread was also of acacia 
wood, overlaid with pure gold — 2 cubits in length, 
1 in breadth, and 1% in height. It also had a 
crown or rim of gold round it, and staves over- 
laid with gold to carry it with, which were placed 
in four golden rings (Ex. 25: 23-30). The table 
was also provided with dishes and spoons for 
the frankincense (Lev. 24: 7), also with flagons 
and bowls, probably for wine. On this table 
were every week placed twelve loaves of bread 
to represent the twelve tribes, arranged in two 
rows of six loaves each. The loaves which were 
removed were eaten by the priests in the holy 

4. The Holy of Holies and the Ark of the Cov- 
enant.— The holy of holies, or most holy place, 
was in the Mosaic tabernacle completely dark. 
It was 10 cubits long by 10 in width, and 10 in 
height, being a perfect cube. Three of its sides 

their faces being towards one another, but their 
countenances directed as if looking down upon 
the mercy-seat (Ex. 37: 1-9). Above these cher- 
ubim the glory of God appeared; hence the Lord 
is often represented as throned between the 

On the sides of the ark were placed four golden 
rings, through which staves of acacia wood, over- 
laid with gold, were placed, so that the ark 
could be carried thereby. In the journeys of 
the children of Israel the ark was borne by the 
sons of Kohath. 

Inside the ark were the two tables of stone, 
termed "the testimony," on which were the ten 
commandments, written with the linger of God. 
It is expressly stated that when the ark was 
brought into the temple of Solomon it con- 
tained nothing else (I. Ki. 8: 9). The pot of 
manna (Ex. 16: 33) and Aaron's rod that budded 
(Num. 17: 10) were laid up "before the testi- 
mony," but were not placed inside the ark. 

5. The Priests. —The services of the tabernacle 
were performed by the high priest, the priests, 
and the Levites. 



Among the services performed by the high 
priest alone, the most important was the en- 
trance once a year, on the day of atonement, 
into the holy of holies to sprinkle the blood for 
himself and for the people upon the mercy -seat. 
The duties to be discharged by each of the three 
orders (the high priest, priests, and Levites) are, 
in a number of cases, specially defined in the 
Pentateuch ; but in a very large n umber of cases 
they must have been regulated, by later au- 

The attire of the high priest was elaborate, 
and is minutely described in Ex. 28 and 29. The 
dress of the other priests was plainer, and is not 
so fully described. 

6 . The Symbolical Meaning of the Tabernacle 
and Its Services.— Inasmuch as the tabernacle, 
its furniture, and the various colors appertain- 
ing thereto were all formed "after the pattern 
showed ... in the mount," they have always been 
understood as symbolical. The Epistle to the 
Hebrews reveals the meaning of a portion of 
these symbols, seen in the light of the New 
Testament dispensation. Such an interpreta- 
tion was, however, wholly beyond the ken of 
the most spiritual worshipers in Old Testa- 
ment days. Hence many theories have been 
put forward in ancient and modern times as to 
what was understood in olden times to be sym- 
bolized thereby. In general it may perhaps be 
safe to affirm that the holy of holies represented 
"the thick darkness where God is," "dwelling 
in the light which no one can approach to," 
throned above all created beings, which are 
represented in their highest form by the cheru- 
bim. Hence the holiest of all was left in total 
darkness, untrodden, save once a year, by mor- 
tal feet. It was most suitable that it should 
contain, in the ark, that law by which God had 
manifested himself to men, and which was a 
silent testimony that he, though unseen, was 
Ruler over men. It was also most fitting that 
on the lid of the ark, termed the "mercy-seat," 
and "the lid of expiation," the blood should be 
sprinkled, shed to make typical atonement for 
the sins of Israel. The nature of the true atone- 
ment and propitiation could not be revealed to 
man until the day of Calvary. 

The priests, as the representatives of Israel, 
performed the daily and other sacrifices by 
which reconciliation was made for sin. 

In all the sacrifices performed in the taber- 
nacle, the intervention and mediation of the 
officiating priests were required, under the law 
of Moses. The tribe of Levi was chosen as the 
priestly tribe. The Bible student may profitably 
consult on such subjects Dr. Edersheim's popu- 
lar and useful work on The Temple. 

7. The History of the Mosaic Tabernacle and 
Ark.— The tabernacle accompanied the Israelites 
from place to place in their wanderings until 
they entered the land of Canaan, when it was 
finally set up at Shiloh (Josh. 18: 1). There it 
appears to have remained until the days of 
Samuel. Shiloh was destroyed, in the troubles 
of that day, probably after the battle in which 
the Philistines obtained possession of the ark 
(I. Sain. 4). The ark was never restored again 
to its place in the tabernacle. According to 
the chronicler, David, while making arrange- 
ments for the temple to be erected by Solo- 
mon, provided for the preservation of the tah- 
ernacie as a sacred relic of the past (I. Chr. 23: 

The ark, when brought back to Beth-shemesh 
from the country of the Philistines, was located 
for many years at Kirjath-jearim, in the house 
of Vbinadab and in the house of Obed-edom the 
< •\i lite (11. Sam. 6: 10). It was, however, finally 
brought with rejoicings into the city of David. 
and placed in the midst of the tent that David 
pitched for it ill. Sam. (i: IV; I. Chr. 15: 23-28), 
where it remained until the erection of the 
temple by Solomon. 


1. The Temple of Solomon, described in I. Ki. 
(I and II. Chr. 3, 4, was for the most part only 
an enlarged edition of the Mosaic tabernacle 
with the modifications necessitated by the re- 
quiremen ts of such a splendid edifice. The plan 
of the Solomonic t em pie was, according to the 
chronicler, handed over by David to Solomon. 
That plan David was "made to understand in 
writing from the hand of the Lord" (I. Chr. 28: 
!!»; see also vs. 11, 12 11'.). That statement is not, 
however, at variance with the facts afterwards 
recorded, that ornamental details andsubsidiary 
constructions were added by Solomon and the 
Tyrian artificers who assisted him in the build- 

As Mr. Fcrgusson has observed, in the article 
already noticed, the arrangements of tabernacle 
and temple were identical in the main, save 
that the dimensions of the temple were ex- 
actly double. The holy of holies in the tem- 
ple was a cube of 20 cubits, instead of 10, as in 
the tabernacle. The holy place in the temple 
was similarly 40 cubits in length, instead of 20. 
The porch before the temple was 10 cubits in 
breadth (I. Ki. 6: 3), as compared with the open 
veranda, or porch, which Pergusson has proved 
to have been formed round the tabernacle by 
the projections of the covering tent on every 

That eminent architect remarks: " Taking all 
these parts together, the ground plan of the 
temple measured 80 cubits by 40; that of the 
tabernacle was 40 by 20 [i.e., 5 cubits open ve- 
randa on each side with the 10 cubits width 
of the tabernacle itself] ; and what is more strik- 
ing than even this, is that though the walls 
were 10 cubits high in the one and 20 cubits 
in the other, the whole height of the tabernacle 
was 15, that of the tempie 30 cubits; the one roof 
rising 5, the other 10 cubits above the height of 
the internal walls. So exact, indeed, is this coin- 
cidence, that it not only confirms to the fullest 
extent the restoration of the tabernacle which 
has just been explained [see the illustration], 
but it is a singular confirmation of the minute 
accuracy which characterized the writers of the 
Pentateuch and the books of Kings and Chron- 
icles in this matter; for not only are we able 
to check the one by the other at this distance 
of time with perfect certainty, but, now that 
we know the. system on which they were con- 
structed, we might almost restore both edifices 
from Josephus' account of the temple as re- 
erected by Herod." 

There were numerous differences in the details 
of the plans, all adapted to the changed condi- 
tions and enlarged worship. It is unnecessary 
to do more here than allude to the pillars Jachin 
and Boaz, mentioned in II. Chr. 3: 17. 

2. The Temple of Zerubbabel. -This temple, 
erected on the return of the Jews from captiv- 
ity (in B.C. 52Q), is roughly described in the decree 
of Cyrus (Ezra 0: 3). it was to be sixty cubits in 
height, only half as high as the Solomonic, but 
much broader, being sixty in place of the forty, 
which was the width of the Solomonic. It 
seems to have been increased in later times. 
When originally erected it was far inferior to 
that of Solomon, and the signs of the inferiority 
were no doubt visible from the very beginning; 
for it is doubtful whether the exiles were able 
to attempt the erection of so large a building as 
(hat originally contemplated in Cyrus' decree. 
ilence the account in Ezra 3: 12, 13 is quite 

It is, however, important to note that in this 
second temple the high-priestly breastplate, with 
its Urim and Thummim, was no longer in ex- 
istence (Neh. 7: 65). The ark of the covenant, 
too, was no longer with Israel. It is quite prob- 
able that the Talmud preserves a true reminis- 
cence (Joma 5: 2), where it says that its place was 


taken by a stone, probably one of the found a- 
tion stones of the first temple, but which Mai- 
monides says was that on which the ark rested 
in the temple, and that on that stone, which 
rose about three fingers' breadth above the level 
of the pavement, the blood of atonement was 
sprinkled, and the censer of burning mcense 
was placed on the day of atonement. (See my 
Bampton Lectures on Zechariah, p. 71.) 

In the temple of Zerubbabel there appears to 
have been only one seven-branched candlestick 
in the holy place (I. Mace. 1: 21; 4: 49, 50; Jose- 
phus' Antiq., xiv., 4, 4). Though similar inform 
to that in the tabernacle of Moses, it could not 
have been identical in ornamentation, for the 
griffins on its pedestal, which appear on the 
triumphal arch of Titus, are suggestive of a 
foreign origin. In all other particulars the 
furniture of the holy place appears to have 
been like that in the tabernacle. 

3. The Temple of Herod— This temple was 
in the main a restoration, with greater mag- 
nificence, of the temple of Zerubbabel, the 
main portion of that erection being incorpo- 
rated with Herod's temple. The magnificence 
of the latter is spoken of in the New Testa- 
ment, and the forty and six years it was in 
building. But no details are there given of 
its dimensions or its chambers. Josephus' 
writings, witb a few notices in the Talmud, are 
the sources from which all our information is 
derived. Modern excavation, however, has 
made it possible, with those helps, to give a tol- 
erably accurate account of the ground plan (see 
that by Major Conder, R.E., annexed to this 
work). For our present purpose it is sufficient 
to note that Herod's temple had its holy place 
duly furnished like the temple of Zerubbabel, 
its holy of holies separated from the former by 

the veil, and empty, as before described. Its 
courts were partially overshadowed by the 
Roman fortress of Antonia. One of the most 
interesting discoveries of modern excavations is 
that of Ganneau. 1 


The visions of Ezekiel in reference to the res- 
toration of Israel, the re-settlement of the Holy 
Land, and the building of the temple (chs. 40-48), 
are to a considerable extent of an apocalyptic 
character. It may be wrong to describe the 
whole as "nothing but a gigantic allegory," for 
in that case it would be requisite to point out 
the symbolical significance of at least the ma- 
jority of the details, which cannot be done. But 
it is equally clear that the vision of the temple 
was not intended to be taken literally. It was 
an ideal representation, in which the prophet, 
who "looked for redemption in Israel," and the 
nation to whom he belonged were taught 
through well-known symbols to look forward 
to something grander and nobler than even 
that displayed to the eye, in those "visions of 

Books of Reference: Ederslieim's The Temple: 
Its Ministry and Services; Atwater's Sacred Tabernacle; 
Randall's The Wonderfid Tent; Strong's The Taber- 
nacle of Israel in the Wilderness; Bodgers' Gospel Ac- 
cording to Moses, as Seen in the Tabernacle and The 
Jewish Temple: Its Typical and Spiritual Teachings. 

i Ganneau found a stone at the temple site, with 
this Greek inscription: " No stranger must enter with- 
in the balustrade round the temple and enclosure. 
Whoever is caught will he responsible for his own 
death. " — Fausset. 



By KEY. GEORGE ADAM SMITH, D.D., Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament 
Exegesis, Free Church College, Glasgow. 

Messiah.— The name Messiah (from which 
Messianic comes) is Hebrew. A Verbal adjec- 
tive, mashiah (anointed), takes the form meshiah 
in the genitive combination, "the anointed of 
Jehovah.'" The Chaldee is Meshiha; the Greek is 
Messias (John 1: 41). In the LXX. the word is 
always rendered Christos or Christ, which in 
the New Testament and in Christian theology 
takes the place of Meshiah as the title of Jesus. 

In the Old Testament, messiah or anointed is 
used of many agents of God— of the high priest 
(Lev. 4: 3); of prophets (Ps. 105: 15); of Cyrus, the 
foreign deliverer whom God raised up for his 
people (Isa. 45: 1). But it is mostly kept for 
God's king— actual (I. Sam. 24: (3) or expected 
(Dan. 9: 25). So in Jewish theology it became 
the technical term for that King and Captain of 
salvation whose coming the prophets had fore- 
told and all devout Israel expected. The Mes- 
sianic prophecies are, therefore, in the first 
instance the prophecies whose subject is this 
King. But as he was the inaugurator and center 
of a blessed future for Israel and the world, the 
term Messianic is often used in a larger sense to 
denote both all prophecies which foretell this 
future, whether they expressly speak of the 
King or not, and all the institutions of Israel 
which in any way foreshadow its conditions, as, 
e.g., the covenant, the kingdom, the theocracy, 
prophecy, priesthood, sacrifice. Thus, in a sense, 
all the contents of the Old Testament are Mes- 
sianic; as a whole, it foretells or leads to Christ. 
This was the view of Jesus himself, and it was 
the doctrine of the apostles. It is unnecessary 

to recall now how often he said that the Scrip- 
tures of the Old Testament testify of him. Paul 
puts it summarily when he writes that all God's 
promises are yea and amen in Christ Jesus (II, 
Cor. 1:20). 

Two Lines of Prophecy.— After thus indicat- 
ing the full sweep of Messianic prophecy, it will 
be sufficient for us to follow its two main lines, 
which, although they are not merged in the Old 
Testament, do meet in Jesus Christ as Son of 
Mary and yet Son of God. Along one of these 
lines of prophecy the Messiah, the human de- 
liverer, is the hero ; the salvation of Israel and 
the conquest of the world for God depend on his 
coming and victory- But along the other line 
of prophecy it is God himself for whom the peo- 
ple are bidden to look ; salvation is emphasized 
as dependent on his unaided efforts and power, 
and in the glory of his visible appearance and 
habitation among men the figure of the human 
deliverer seems for the time to be lost. These 
two lines of hope run side by side ; they are not 
the work of different prophets; they sometimes 
appear in the same books and in contiguous 
chapters ; nay, they shine into each other from 
neighboring verses. It is the same prophet who 
has treated them both most brilliantly (cf. Isa. 
9: 1-7 with Isa. 33: 21, 22). But it will be easiest 
for us to treat them separately. 


Early Prophecies.— The Old Testament finds 
the roots of the Messianic prophecy in the very 



beginnings oi human history. It not only em- 
phasizes the original divinityof man, created in 
the Image and after the Likeness of God (Gen* 
1: 26, 27), with dominion over the rest of crea- 
tion (Gen. 2; Ps. 8): but even when man so 
divinely made lias by sin unmade himself, it 
still attaches the promise of deliverance to 
human nature— the seed of the tvoman. The im- 
portance of Gen. 3: 15, which has well been 
styled the protevungellum, or earliest gospel, is 
twofold; it assigns the brunt of the struggle 
for salvation and the sure victory to human 
nature, and it makes the work to be done a 
thoroughly spiritual one— the overcoming of 
the tempter and the power of sin. This vague 
but firm promise was concentrated, after many 
ages, upon a smgle family of men— the family 
of Abraham, to whom God promised a posterity 
that should be first a great nation, and then a 
blessing to all other nations of the earth (Gen. 
12: L-3). Among the descendants of Abraham 
the promise was further confined to the children 
of Israel, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham; 
and it is in their literature, national institutions, 
and history that the Messianic hope is elabo- 
rated and grows clear. For a long time it is the 
nation as a whole that is the object of God's 
choice and the instrument of his purposes of 
grace towards the world. A later prophet, 
Hosea, looking back upon the deliverance from 
Egypt as the time when Israel was adopted by 
God, calls the whole people God's son: "When 
Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called 
my son out of Egypt" (Hos. 11: 1); which de- 
scription of the whole people the evangelist 
Matthew (Matt. 2: 15) applies to our Lord. And 
with the exception of a prediction of Moses, 
given in Deut. 18: 15, that God would raise up a 
prophet like unto Moses himself from "the 
midst of thee, of thy brethren," we have no 
record that an individual Messiah stood clearly 
out before Israel's expectant gaze till the days 
of the kingdom. Then the Messianic hope be- 
came concentrated upon the dynasty of David 
—David's seed and David's throne, it was prom- 
ised, should last forever. It is impossible that 
the people could have entertained this vision of 
David's perpetual .power without at the same 
time forming some vision of the person in 
whom it was to be embodied; they could not 
have imagined the ideal kingdom without also 
imagining the ideal king,— so that apart from 
David's last words (II. Sam. 23) and Ps. 2, 45, 72, 
110, the dates of which are disputed, we may 
hold it for certain that, even before the days of 
Isaiah, Israel had been taught of God's Spirit, 
through the institutions of its own national 
life, to entertain the hope of an individual 

Isaiah's Prophecies.— But it was Isaiah him- 
self to whom it was given to express this hope 
with the greatest splendor and detail. He did 
so in two prophecies— the prophecy of Imman- 
uel's birth (lsa. 7: 10 if*.) and the prophecy of 
the Prince of the Four Names (9: 1-7). Isaiah 
does not, however, promise as yet that Imman- 
uel shall reign. After he has come into the 
world, and before he has arrived at years of 
discretion, his land is to be forsaken and devas- 
tated by Assyrians (7: 16-25); he himself shall 
be born only to share his people's poverty— 
"milk and honey shall he eat," the sole fruit of 
a land whose cultivation is wasted and of a 
nation too reduced for anything but herding 
cattle. This— Isaiah's first — prospect of Iminan- 
uel is extremely interesting at so early a stage 
in the history. Isaiah presents his hero as a 
sufferer for the sins of others; born only to 
sutler with his people, who should have inher- 
ited their throne— that is Isaiah's first doctrine 
of the Messiah; but yet in the name there is 
hope. In the recital of all the impending evils, 
Isaiah utters it aloud, as if to rally the people 
to courage (8: 8); and at last, when the night 

of defeat and servitude becomes darkest, a glo- 
rious light breaks (9: J. 2), and in it the prophet 
sees Immanuel transformed from Sufferer to 
Conqueror (:): 6, 7). Scholars admit the iden- 
tity of Immanuel with the Prince to whom are 
to be given the Four Names of ch.9: f>— Wonder- 
ful Counselor, God-Hero, Father Everlasting, 
Prime of Peace. lu ch. 11 the Conqueror in 
eh. 9 is represented as a great ruler. HisDavidic 
origin is described (v. 1), his endowment by 
the sevenfold Spirit of God (vs. 2, 3), his just 
government (vs. 4, 5), and as consequences the 
transformation of nature itself (vs. 6-9) and 
the gathering of God's dispersed people (vs. 
10-16). In ch. 32: 1-3 a righteous rule and a great 
human influence, "a man," are lifted up as the 
introduction of a new age of clear and stern 

The question arises, When did Isaiah place 
the fulfillment of these visions? Unquestion- 
ably in the near future, as is clear, especially in 
the case of Immanuel (ch. 7), whose coming was 
predicted by Isaiah during the month of the 
Assyrian invasion. That they did not happen 
at that time, and that nevertheless they were 
preserved for posterity by himself and the Old 
Testament church, proves that it was felt that 
they had a meaning which the history that they 
and their author survived had neither ex- 
hausted nor discredited. That meaning is the 
certainty of the coming of a Deliverer from God 
to his people by the ordinary channel of a 
human birth, who, aiter passing through a 
period of suffering consequent on his people's 
sins, should prove their Saviour, Ruler, and 
Quickener of all their life; and his influence as 
a Saviour is, of course, described in terms in 
which the church of that age could understand 
it— deliverance from the power of Assyria, and 
the gifts of peace and justice. No one, it may 
be remarked in passing, can deny that in this 
moderate estimate of the prophet's hope there 
is a wonderful foreshadowing of the claims of 
the work of Jesus 750 years later. This the 
evangelists delight to point out. Isaiah's proph- 
ecy of the birth of Immanuel Matthew finds 
fulfilled in the birth of Jesus of a virgin mother 
(Matt. 1: 23). The angel's announcement to the 
shepherds (Luke 2: 11) is plainly an echo of 
Isaiah's announcement of the birth of the 
Prince of the Four Names, and emphasizes at 
the same time the Davidic origin of the Messiah : 
" Unto you is born this day, in the city of David, 
a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord." It is 
singular, however, that none of the four titles 
of the Prince (lsa. 9: 6) is applied to Christ in 
the New Testament, though in conformity with 
two of them he is addressed as God (Heb. 1: 8), 
and called our peace (Eph. 2: 14). Matt. 3: 16, 17 
and John 1: 32; 3: 34, descriptions of the descent 
of the Spirit upon Jesus, may be compared with 
lsa. 11: 2, and it is probably to lsa. 11: 1 that 
Paul alludes in Acts 13: 23. In other places, too, 
Paul dw r elt upon Christ's "birth of the seed of 
David." In Rev. 22: 16 Jesus calls himself the 
Root and Offspring of David, in undoubted 
allusion to lsa. 11:1: "A shoot out of the stem " 
or " root of Jesse." 

Later the people were being prepared for a new 
ideal of the nation's and the world's Saviour. 
This was given to them in chs. 40-66 of the book 
of Isaiah. Therefore at first we lose sight of the 
personal Messiah, the King; and his functions, 
as being God's representative in the world, 
seem to revert to the whole body of the 
people— the whole seed of Abraham. As the 
King to come is called "God's servant" by 
Jeremiah, so the nation Israel are called "the 
servant of Jehovah," "his chosen," "his 
anointed," endowed with his' Spirit to be the 
teacher of his law and dispenser of his justice 
to the Gentiles. Gradually, however, the ancient 
concentration is repeated. The radiance of the 
Messianic offices and titles is drawn in from the 


whole nation, which is unworthy of them, and 
is focused upon a select and righteous portion 
who alone are the true Israel. Thus in chs. IS, 49 
the servant of Jehovah, while called Israel, is 
distinct from the mass of the nation. But yet 
another concentration takes place; for in the 
great prophecy, chs. 52: 13-53 (possibly even in 
chs. 51, 52) the servant of Jehovah is an individ- 
ual. It is true that some scholars maintain that 
the servant in chs. 52 : 13-53 is still Israel or a part 
of Israel, and in such a view there is nothing 
incompatible with belief in the fulfillment of 
this great prophecy by Jesus Christ; for he ful- 
filled other prophecies that originally referred 
to the whole nation. But everything seems to 
point to chs. 52: 13-53 as intended for the por- 
trait of an individual. How different, however, 
is this servant of the Lord from Jeremiah's pic- 
ture of David, God's servant, and from Isaiah's 
early picture of the Messiah ! Those were to de- 
liver from temporal enemies, to reign in triumph 
and justice, to quicken God's people, and to 
smite the wicked. But the work of the servant 
of Jehovah is much more spiritual. He is a 
teacher, a prophet; his character is lowly, his 
methods gentle — "a bruised reed shall he not 
break, and the smoking flax shall he not 
quench." He is to be the conqueror of the 
Gentiles only through bringing them the true 
light. But in his mission he is to be "rejected." 
He is to suffer for the truth, from the sin of the 
world—" giving his back to the smiters, his cheek 
to the tormentors, and his face to insults and 
spitting." Chs. 52: 13-53 explain the meaning 
of the suffering of God's servant, which kings 
are astonished at, and Israel itself at first does 
not appreciate. The awakened conscience of 
the people is made to confess that it is as 
their substitute the servant suffers. "He was 
wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised 
for our iniquities, and with his stripes we are 
healed. All we like sheep had gone astray, and 
the Lord laid on him the iniquity of us all." 
This came of the very purpose of God; "it 
pleased the Lord to bruise him, so that his soul 
might offer a guilt offering, and that he might 
see a seed," that is, have a real spiritual poster- 
ity, or following. Now all this is indeed a differ- 
ent picture from the Messiah of the earlier 
prophets, so different that the Jewish teachers 
maintained that two Messiahs would come from 
God, the glorious Messiah and the suffering- 
Messiah. Of this separation, however, the Old 
Testament knows nothing. In the name "God's 
servant," used both by Jeremiah and in Isa. 52 : 13- 
53, there is sufficient ground for identifying the 
object of the two kinds of prophecy as the same 
Messiah, and, moreover, the suffering servant of 
chs. 52: 13-53 is designated for a power and a 
glory equal to any ascribed to the king of chs. 7 
and 9: 1-8: "The pleasure of the Lord shall pros- 
per in his hand"; "God shall divide him a 
portion with the great, and he shall divide the 
spoil with the strong." 

Jesus Christ — The Fulfillment. — Now, how was 
all this prophecy of the servant of the Lord 
fulfilled by Jesus Christ? He read his own com- 
mission from this prophecy: "The Spirit of 
the Lord is upon me " (Isa. 61)» Of his healing, 
his disciples used the words "Himself bare our 
sickness "; and of his method of work in face of 
opposition, "Behold my servant ... he shall 
not strive." The name servant was on his 
own lips in presenting himself: "Behold I am 
among you as one that serveth." And in their 
earliest discourses the apostles style him "God's 
Servant Jesus," "Thy holy Servant Jesus " (Acts 
3 : 13, 26 ; 4 : 27 - 30, R. V.). Stephen also calls him the 
" Righteous One," in allusion to Isa. 53: 11. Philip 
plainly interprets Isa. 52: 13-53 of him (Acts 8: 
32 ff.). It is, however, more specially in his 
sufferings and death, and in their redemptive 
power, that Jesus fulfills the prophecy of the 
Servant. It is singular how the details of the 

ill treatment our Lord received from his ene- 
mies correspond with the details of Isa. 50 and 
5,3— the rejection by men, by his own; the shame, 
the insults, the spitting, the smiting, the wound- 
ing; the being led to the slaughter like a sheep 
that is dumb; the voluntary giving away of 
himself; the sentence of death, partly by the 
forms of law, partly by brutal tyranny; the 
death itself, ignominious and among felons. 
But still more manifestly does the New Testa- 
ment claim for Christ's sufferings the value 
ascribed to the servant's. Christ set himself in 
the same singularity of position, over against 
the whole people, which is claimed for the serv- 
ant. He said: "I give my life a ransom for 
many. This is my body broken for you. This 
is my blood shed for many for the remission 
of sins." When John said, "Behold the Lamb 
of God which beareth the sins of the world," 
there is no doubt that he referred to Isa. 53. 
Peter develops this in his First Epistle, borrow- 
ing both the figures and the very words of Isa. 
53 to apply to Christ. He is " a lamb," a patient, 
silent sufferer; the "Righteous for the unright- 
eous," etc.; "he did no sin, neither was found 
guile in his mouth"; "ye were as sheep gone 
astray," but "he himself hath borne our sins, 
with whose stripes ye were healed." Paul again 
evidently quotes from Isa. 53 when he says, "He 
hath made him to be sin for us who knew no 
sin "; and when Paul disputed that the Messiah 
"must suffer," or wrote, "Messiah died for our 
sins according to the Scriptures," there can be 
little doubt that he had Isa. 53 in mind. 

Other Prophets.— Two prophecies contempo- 
rary with Isaiah add some features to his Mes- 
sianic prospects. Zech. 9: 9, 10 is an elaboration 
of Isaiah's Prince of Peace; for the "riding on 
an ass" illustrates, not so much the Prince's 
humility, as that he comes for peaceful pur- 
poses. It is well known how the evangelists 
apply this prophecy to the triumphal entry of 
our Lord into Jerusalem (Matt. 21: 4). Mic. 5: 1-5 
also describes the Prince as a Prince of Peace, a 
Shepherd, but adds that he will come out of 
Bethlehem-Ephratah, t h e city of David. This is 
quoted by Matthew (Matt. 2: 6) and is probably 
quoted in Eph. 2: 14. After Micah, a long series 
of prophets, while brilliantly illustrating the 
blessed future, are silent as to the share in it 
of the Messiah, and it is not till Jeremiah that 
we find another prophecy of the Hero's coming. 
Jeremiah is indeed the prophet of the new cov- 
enant ( Jer. 31 : 33), but he also reaffirms the old one 
with Abraham and David (33: 26), and not only 
proclaims the permanence of David's house (33: 
17-21), but speaks of an individual Messiah (30: 9; 
23:5; 33:15). The name "the Lord our right- 
eousness," which occurs in these passages, will 
be found, upon a comparison of chs. 23: 6 and 
33: 16, to be the name, not of the Messiah, but of 
the people. Of these promises of Jeremiah 
Ezekiel affords some fainter echoes— the evil 
shepherds of the people are to be replaced by 
the good Shepherd (Ezek. 34), "the one Shep- 
herd" (37: 24), the name which Christ takes to 
himself; and "God's servant David" is to be 
"a prince in the midst of the people" (34: 24), 
"their prince for ever" (37:' 25). 

Psalms.— We may here notice the Psalms, 
which treat of the Messiah much in the same 
kingly aspects and offices as do the prophets. 
Ps. 2 is concerned with the rage of the kings of 
the earth against the Lord and his Messiah or 
Anointed (v. 2). It calls him by divine decree 
"God's Son," a title which we have already seen 
given to the whole nation; and promises him 
an universal kingdom. This psalm primarily 
referred, doubtless, to some king of Israel, but 
Paul applies the words, "Thou art my Son "to 
Jesus (Acts 13: 33); and so does the Epistle to 
the Hebrews (5: 5). Ps. 20 is a prayer for the 
anointed of Jehovah; Ps. 21 an exultation in 
God's goodness to him. Ps. 45 is an ode ad- 



dressed to the king— which of the actual kings 
is uncertain— as fene representative of the di- 
vine, invisible King. It is unlikely that the 
Hebrew original of verse <> or verse 7 addresses 
the king as God; but this is the meaning in 
which the Greek version of the Old Testament 
l akes I he words, and in which the Bpisl te to t he 
Hebrews quotes them of Jesus Christ. Ps. 72 
celebrates t be righteousness, and dominion, uni- 
versal and eternal, of the King. Ps.SH: lit, 20, uses 
of him Ezekiel's phrase, "David my servant." 
Ps. llfrdescribes the closeness of the king to God, 
who conquers for him ( v. 1)— a verse used by 3 esus 
in the problem he put to the Pharisees, and 
also applied to Jesus by Peter '(Acts 2: 34). But 
Ps. 110 is unusual in this, that it ascribes to the 
king the office also of priest— "The Lord hath 
sworri, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for 
ever after the order of Melehizedek," which 
verse is used in the Epistle to the Hebrews (5: 0) 
as referring to the high -priesthood of Jesus 
( Jhrist. These psalms bear a, very heavy weight 
of glory. What they ascribe to the Messiah is 
not only a share in the world-wide and eternal 
government of God, but the honor of being the 
visible representative of God upon earth. They 
enlarge and illustrate the Messianic predictions 
of the prophets, from Isaiah to Ezekiel. 

Daniel.— The last of the prophecies of a per- 
sonal Messiah which the Old Testament contains 
occurs in the book of Daniel. It does not con- 
tain any of the details of those pictures of the 
Messiah which we have just been considering; 
on the contrary, it is as general as some of the 
very earliest in the series; but it emphasizes 
two things, the humanity of the Ruler whom 
God shall send and the eternity of his king- 
dom; and his humanity is denned in the sim- 
ple but illustrious phrase which Ezekiel among 
the prophets was the first to use, and which 
Jesus Christ took to himself,— Dan. 7: 13, 14. 

Summary.— We have now exhausted that line 
of prophecy concerning the Messiah down which 
the names descended to Jesus, and were claimed 
by him, of Son of man, Son of God, Immanuel, 
God's Christ or Anointed, King, Prince, Seed 
or Son or Offshoot or Branch of David, Shep- 
herd, Prophet, Priest for ever, Peace, Servant of 
God, Lamb of God, the Righteous One, and in 
which his work was foreshadowed of delivering 
and ruling God's people, of conquering the world 
for God, and of reigning in God's stead, his rep- 
resentative with the people; of establishing 
justice and peace; of teaching Israel and the 
Gentiles; of suffering for his witness to God's 
truth; and of bearing and expiating by suffer- 
ing and death his people's sins. There still 
remain, however, along this line of Messianic 
prophecy a few experiences which, though not 
necessarily of the anointed King, as they stand 
in the Old Testament, are interpreted of Christ 
by the New. There is, for instance, Ps. 16: 10, 
"Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; thou 
Wilt not suffer thine Ploly One to see corrup- 
tion » (cf. Acts 2: 25 if'.); and there is Ps. 40: 7, 
" Lo, I come: in the volume of the book it is 
written of me, I delight to do thy will, O my 
God," in which the verses in front of it are 
applied to Jesus and to his self-sacrifice in place 
of the sacrifices of the old dispensation,— in 
Heb. 10. 


God a Loving Saviour.— The second main line 
which is followed by Old Testament prophecies 
of the blessed future, is that which travels to- 
wards the visible appearance on earth of God, 
himself and alone— either undertaking his peo- 
ple's salvation from their enemies or reigning 
over them. Such, for instance, are the innu- 
merable passages which lay all t he people's sal va- 
tioii Upon God, and the ascriptions to him like 
"The Lord our Righteousness " (Jer. 33: 16); such 
are lurid visions of the day when God shall 

conic to judgment, in clouds and tire, smoke 
and awful convulsions (Joel 2, 3; Isa. 30: 27, etc.); 
or the calm pictures of his rule (Tsa. 33: 21,22); or 
the visible appearance of the Kternal at some 
great crisis in his people's history, t heir Saviour, 
as in Isa. 63, Where he is pictured as a figure in 
the guise of a t reader of the winepress, who has 
come up from treading the enemies of Israel, 
and their lifeblood stains his garments. With 
these manifestations of God, or theophanies, as 
they are called, we may take the large number 
of passages in tne Old Testament which attribute 
to God passion and effort of every kind for his 
people's sake, and, in order to make this vivid, 
describe him in the similitude of a human being 
—as a man of war, a champion, and even in one 
passage so full of palpitation and effort as to be 
compared to a woman in iravail (Isa. -12: 13-17). 
All these are not to be taken as t he mere efforts 
of the writer's art to make tiie unseen and 
supernatural vivid to the imagination of a rude 
people. We are to see in them the truths that 
God makes his people's salvation his own con- 
cern and effort; and that he accomplishes it not 
in power only, but in pain and self-sacrifice. 
His people's sins and sorrows are not only set in 
the light of his countenance, but lie bears them 
upon his heart. Isa. 40-66 uses the same verb to 
bear, meaning to bear with pain and difficulty, of 
God and of the servant of the Lord. His love is 
not only complacent, but sympathetic, passion- 
ate, self-sacrificing; in ail their affliction he is 
afflicted. He pleads for their loyalty; travails 
for their new birth and growth in holiness, is 
long-suffering and patient with their willfulness 
and slowness, 

These Prophecies General.— Now, it is very 
evident that this Old Testament prophecy of 
God, and of the way he should bring about the 
blessed future, was as much fulfilled by Jesus 
Christ as was the prophecy of the human Mes- 
siah. He is, indeed, the Lord our righteousness. 
Alone and by himself has lie achieved the sal- 
vation of men, and in his doing of it he has man- 
ifested just the purity and passion of character 
which the Old Testament prophets have attribut- 
ed to God. We cannot, as i n the case of the proph- 
ecies of the Messiah, put our fingers on single 
texts in the New Testament which repeat single 
texts in the Old Testament; but even more 
clearly do we see in the whole consciousness, 
energy, and experience of Christ, the brightness 
of the glory, the express image of the person of 
that God who is revealed in the Old Testament 
as bearing all the sympathy and the strain of 
his people's sin and sorrow, and achieving their 
deliverance only at sore cost to himself. Jesus, 
too, is absolute holiness, yet not far off'. He, 
too, is righteousness, militant at our side and 
with our enemies, bearing our sins in his own 
passion ; forgiving as God alone can forgive, and 
claiming to save as God alone can save. The 
disciples early came to the conclusion that 
Jesus was the Messiah, the Son of the living 
God; but when he had shown f hem all his love 
and proved the necessity of his passion, when 
he had overcome both sin and death by strug- 
gling with both, it was then that his disciple 
called him " my Lord and my God." 

Conclusion.— Thus we arrive at the conclusion 
we looked forward to— that both the great lines 
of Old Testament prophecy, that which predicts 
a human Messiah, and that which promises the 
appearance of God at the side of men in sym- 
pathy and in strife, find their synthesis in 
Jesus Christ; and along one or other of them 
we find ail the Messianic and divine titles and 
offices which have been attributed to him— all 
except one, and that perhaps the most divine. 

In the Old Testament all creative power, both 
of a physical and a spiritual kind, is attributed 
to the Word of God (see especially Gen. 1 and 



Isa. 40). But other Old Testament writings take 
us behind the Word to the Wisdom of God, 
whom they portray, not as a mere attribute of 
the Eternal, but as a distinct personality by his 
side, with him from the beginning, sharer of 
his throne and of his work in creation (Job 
28: 12 tr., but especially Pro v. 8 and 9). The book 
of Proverbs also represents this Wisdom as the 
revealer of God to men ; as seeking men for God 
in the most urgent and sympathetic way (Prov. 
1-9, passim). These two great ideas or visions 
of the Word and Wisdom of God— eternal, crea- 
tive, converting— the prologue to John's Gospel 
finds fulfilled in Jesus Christ. In words that 

almost actually repeat the terms used of Wisdom 
in the book of Proverbs, John says that "in the 
beginning was the Word, and the Word was 
with God, and the Word was God. All things 
were made by him. In him was life; and the 
life was the light of men. . . . And the Word 
became flesh, and dwelt among us (and we be- 
held his glory, the glory as of the only begotten 
of the Father), full of grace and truth." 

Books of Reference: Delitzsch's Messianic Proph- 
ecies in their Historical Succession; Gloag's Messianic 
Prophecy; Briggs' Messianic Prophecy; Edersheim's 
Prophecy and History in Relation to the Messiah. 


By EEV. WILLIAM HEBEE WEIGHT, M.A., Trinity College, Dublin, Rector of 
St. George's, Worthing, with the Editor. 


1: 23. Inimanuel the child of a virgin. Isa. 7: 14. 
2: 6. Out of Bethlehem shall come a Governor. 

Mic. 5:2. 
2: 15. Out of Egypt have I called my son. Hos. 

2: IS. Massacre of Rachel's children. Jer. 31: 15. 
3: 3. Voice crying in the wilderness. Isa. 40: 3. 
4: 4. Man shall not live by bread alone. Deut, 

4: 6. He shall give his angels charge over thee. 

Ps. 91:11. 
4: 7. Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. 

Deut. 6:10. 
4:10. Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God. 

Deut. 6: 13. 
4: 15, 16. The dwellers in the land of the shadow 

of death. Isa. 9: 1,2. 
5: 3. Blessed are the poor in spirit. Isa. 61: 1. 
5: 4. They that mourn. Isa. 61 : 2. 
5: 5. The inheritance of the meek. Ps. 37:11. 
5: 8. The pure in heart. Ps. 24: 4. 
5: 21. Thou shalt not kill. Ex. 20: 13; Deut. 5: 17. 
5: 27. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Ex. 20: 

14; Deut. 5:18. 
5:31. The writing of divorcement. Deut. 24:1. 
5 : 33. Perf orm unto the Lord thine oaths. Num. 

30:2; Deut. 23:21. 
5: 34. Heaven is my throne. Isa. 66: 1. 
5: 35. The city of the great King. Ps. 48: 2. 
5: 38. An eye for an eye. Ex. 21: 24; Lev. 24: 20. 
5: 43. Love thy neighbour. Lev. 19: 18. 
5: 48. Be ye therefore perfect. Deut. 18: 13. 
6: 6. Enter into thy closet. Isa. 26:20; II. Ki. 

7:22. Have we not prophesied in thy name? 

Jer. 27:15; 14:14. 
7 : 23. Workers of ini quitv. Ps. 6 : 8. 
8: 4. Show thyself to the priest. Lev. 13: 49. 
8: 11. Many shall come from the east and west. 

Mai. 1:11; Isa. 59: 19. 
8: 17. He bore our sicknesses. Isa. 53: 4. 
9: 13. I will have mercy, and not sacrifice. Hos. 

9:36. Sheep having no shepherd. Num. 27:17; 

Ezek. 34:5. 
10:35,36. A man's foes they of his own house- 
hold. Mic. 7:6. 
11: 5. The blind shall see. Isa. 29: 18. 
11: 5. The gospel preached to the poor. Isa. 61 : 1. 
11 : 10. Behold, I send my messenger. Mai. 3: 1. 
11: 14. This is Elias, which was for to come. Mai. 

11: 23. Exalted to heaven, shalt be brought down 

to hell. Isa. 14: 13, 15. 
11 : 29. Ye shall find rest unto your souls. Jer. 6 : 16. 
12: 4. David eating the showbread. &e I. Sam. 

12: 7. Mercy, and not sacrifice. Hos. 6: 6. 
12: 18-21. Behold my servant. Isa. 42: 1-4; 41 : 9. 


12: 40. Jonah in the whale's belly. See Jon. 1: 17; 

13: 14, 15. By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not 

understand. Jer. 6 : 9, 10. 
13: 32. Birds lodge in the branches thereof. Ezek. 

17:23; Dan. 4:12. 
13: 35. I will utter things kept secret. Ps. 78: 2. 
13: 41. Shall gather out of his kingdom all things 

that offend. Zeph. 1 : 3. 
13:43. Then shall the righteous shine forth. Dan. 

15: 4. Honour thy father and mother. Ex. 20: 

12; Deut. 5:16. 
15: 4. He that curseth father or mother. Ex. 

15 : 8, 9. This people honoureth me with their lips. 

Isa. 29: 13. 
16:27. He shall reward every man according to 

his works. Ps. 62: 12; Prov. 24: 12. 
17: 11. Elias truly shall first come, and restore all 

things. Mai. 4 : 5. 
18:16. In the mouth of two or three witnesses. 

Deut. 19:15. 
19: 4. At the beginning he made them male and 

female. Gen. 1 : 27. 
19: 5. The institution of marriage. See Gen. 2: 24. 
19: 7. The writing of divorcement. #ee Deut.24 : 1. 
19:18. Thou shalt do no murder. Ex. 20:13-16; 

Deut. 5:17-20. 
19:19. Honour thy father and mother. Ex. 20: 

12; Deut. 5:16. 
19 : 19. Thou shalt love thy neighbour. Lev. 19 : 18. 
19: 26. With God all things are possible. Gen. 18: 

14; Job 42: 2; Zech. 8:6. 
21: 5. Behold, thy King cometh. Zech. 9:9; Isa, 

21: 9. Hosanna in the highest! Ps. 118: 25. 
21 : 13. The house of prayer. Isa. 56 : 7. 
21: 13. Become a den of thieves. Jer. 7: 11. 
21: 15. The children's Hosanna. See Ps. 118: 25. 
21 : 16. Out of the mouth of babes. Ps. 8 : 2. 
21 : 33. " My vineyard. " Isa. 5 : 1-7. 
21:42. The stone rejected by the builders. Ps. 

21:44 The stone of stumbling. Isa, 8: 14, 15. 
22: 24. The law of the Levirate. See Deut. 25: 5. 
22:32. God, not of the dead, but of the living. 

Ex. 3:6. 
22:37. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with 

all thy heart, Deut. 6 : 5. 
22 : 39. And thy neighbour as thyself. Lev. 19 : 18. 
22: 44. The Lord said unto my Lord. Ps. 110 : 1. 
23: 38. Your house is left unto you desolate. Jer. 

22:5; 12:7. 
23:39. Blessed is he that cometh in the name 

of the Lord. Ps. 118:26. 
24: 6. These things must come to pass. Dan. 2:28. 
24: 7. Nation shall rise against nation. Isa, 19: 2. 
24: 10. Many shall be offended. Dan. 11 : 41 (LXX.). 



24:15. The abomination of desolation. Dan. 9: 

27; 12: 1J. 
21 : 21. Great tribulation. Dan. 12: 1. 
24:24. False prophets shall show great signs. 

Deut, 13: L 
21:20. The moon shall not give her light. Isa. 

24: 2!). The stars shall fall from heaven. Isa. 34: 4. 
24:30. Then shall all the tribes of the earth 

mourn. Zech. 12: 12. 
24:30. The Son of man coming in the clouds of 

heaven. Dan. 7: 13. 
24 : 31. He shall send his angeJs with a great sound 

of a trumpet. Isa. 27: 13. 
24:31. His elect from the four winds, from one 

end of heaven to the other. Zech. 2:0; 

Deut. 30 : 4. 
24: 38. Until the day that Noah entered into the 

ark. Gen. 7: 7. 
25:31. The Son of man shall come, and all the 

holy angels with him. Zech. 14:5. 
25: 46. The righteous into life eternal. Dan. 12: 2. 
26:15. They covenanted with him for thirty 

pieces of silver. Zech. 11:12. 
26:28. This is my blood of the new testament. 

Ex. 24:8; cf. Zech. 0:11. 
26: 31. I will smite the Shepherd. Zech. 13: 7. 
26: 38. My soul is exceeding sorrowful. Ps. 42: 5. 
26: 64. Ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the 

right hand < >f power. Dan. 7 : 13 ; Ps. 110 : 1. 
27: 9. Took the thirty pieces of silver. Zech. 

27:34. They gave him to drink w T ine mingled 

with gall. Ps. 69:21. 
27 : 35. They parted my garments. Ps. 22 : 18. 
27:39. They reviled him, wagging their heads. 

Ps. 22:7; 109:25. 
27:43. He trusted in God; let him deliver him 

now. Ps. 22: 8. 
27 : 46. My God ! my God ! why hast thou forsaken 

me? Ps. 22:1. 
27 : 48. One . . . took a sponge, and filled it with 

vinegar. Ps. 69: 21. 


1 : 2. Behold, I send my messenger. Mai. 3 : 1. 
1: 3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness. 

Isa. 40:3. 
1: 44. Show thyself to the priest. Lev. 13: 49. 
2 : 26. David and the showbread. I. Sam. 21 : 6. 
4:12. Seeing they may see, and not perceive. 

Isa. 6:9, 10. 
4: 29. He putteth in the sickle, because the har- 
vest is come. Joel 3: 13. 
4:32. The fowls of the air may lodge under the 

shadow of it. Dan. 4: 12; Ezek. 17:23. 
6:34. Sheep not having a shepherd. Num. 27: 

17; Ezek. 34:5. 
7:6, 7. This people honoureth me with their lips. 

Isa. 29:13. 
7: 10. Honour thy father and thy mother. Ex. 

20:12; Deut, 5: 16. 
7: 10. Whoso curseth father or mother. Ex. 21 : 17. 
8: 18. Having eyes, see ye not? Jer. 5: 21; Ezek. 

9: 12. Elias . . . restoreth all things. Mai. 4:5. 
9: IS. Where their worm dieth not. Isa. 66: 24. 
10: 4. The bill of divorcement. See Deut. 24: 1. 
10: 6. God made them male and female. Gen. 

10:7,8. A man shall leave father and mother, 
and shall cleave to his wife. Gen. 2: 24. 
10:19. Do not commit adultery. Ex. 20:13-16; 

Deut. 5:17-20. 
10: 19. Do not kill. Ex. 20: 12; Deut. 5: 16. 
10:27. With God all things are possible. Gen. 

18: 14; Job 42: 2; Zech. 8: 6 (LXX.). 
11: 9. Blessed is he that cometh in the name 

of the Lord. Ps. 118:25, 26. 
11: 17. The house of prayer. Isa. 56: 7. 
11: 17. A den of thieves. Jer. 7: 11. 
12: 1. A certain man planted a vineyard. Isa. 


12: 10, 11. The stone which the builders rejected. 
Ps. 118:22,23. 

12: 19. If a man's brother die, . . . and leave no 
children. Deut. 25:5. 

12: 26. I am the God of Abraham. Ex. 3: 6. 

12:29, 30. The Lord our God is one Lord. Deut. 
6:4, 5. 

12: 31. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 
Lev. 19:18. 

12: 32. There is one God. Deut. 6: 4. 

12: 32. And none other but he. Deut. 4: &5. 

12:33. To love him with all the heart. Deut. 6:5. 

12: 33. To love his neighbour as himself. Lev. 19: 

12:33. Is more than all whole burnt offerings. 
I.Sam. 15:22. 

12:36. The Lord said, . . . Sit thou on my right 
hand. Ps. 110:1. 

13: 7. Must needs be. Dan. 2: 28. 

13: 8. Nation shall rise against nation. Isa. 19:2. 

13:12. Children shall rise up against their par- 
ents. Mic. 7:6. 

13:14. The abomination of desolation. Dan. 9: 
27; 12:11. 

13: 19. Affliction, such as was not from the begin- 
ning of the creation. Dan. 12: 1. . 

13:22. False prophets shall show signs and won- 
ders. Deut. 13: J -3. 

13: 24. The sun shall be darkened. Isa. 13: 10. 

13: 25. The powers in the heavens shall be shak- 
en. Isa. 34: 4. 

13:26. The Son of man coming in the clouds. 
Dan. 7: 13. 

13: 27. His angels shall gather his elect. Zech. 2: 
6; Deut, 30:4. 

14 : 18. One of you which eateth with me. Ps. 41 : 9. 

14:24. My blood of the new testament. Ex. 24: 
8; Zech. 9:11. 

14: 27. I will smite the Shepherd. Zech. 13: 7. 

14: 34. My soul is exceeding sorrowful. Ps. 42: 5. 

14: 62. The Son of man sitting on the right hand 
of power. Dan. 7: 13; Ps. 110: 1, 2. 

15:24. They parted his garments, casting lots 
upon them. Ps. 22:18. 

15: 28. He was numbered with the transgressors. 
Isa, 53:32. 

15: 29. They railed on him, wagging their heads. 
Ps. 22:7; 109:25. 

15 : 34. Eloi ! Eloi ! lam a sabachthani ? Ps. 22 : 1. 

15: 36. They gave him vinegar to drink. Ps. 69: 21. 

16:19. He ascended up into heaven. Cf. II. Ki. 

16: 19. And sat at the right hand of God. Ps.110: 1. 

1:15. He shall drink neither wine nor strong 

drink. Num. 6:3. 
1:17. To turn the hearts of the fathers to the 

children. Mai. 4:5, 6. 
1:32. The Lord God shall give him the throne 

of his father David. Isa. 9: 7; Ps. 132: 11. 
1:37. With God nothing shall be impossible. 

Gen. 18:14. 
1 : 46, 47. My soul doth magnify the Lord. I. 

Sam. 2: 1. 
1 : 48. He hath regarded the low estate of his 

handmaiden. I. Sam. 1: 11. 
1 : 49. Holy is his name. Ps. Hi : 9. 
1 : 50. His mercy is on them that fear him. Ps. 

1:51. He hath showed strength with his arm. 

Ps. 89: 10. 
1: 52. He hath put down the mighty. Job 12: 19. 
1 : 52. And exalted them of low degree. Job 5-. 

11; I. Sam. 2:7. 
1:53. He hath filled the hungry. Ps. 107:9; I. 

Sam. 2:5. 
1:54. He hath holpen his servant Israel. Isa. 

41:8,9; Ps. 98:3. 
1 : 55. As he spake to our fathers. Mic. 7 : 20. 
1 : 68. Blessed be the Lord God of Israel. Ps. 41: 

13; 72:18; 106:48. 
1: 68. He hath redeemed his people. Ps. Ill: 9. 




1: 69. And hath raised up an horn of salvation. 

Ps. 132:17; I. Sain. 2: 10. 
1:71. That we should be saved from our ene- 
mies. Ps. 106: 10. 
1 : 72, 73. To remember his holy covenant, the 

oath. Ps. 105: 8, 9. 
1: 76. Thou shalt go before the face of the Lord 

to prepare his ways. Mai. 3: 1. 
1: 79. To give light to them that sit in darkness. 

Isa, 9: 2. 
2: 22. When the days of her purification were 

accomplished. Lev. 12: 6. 
2: 23. Every male shall be holy unto the Lord. 

Ex. 13: 12. 
2: 24. A pair of turtle-doves, or two young pi- 
geons. Lev. 12: 8; 5: 11. 
2:30, 31. Thy salvation, prepared before the 

face of all people. Isa, 40: 5; 52: 10. 
2: 32. A light to lighten the Gentiles. Isa. 25: 7; 

42:6; 49:6. 
2: 32. The glory of thy people Israel. Isa. 46: 13. 
2: 52. Increased in favour with God and man. 

I. Sam. 2: 26. 
3: 4-6. Prepare ye the way of the Lord. Isa. 

4: 4. Man shall not live by bread alone. Deut. 

4: 8. Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and 
him only shalt thou serve. Deut, 6: 13. 
4: 10, 11. He shall give his angels charge over 

thee. Ps. 91:11, 12. 
4: 12. Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. 

Deut, 6: 16. 
4: 18, 19. He hath anointed me to preach the 

gospel to the poor. Isa. 61 : 1, 2. 
4:26. Sarepta, . . . unto a woman that was a 

widow. I. Ki. 17: 9. 
5: 14. Show thyself to the priest. Lev. 13: 49. 
6: 1. David eating the showbread. I. Sam. 21:6. 
7: 22. The blind see, ... to the poor the gospel is 

preached. Isa. 61: 1. 
7: 27. Behold, I send my messenger. Mai. 3: 1. 
8: 10. Seeing they might not see. Isa, 6: 9. 
10: 15. Thou, Capernaum, exalted to heaven, shalt 

be thrust down to hell. • Isa. 14: 13,15. 
10: 27. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God. Deut. 

10: 27. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 

Lev. 19: 18. 
10: 28. Do this, and thou shalt live. Lev. 18: 5. 
12: 53. The son against the father; the daughter 

against the mother. Mic. 7: 6. 
13: 19. The fowls of the air lodged in the branches 

of it. Dan. 4:12,21. 
13: 27. Depart from me, all ye workers of iniq- 
uity. Ps. 6:8. 
13: 29. They shall come from the east, and from 

the west. Mai. 1: 11; Isa. 59: 19. 
13: 35. Your house is left unto you desolate. Jer. 

22:5; 12: 7. 
13: 35. Blessed is he that cometh in the name of 

the Lord. Ps. 118: 26. 
11: 10. Friend, go up higher. Cf. Pro v. 25: 7. 
17: 14. Show yourselves unto the priests. Lev. 

13: 49. 
17: 27. Until the day that Noah entered into the 

ark. Gen. 7: 7. 
17: 29. The same day ... it rained fire. Gen. 19: 24. 
17: 31. Let him not return back. Gen. 19: 26. 
18: 20. Do not commit adultery, . . . Honour thy 
father and thy mother. Ex. 20:12-16; 
Deut. 5: 16-20. 
19: 10. The Son of man is come to seek and to 

save. Cf. Ezek. 34: 16. 
19: 38. Blessed be he that cometh in the name of 

the Lord. Ps. 118:26. 
19: 44. And shall lay thee even with the ground. 

Ps. 137:9. 
19: 46. My house is the house of prayer. Isa, 56: 7. 
19: 46. Ye have made it a den of thieves. Jer. 7: 11. 
20: 9. A certain man planted a vineyard. Isa. 5: 1. 
20: 17. The stone which the builders rejected. 
Ps. 118:22. 


20: 28. If a man's brother die without children. 

Deut. 25: 5. 
20: 37. The Lord the God of Abraham. Ex. 3: 6. 
20: 42, 43. The Lord said unto my Lord. Ps. 110: 1. 
21: 9. Must come to pass. Dan. 2: 28. 
21: 10, Nation shall rise against nation. Isa. 19: 2. 
21: 22. These be the days of vengeance. Hos. 9: 7. 
21:24. Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the 

Gentiles. Zech. 12: 3 (LXX.); Isa. 63: 18; 

Ps. 79:1; Dan. 8: 10. 
21:25. Distress of nations, . . . the sea and the 

waves roaring. Ps. 65: 7. 
21 : 26. The powers of heaven shall be shaken. 

Isa. 34 : 4. 
21: 27. The Son of man coming in a cloud. Dan. 

21 : 3-5. As a snare shall it come on all them that 

dwell, etc. Isa. 21: 17. 
22:20. The new testament in my blood. Cf. 

Ex. 24: 8; Zech. 9:11. 
22 : 37. He was reckoned among the transgressors. 

Isa. 53 : 12. 
22: 69. The Son of man sitting on the right hand 

of the power of God. Dan. 7 : 13 ; Ps. 110 : 1 . 
23: 30. They shall say to the hills, Cover us. Hos. 

23:34. They parted his raiment, and cast lots. 

Ps. 22:18. 
23: 35. The rulers derided him. Ps. 22: 7. 
23:36. The soldiers offering him vinegar. Cf. 

Ps. 69:21. 
23:46. Into thy hands I commend mv spirit. 

23 : 49. All his acquaintance stood afar off. Ps. 

38:11; 88:8. 
24: 5. Why seek ye the living among the dead? 

Isa, 8:19. 
24 : 16. It behoved Christ to suffer. Cf . Isa. 53 : 5. 


1 : 23. Make straight the way of the Lord. Isa. 

1: 36. "Lamb of God." Isa. 53:7. 
1:51. The angels ascending and descending. 

Gen. 28:12. 
2 : 17. The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up. 

Ps. 69:9. 
3: 13. No man hath ascended up to heaven, but 
he that came down from heaven, even 
the Son. Pro v. 30:4. 
6 : 31. He gave them bread from heaven. Ex. 

16:4-15: Ps. 78:24. 
6 : 45. They shall be all taught of God. Isa, 54 : 13. 
7: 37. If any man thirst, let him come unto me. 

Isa. 55 : 1. 
7: 39. This spake he of the Spirit. Isa. 44: 3. 
7: 42. Of the seed of David. Ps. 89: 3, 4. 
7 : 42. Out of the town of Bethlehem. Mic. 5 : 2. 
8: 17. The testimony of two men is true. Deut. 

10: 16. One shepherd. Ezek. 37: 24; 34:23. 
10: 34. I said, Ye are gods. Ps. 82: 6. 
12 : 13. He that cometh in the name of the Lord. 

Ps. 118:26. 
12: 15. Fear not, daughter of Zion. Zech. 9: 9. 
12: 27. Now is my soul troubled. Ps. 6: 3. 
12: 38. Who hath believed our report? Isa. 53: 1. 
12: 40. He hath hardened their heart, Isa. 6: 10. 
13: 18. He that eateth bread with me. Ps. 41: 9. 
13: 19. I tell you . . . that ... ye may believe that 

I am he. Isa. 43: 10. 
15: 25. They hated me without a cause. Ps. 25: 

19; 69: 4. 
16: 22. Your heart shall rejoice. Isa. 66: 14. 
17: 12. The son of perdition. Cf. Ps. 109: 8. 
19:24. They parted my raiment among them. 

Ps. 22: 18. 
19: 28, 29. I thirst. Ps. 69: 21. 
19: 36. A bone of him shall not be broken. Ex. 

12: 46; Num. 9: 12; Ps. 34: 20. 
19: 37. They shall look on him whom they 

pierced. Zech. 12: 10. 
20 : 9. He must rise again from the dead. Ps. 16 : 10. 



1: 20. Let his habitation be desolate. Ps. 69: 25. 
1; 20. His bishopric; let another take. Ps. 109: 8. 
2: 17-21. I will pour out of my Spirit. Joel 2: 

2: 25-28. I foresaw the Lord always before my 

face. Ps. 16:8-11. 
2:30. Knowing that God had sworn with an 

path. Ps. 132:11. 
2: 31. His soul was not ieft in hell. Ps. 16: 10. 
2: 34. The Loud said unto my Lord. Ps. 110: 1. 
2: 39. The promise is to as many as the Lord our 

God shall call. lsa. 57: 19; Joel 2: 32. 
3: 13. The God of our fathers. Ex. 3: 6. 
3: 22. A Prophet shall the Lord your God raise 

up unto you. Dent. 18: 15-18. 
3:23. Shall be destroyed from among the peo- 
ple. Lev. 23:29. 
3:25. In thy seed shall all the kindreds of the 

earth be blessed. Gen. 22: 18. 
4: 11. The stone which was set at naught of you 

builders. Ps. 118: 22. 
4: 24. Which hast made heaven and earth. Ex. 

20:11; Ps. 110:6. 
4: 25, 26. Why did the heathen rage? Ps. 2: 1, 2. 
5:30. Jesus, whom ye hanged on a tree. Deut. 

7: 2. The God of glory appeared unto our 

father Abraham. Ps. 29: 3. 
7: 3. And said, Get thee out of thy country. 

Gen. 12: 1; 48: 1. 
7: 5. And gave him not so much as to set his 

foot on. Deut. 11: 5. 
7: 5. Yet he promised he would give unto him 
for a possession. Gen. 17: 8; 48: 4; Deut. 
32: 19. 
7: 6. That his seed should sojourn in a strange 

land. Gen. 15: 13, 14; Ex. 2: 22. 
7: 7. The nation to whom they shall be in bond- 
age will I judge. Ex. 3: 12. 
7: 8. He gave him the covenant of circumci- 
sion. Gen. 17: 10, 11. 
7: 8. Begat Isaac, and Circumcised him the 

eighth day. Gen. 21:4. 
7: 9. The patriarchs, moved with envy. Gen. 

37: 11. 
7: 9. Sold Joseph into Egypt. Gen. 45: 4. 
7: 9. But God was with him. Gen. 39: 2, 3, 21. 
7: 10. And gave him grace in the sight of Pha- 
raoh. Gen. 39:21. 
7: 10. [Pharaoh] made him governor over Egypt. 

Gen. 41: 40, 43, 46; Ps. 105: 21. 
7: 11. There came a dearth over all the land of 

Egypt. Gen. 41:54, 55. 
7: 11. Our fathers found no sustenance. Gen. 42: 5. 
7: 12. When Jacob heard that there was corn in 

Egypt. Gen. 42:2. 
7: 13. Joseph was made known to his brethren. 

Gen. 45: 1. 
7: 14. All his kindred, threescore and fifteen 

souls. Deut. 10: 22. 
7: 15. Jacob went down into Egypt, and died, 

he, and our fathers. Ex. 1: 6. 
7: 16. And were laid in the sepulchre that Abra- 
ham bought. Josh. 24: 32. 
7: 16. Of the sons of Emmor the father of Sy- 

chem. Gen. 50: 13; 23: 16, 17. 
7: 17, 18. The people grew and multiplied in 

Egypt. Ex. 1:7, 8. 
7: 19. The same dealt subtilely with our kin- 
dred. Ex. 1:9, 10. 
7: 19. They cast out their young children, that 

they might not live. Ex. 1: 18. 
7: 20. Moses was exceeding fair. Ex. 2: 2. 
7:21. Pharaoh's daughter took him up. Ex. 2:5. 
7: 21. And nourished him for her own son. Ex. 

2: 10. 
7: 23. It came into his heart to visit his breth- 
ren. Ex. 2: 11. 
7: 24. He smote the Egyptian. Ex. 2: 12. 
7:27,28. Who made thee a ruler and a judge 

over us? Ex. 2: 13, 14. 
7: 29. Then fled Moses at that saying. Ex. 2:15-22. 
7: 30. There appeared to him an Angel. Ex. 3: 1. 


7: 32. I am the God of thy fathers. Ex. 3: 6. 
7: 33. Put off thy shoes from thy feet. Ex. 3: 5. 
7:34. I have seen the aillictioii of my people. 

Ex. 3:7-10; 2:24. 
7: 35. Who made thee a ruler and a judge? Ex. 

7: 36. He showed wonders and signs. Ex. 7: 3. 
7: 37. A Prophet like unto me. Deut. 18: 15-18. 
7:39. In their hearts turned back into Egypt. 

Num. 14:3, 4. 
7: 40. Make us gods to go before us. Ex. 32: 1, 23. 
7:11. They made a calf. Ex. 32: Wu 
7: 12. God gave them up to worship the host of 

heaven. Jer. 7: 18 (LXX.); 19: 13. 
7: 42, 43. Have ye oflercd to me slain beasts and 

sacrifices? Amos 5: 25, 26. 
7: 44. That he should make it according to the 
fashion that he had seen. Ex. 25: 1-10. 
7: 45. Into the possession of the Gentiles. Gen. 

17:8; 18:4; Deut. 32:49. 
7:46. [David] desired to find a tabernacle for 

" the God of Jacob. Ps. 132:5. 
7: 47. Solomon built him an house. I. Ki. 6: 1-2. 
7: 49, 50. Heaven is my throne. Isa. 06: 1, 2. 
7: 51. Ye stiff-necked [people]. Ex. 33: 3-5. 
7: 51. And uncircumcised in heart and ears. Jer. 

9: 26; 6: 10; Num. 27: 14; Isa. 63: 10. 
8: 21. Thy heart is not right. Ps. 78: 37. 
8: 23. The bond of iniquity. Isa. 58: 6. 
8: 32, 33. He was led as a sheep to the slaughter. 

Isa. 53 : 7, 8. 
10: 34. God is no respecter of persons. Deut. 10: 17. 
10: 36. The word which God sent unto the chil- 
dren of Israel. Ps. 107: 20; 117: IS. 
10: 36. Preaching peace. Isa. 52: 7; Nah. 1: 15. 
10: 38. How God anointed Jesus with the Holy 

Ghost. Isa. 61: 1. 
10: 39. Hanged on a tree. Deut. 21: 22, 23. 
13: 10. The right ways of the Lord. Hos. 11: 9. 
13: 17. With an high arm brought he them out. 

Ex. 6: 1, 6. 
13: 18. Suffered he their manners in the wilder- 
ness. Deut. 1: 31. 
13: 19, Destroyed seven nations in Canaan. Deut. 

13: 19. Divided their land to them. Josh. 14: 1. 
13: 22. I have found David. Ps. 89: 20. 
13: 22. A man after mine own heart. I. Sam. 

13: 14. 
13: 26. To you is the word of this salvation. Ps. 

13: 33. Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten 

thee. Ps. 2:7. 
13: 34. The sure mercies of David. Isa. 5-5: 3. 
13: 35. Thou shalt not suffer thine Holy One to 

see corruption. Ps. 16: 10. 
13: 36. David was laid unto his fathers. I. Ki. 2: 10. 
1.3: 41. Behold, ye despisers, and wonder. Iiab. 1: 5. 
13: 47. Set thee to be a light of the Gentiles. Isa. 

14: 15. The Maker of heaven and earth. Ex. 20: 

11; Ps. 146:6. 
15: 16. After this I will return. Jer. 12: 15. 
15: 16, 17. The rebuilding of David's tabernacle. 

Amos 9: 11, 12. 
15: 18. Known unto God are all his works. Isa. 

45: 21. 
17:24. God dwclleth not in temples made with 

hands. II. Chr. 6: iS. 
17: 25. He giveth to all 1 ife ami breath. Isa. 42: 5. 
17: 31. He will judge the world in righteousness. 

Ps. 9:8; 96; 13; 98:9. 
18: 9, 10. Be not afraid, for I am with thee. Isa. 

43:5; Jer. 1:8. 
20: 28. The church of God, which he hath pur- 
chased. Ps. 74:2. 
20: 32. Inheritance among the sanctified. Deut. 

21 : 26. The days of purification. Num. 6: 5. 
23: 5. Thou shalt not speak evil of the ruler 

of thy people. Ex. 2^: 28. 
26: 16. Rise, and stand upon thy feet. Ezek. 2: 1. 
26: 17. Unto whom now I send thee. Jer. 1: 7, 8. 




26: 18. To open their eyes. Isa. 42: 7, 16. 
28: 26. Go unto this people, and say. Isa. 6: 9, 10. 
28: 28. The salvation of God is sent unto the Gen- 
tiles. Ps. 67:2. 


1: 17. The just shall live by faith. Hab. 2: 4. 
1 : 23. And changed the glory. Ps. 106: 20. 
2: 6. Who will render to every man according 

to his deeds. Ps. 62: 12; Prov. 24: 12. 
2: 11. God no respecter of persons. Deut. 10: 17. 
2: 24. The name of God is blasphemed among 

the Gentiles through you. Isa. 52: 5. 
3: 4. Let God be true, but every man a liar. Ps. 

116: 11. 
3: 4. That thou migh test be justified. Ps. 51:4. 
3: 10-12. None righteous . . . not one. Ps. 14: 1-3. 
3:13. Their throat is an open sepulchre. Ps. 5: 

3: 14. Whose mouth is full of cursing. Ps. 10: 7. 
3: 15-17. Their feet are swift to shed blood. Isa. 

3: 18. No fear of God before their eyes. Ps. 36: 1. 
3: 20. By the deeds of the law no flesh justified. 

Ps. 143: 2. 
4: 3. It was counted unto him [Abraham] for 

righteousness. Gen. 15 : 6. 
4: 7, 8. Blessed are they whose iniquities are 

forgiven. Ps. 32: 1, 2. 
4: 9. Faith reckoned to Abraham. Gen. 15: 6. 
4: 11. He received the sign of circumcision. Gen. 

17: 11. 
4: 17. A father of many nations. Gen. 17: 5. 
4: 18. So shall thy seed be. Gen. 15: 5. 
4:22-24. It was imputed to him for righteous- 
ness. Gen. 15: 6. 
4: 25. Delivered for our offences. Isa. 53: 12. 
5: 5. Hope maketh not ashamed. Ps. 22: 5. 
7: 7. Thou shalt not covet. Ex. 20: 14-17; Deut. 

5: 18-21. 
8: 33, 34. God who justifies, who is he who con- 
demns? Isa. 50:8. 
8: 34. Christ, who is even at the right hand of 

God. Ps. 110: 1. 
8: 36. For thy sake we are killed. Ps. 42: 22. 
9: 7. In Isaac shall thy seed be called. Gen. 

9: 9. And Sarah shall have a son. Gen. 18: 10. 
9: 12. The elder shall serve the younger. Gen. 

25: 23. 
9: 13. Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. 

Mai. 1:2,3. 
9: 15. I will have mercy on whom I will have 

mercy. Ex. 33: 19. 
9: 17. For this same purpose have I raised thee 

up. Ex. 9: 16. 
9:18. Whom he will he hardeneth. Ex. 7: 3; 

9:12; 14:4, 17. 
9: 20. Shall the thing formed say to him that 

formed its? Isa. 29: 16; 45: 9. 
9: 21. Hath not the potter power over the clay? 

Jer. 18: 6; Isa. 29: 16; 45: 9. 
9: 22. If God endured with much long-suffering 

the vessels of wrath. Jer. 50: 25. 
9: 22. Fitted to destruction. Isa. 54: 16. 
9: 25. I will call them my people, etc. Hos. 2: 23. 
9: 26. Children of the living God. Hos. 1: 10. 
9: 27. A remnant shall be saved. Isa. 10: 22, 23. 
9: 29. Except the Lord of Sabaoth had left us a 

seed Isa 1*9 
9: 32. They stumbled. ' Isa. 8: 14. 
9: 33. The rock of offence. Isa. 28: 16. 
10: 5. The man that doeth these things shall 

live by them. Lev. 18: 5. 
10:6-9. Sav not, Who shall go up into heaven? 

Deut, 30: 12-14. 
10: 11. Whosoever belie veth on him shall not be 

ashamed. Isa. 28: 16. 
10: 13. Whosoever shall call. Joel 2: 32. 
10: 15. How beautiful are the feet. Isa. 52: 7. 
10: 16. Who hath believed our report? Isa. 53: 1. 
10: 18. Their sound went into all the earth. Ps. 



10: 19. I will provoke you to jealousy. Deut. 

10:20, 21. I was found of them that sought me 

not. Isa. 65: 1, 2. 
11: 1, 2. Hath God cast off* his people? Ps. 94: 14: 

I. Sam. 12: 22. 
11: 3. They have killed thy prophets. I.Ki.l9:10. 
11: 4. I have reserved to myself seven thousand 

men. I. Ki. 19: 18. 
11: 8. God hath given them the spirit of slum- 
ber, etc. Isa. 29: 10; Deut. 29: 4. 
11:9,10. Let their table be made a snare. Ps. 

69:22,23; 35:8. 
11: 11. Salvation is come ... to provoke them to 

jealousy. Deut. 32: 21. 
11: 26. The Deliverer out of Sion. Isa. 59: 20. 
11: 27. This is my covenant unto them. Isa. 27: 9. 
11:34,35. Who hath known the mind of the 

Lord? Isa. 40: 13, 14. 
12: 16. Be not wise in your own conceits. Prov. 3: 7. 
12: 17. Provide things honest in the sight of all 

men. Prov. 3: 4 (LXX.). 
12: 19. Avenge not yourselves. Deut. 32: 35. 
12: 20. If thine enemy hunger, feed him, etc. 

Prov. 25: 21, 22. 
13: 9. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Ex.20: 

13-17; Deut. 5: 17-21. 
13: 9. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 

Lev. 19: 18. 
14: 11. Every knee shall bow to me. Isa. 45: 23; 

49: 18. 
15: 3. The reproaches of them that reproached 

thee fell on me. Ps. 69: 9. 
15: 9. I will confess to thee among the Gentiles. 

Ps. 18: 49. 
15: 10. Rejoice, ye Gentiles, with his people. 

Deut, 32:43. 
15: 11. Praise the Lord, all ye Gentiles. Ps. 117: 1. 
15: 12. In him shall the Gentiles trust. Isa. 11: 10. 
15: 21. To whom he was not spoken of, they shall 

see. Isa. 52: 15. 

I. Corinthians. 

1 : 19. I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, etc. 

Isa. 29: 14. 
1:20. Where is the wise? where is the scribe? 

Isa. 19: 12; 33: 18. 
1:31. He that glorieth, let him glory in the 

Lord. Jer. 9:21. 
2: 9. The things which God hath prepared for 

them that love him. Isa. 64: 4. 
2: 16. Who hath known the mind of the Lord, 

etc. Isa, 40:13. 
3: 19. He taketh the wise in their own crafti- 
ness. Job 5: 13. 
3: 20. The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the 

wise. Ps. 94: 11. 
4 : 13. Offscouring of all things. Lam. 3 : 45 (Heb.). 
5: 7. Our passover is sacrificed for us. Ex. 12: 21. 
5: 13. Put away from among yourselves that 

wicked person. Deut. 22: 24. 
6: 16. For two shall be one flesh. Gen. 2: 24. 
9: 9. Thou shalt not muzzle the ox. Deut. 25: 4. 
10: 5. They were overthrown in the wilderness. 

Num. 14: 16. 
10: 6. Our examples, that we should not lust as 

they lusted. Num. 11: 34. 
10: 7. The people sat down to eat and drink, and 

rose up to play. Ex. 32: 6. 
10: 20. They [the Gentiles] sacrifice to devils, and 

not to God. Deut. 32: 17. 
10: 21. The Lord's table. Mai. 1: 7, 12. 
10:22. Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? 

Deut, 32:21. 
10: 26. The earth is the Lord's. Ps. 24: 1. 
11: 7. He [man] is the image and glory of God. 

Gen. 5: 1. 
11:25. The new testament in my blood. Ex.24: 

8; Zech. 9: 11. 
13: 5. Thinketh no evil. Zech. 8: 17 (LXX.). 
14:21. With men of other tongues will I speak 

unto this people. Isa. 28: 11, 12. 
14: 25. And report that God is in you. Isa. 45: 14. 



1. Corinthians. 

15:25. Till lie hath put all enemies under his 

feet. Ps. 110: J. 
15: 27. He hath put all things under his feet. Ps. 

15:32. Let us eat and drink; for to-morrow we 

die. Isa. 22: 13. 
15 45. The first man Adam was made a living 

soul. Gen. 2: 7. 
15. 47. The first man is of the earth, earthy. 

Gen. 2: 7. 
15 . .54. Death is swallowed up in victory. Isa. 25: 8. 
15 55. O grave, where is thy victory? Hos. 13: 14. 

II Corinthians. 
3: 3. Written not in tables of stone. Ex. 31: 18; 

3 3. In fleshy tables of the heart. Pro v. 3: 3; 

Ezek. 11:19; 3G:26. 
3.13. Moses put a veil over his face. Ex. 34: 

33, 35. 
3: 16. When it shall turn to the Lord, the veil 

shall be taken away. Isa. 25: 7. 
3: 18. We all . . . beholding the glory of the Lord. 

Ex. 24: 17. 
4: 13. I believed, therefore have I spoken. Ps. 

116: 10. 
5: 17. Old things have passed away. Isa. 43: 

6: 2. I have heard thee in a time accepted. Isa. 

6: 9. As chastened and not destroyed. Ps. 

118: 18. 
6: 11. Our heart is enlarged. Ps. 119: 32. 
6: 16. I will dwell in them, and walk in them. 

Lev. 26: 11, 12; Ezek. 37: 27. 
6: 17. Come out and be ye separate. Isa. 52: 11; 

Jer. 51:45; Ezek. 20: 33. 
6: 18. Ye shall be my sons and daughters. Hos. 

1:10; Isa. 43:6. 
8: 15. He that gathered much had nothing over. 

Ex. 16: 18. 
8: 21. Providing for honest things in sight of 

the Lord and of men. Prov. 3: 4 (LXX.). 
9: 7. God loveth a cheerful giver. Prov. 22:8 

9: 9. He hath dispersed, he hath given to the 

poor. Ps. 112: 9. 
9: 10. Multiply your seed sown. Hos. 10: 12; Isa. 

55: 10. 
10: 17. He that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord. 

Jer. 9:24. 
11: 3. As the serpent beguiled Eve. Gen. 3: 13. 
13: 1. In the mouth of two or three witnesses. 

Deut. 19:15. 

1:15. From my mother's womb, and called. 

Isa. 49:1. 
2: 16. Shall no ilesh be justified. Ps. 143: 2. 
3: 6. It was accounted to him for righteous- 
ness. Gen. 15: 6. 
3: 8. In thee shall all nations be blessed. Gen. 

12:3; 18:18. 
3; 10. Cursed is every one that continueth not in 

all things which are written in the law. 

Deut. 27:26. 
3; 11. The j ust shall live by faith. Hab. 2: 4. 
.'i: 12. The man that doeth them shall live in 

them. Lev. 18: 5. 
3: 13. Cursed is every one that hangeth on a 

tree, Deut. 21:23. 
3: 16. He saith, And to thy seed. Gen. 12: 7; 13: 

15; 17:7- 22:18; 21:7. 
4:27. Rejoice, tnou barren that bearest not. 

Isa. 54: 1. 
4:30. Cast out the bond woman and her son. 

Gen. 21:10. 
5: 14. Thou shaltlove thy neighbour. Lev. 19: 18. 
6: 16. The Israel of God. Ps. 125: 5; 128: 6. 


1:18. His inheritance in the saints. Deut. 33: 
:5, 2T-29. 


1:20. And set him [Christ] at his own right 

hand. Ps. 110: 1. 
1: 22. Hath put all things under his feet. Ps. 

2: 13, 17. Ye who were afar ofT are made nigh. 

Isa. 57:19; 52:7. 
2: 20. The chief corner stone. Isa. 28: 16. 
4: 8-11. He led captivity captive. Ps. 68: 18. 
4: 25. Speak every man truth with his neighbour. 

Zech. 8: 16. 
4: 26. Be ye angry, and sin not. Ps. 4: 4. 
5: 2. Himself for us an offering. Ps. 40: 6. 
5: 2. For a sweet-smelling savour. Ezek. 20: 41. 
5: 18. Be not drunk with wine. Prov. 23: 31 

5: 31. For this cause shall a man leave his father 

and mother. Gen. 2: 24. 
6: 2, 3. Honour thy father and mother. Ex. 

20: 12; Deut. 5: 16. 
6: 4. In the nurture and admonition of the 

Lord. Prov. 2: 2; 3: 11, 12. 
6: 14. Having your loins girt about with truth. 

Isa. 11:5. 
6: 14. Having on the breastplate of righteous- 
ness. Isa. 59: 17. 
6: 15. Feet shod with the preparation of the 

gospel of peace. Isa, 52: 7; 49: 3-9. 
6: 17. The helmet of salvation. Isa. 59: 17. 
6:17. The sword of the Spirit. Isa. 11:4; 49:2; 

51:16; Hos. 6: 5. 


his shall turn to my salvation. Job 

13: 16. 
11. In the name of Jesus every knee shall 

bow, etc. Isa. 45: 23. 
Sons of God, blameless, in the midst of a 

perverse nation, etc. Deut. 32: 5. 
That I have not laboured in vain. Isa. 49: 

4; 65:23. 
The book of life. Ps. 69: 28. 
An odour of a sweet smell. Ezek. 20: 41. 





4: 3. 


2: 3. Are hid all the treasures of wisdom. Isa. 

45:3; Prov. 2: 3, 4. 
2:22. After the commandments and doctrines 

of men. Isa. 29: 13. 
3: 1. Christ sitting on the right hand of God. 

Ps. 110: 1. 
3: 10. After the image of him that created him. 

Gen. 1:27. 

I. Thessalonians. 

2: 4. Trieth our hearts. Jer. 11:20. 

2: 16. To fill up their sins alway. Gen. 15: 16. 

4: 5. The Gentiles which know not God. Jer. 

10:25; Ps. 79: 6. 
4: 6. The Lord is the avenger. Ps. 94: 1. 
4: 8. Given unto us his Holy Spirit. Ezek. 

37: 14. 
5: 8. Putting on the breastplate of faith. Isa. 

59: 17. 
5: 22. Abstain from all appearance of evil. Job 

1:1; 2:3. 

II. Thessalonians. 

1: 8. In flaming fire taking vengeance. Isa. 
66: 15. 

1: 8. On them that know not God. Jer. 10: 25; 
Ps. 79: 6. 

1: 9. From the presence of the Lord. Isa. 2: 10, 
11, 19, 21. 

1: 10. When he shall come to be glorified. Ps. 
89: 7; 68: 35 (LXX.); Isa. 49: 3. 

1: 12. That the name of our Lord may be glori- 
fied. Isa. (id: 5. 

2: 3. Man of sin (cf. I. Ki. 11: 16); son of perdi- 
tion (ct Ps. 109: 7 and John 17: 12). 

2: 4. Who exalt eth himself ab'pve all that is 
called God. Dan. 11:36, 37. 

2: 4. As God sitteth in the temple of God. 
Ezek. 28:2. 



II. Thessalonians. 

2: 8. Shall consume with the spirit of his 

mouth. Isa. 11: 4; Job 4: 9. 
2: 13. Beloved of the Lord. Deut. 33: 12. 

I. Timothy. 

2: 13. Adam was first formed. Gen. 1: 27. 
5: 18. Thou shalt not muzzle the ox. Deut. 25: 4. 
5: 19. Receive not an accusation but before two 
or three witnesses. Deut. 19: 15. 

II. Timothy. 

2: 19. The Lord knoweth them that are his. 

Num. 16: 5. 
2: 19. Every one that nameth the name of 

Christ. Isa. 26: 13. 
4: 14. The Lord reward him according to his 

works. Ps. 62: 12; Pro v. 24: 12. 
4: 17. Out of the mouth of the lion. Ps. 22: 21. 


2: 14. Purify unto himself a peculiar people. 
Ezek. 37: 23; Deut. 14: 2; Ps. 130: 8. 


1: 3. Sat down on the right hand. Ps. 110: 1. 
1: 5. Thou art my Son, etc. Ps. 2: 7. 
1: 5. I shall be to him a Father. II. Sam. 7: 14. 
1: 6. Let all the angels worship him. Deut. 32: 

43(LXX.); Ps. 97:7. 
1: 7. Who maketh his angels spirits, etc. Ps. 

1: 8, 9. Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever. 

Ps. 45: 6, 7. 
1 10-12. Thou, Lord, hast laid the foundation of 

the earth, etc. Ps. 102 : 25, 26. 
1: 13. Sit on my right hand, etc. Ps. 110: 1. 
2: 6-8. What is man, etc. Ps. 8: 4, 5. 
2: 11, 12. I will declare thy name. Ps. 22: 22. 
2: 13. I will put my trust in him. Isa. 8: 17. 
2: 13. Behold, I and the children. Isa. 8: 18. 
2: 17. Like unto his brethren. Ps. 22: 22. 
3: 2, 5. Moses was faithful. Num. 12: 7. 
3: 7, 11, 13, 15-19. To-day, if ye will hear his voice. 

Ps. 95: 7-11. 
3: 17. Grieved forty years. Num. 14: 29. 
4: 1-3. A promise ... of entering into his rest. 

Ps. 95: 11. 
4: 4. God did rest the seventh day. Gen. 2:2. 
4: 5, 6. If they shall enter into rny rest. Ps. 

95: 11. 
4: 7. To-day if ye will hear his voice. Ps. 95: 

4: 10. For he that is entered into his rest hath 

ceased from his works. Gen. 2: 2. 
4: 11. Labour to enter into that rest. Ps. 95: 11. 
5: 5. Thou art my Son, etc. Ps. 2: 7. 
5: 6, 10. Priest after the order of Melchisedec. 

Ps. 110: 4. 
6: 7. The earth bringeth forth herbs. Gen. 1:11. 
6: 8. Which beareth thorns, etc. Gen. 3: 17, 18. 
6:13,14. God sware by himself, etc. Gen. 22: 

16, 17. 
6: 19. Which entereth into that within the veil. 

Lev. 16: 2. 
6: 20. An high priest after the order of Mel- 
chisedec. Ps. 110: 4. 
7: 1, 2, 3. Melchisedec, king of Salem, etc. Gen. 

14: 17, 18. 
7: 4, 6, 10. To whom Abraham gave a tenth. 

Gen. 14: 19, 20. 
7: 11, 15, 17, 21, 24, 28. The order of Melchisedec. 

Ps. 110:4. 
7: 28. The Son ... for evermore. Ps. 2: 7. 
8: 1. Set on the right hand. Ps. 110: 1. 
8: 2. A minister of the true tabernacle, which 

the Lord pitched. Num. 24: 6. 
8: 5. Make according to the pattern showed. 

Ex. 25:40. 
8: 8-13. I will make a new covenant, etc. Jer. 

9:20. This is the blood of the testament, etc. 

Ex. 24: 8. 
9: 28. To bear the sins of many. Isa. 53: 12. 


10: 5-10. Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, 

etc. Ps. 40: 6-8. 
10: 12. Sat down on the right hand, etc. Ps. 110: 1. 
10: 16, 17. I will put my laws into their hearts, 

etc. Jer. 31:33, 34. 
10: 21. An High Priest over the house of God. 

Zech. 6: 12, 13; Num. 12: 7. 
10:27. Fiery indignation devouring the adver- 
saries. Isa. 26: 11 (LXX.). 
10: 28. Died under two or three witnesses. Deut. 

17: 6. 
10: 29. The blood of the covenant. Ex. 24: 8. 
10:30. Vengeance belongeth unto me, etc.; the 

Lord shall judge, etc. Deut. 32: 35, 36. 
10: 37. He that shall come will come. Hab. 2: 3, 4. 
11: 4. God testifying of his [Abel's] gifts. Gen. 

11: 5. Enoch was not found, because God had 

translated him. Gen. 5: 24. 
11: 8. Abraham, when he was called to go out 

. . ., obeyed. Gen. 12: 1. 
11: 9. Sojourned in the land of promise. Gen. 

23: 4. 
11: 12. As many as the stars of heaven. Gen. 22: 

17; 32:12. 
11: 13. Strangers and pilgrims. Gen. 23: 4; I. 

Chr. 29: 15. 
11:17. Abraham, when tried, offered up Isaac. 

Gen. 22: 1-10. 
11: 18. In Isaac shall thy seed be called. Gen. 

11:21. Jacob worshipped, leaning upon the top 

of his staff. Gen. 47: 31. 
11: 23. Moses . . . was hid three months. Ex. 2. 2. 
11:24. Moses, when he was come to years. Ex. 

11: 26. The reproach of Christ. Ps. 89: 50, 51; 69: 9. 
11: 28. The passover and the sprinkling of blood, 

etc. Ex. 12: 21-29. 
12: 2. Set down at the right hand. Ps. 110: 1. 
12: 3. Contradiction of sinners, etc. Num. 16: 38. 
12: 5-7. Despise not the chastening of the Lord, 

etc. Prov. 3: 11, 12. 
12: 12. Lift up the hands, etc. Isa. 35: 3. 
12: 13. Make straight paths. Prov. 4: 26 (LXX.). 
12: 14. Follow peace. Ps. 34: 14. 
12: 15. Lest any root of bitterness . . . trouble 

you. Deut. 29: 18 (LXX.). 
12: 16. Esau, who sold his birthright. Gen. 25: 33. 
12: 18, 19. The mount that burned with fire, etc. 

Deut. 4: 11, 12. 
12: 19. The sound of a trumpet, and the voice of 

words. Ex. 19: 16; Deut. 5: 23, 25. 
12: 20. If so much as a beast touch the mountain. 

Ex. 19: 12. 
12: 21. Moses said, I exceedingly fear. Deut. 9: 19. 
12:26, 27. Yet once more I shake not the earth 

only. Hag. 2: 6. 
12: 29. Our God is a consuming fire. Deut. 4: 24. 
13: 5. I will never leave thee. Deut. 31: 6, 8; 

Josh. 1 : 5. 
13: 6. The Lord is my helper. Ps. 118: 6. 
13: 8. The same yesterday, and to-day, and for 

ever. Cf. Isa. 43: 13. 
13: 11, 13. Whose blood is brought into the sanc- 
tuary for sin. Lev. 16: 27. 
13: 15. Let us offer the sacrifice of praise. Ps. 50: 

14; Lev. 7:12. 
13: 15. The fruit of the lips. Isa. 57: 19; Hos. 14: 2. 
13: 20. The great Shepherd of the sheep. Isa, 63:11, 
13: 20. The blood of the everlasting covenant. 

Zech. 9: 11; Isa. 55: 3; Ezek. 37: 26. 

1: 10, 11. As the flower of grass. Isa. 40: 6, 7. 
2: 8. The royal law. Lev. 19: 18. 
2: 11. Do not commit adultery, etc. Ex. 20: 13, 14. 
2: 21. Abraham had offered Isaac his son upon 

the altar. Gen. 22:2, 9. 
2: 23. Abraham believed God. Gen. 15: 6. 
2: 23. The friend of God. Isa. 41 : 8; II. Chr. 20: 7. 
3: 9. After the similitude of God. Gen. 1: 26. 
4: 6. God resisteth the proud. Prov. 3: 34. 



. crieth against you. Cf. Deut. 

5: 4. The hire 


5: 5. As in a day of slaughter. Jer. 12: 3. 
5: 7. The early and latter rain. Deut. ±1:14; 

Jer. 5: 24. 
5:11. The Lord is very pitiful. Cf.Ps.103: 8; 111:4. 
5:20. Shall hide a multitude of sins. Prov. 10:12. 

I Pfeter 

1: Hi. Be ye holy. Lev. 11: 44; 19: 2; 20: 7. 

1: 17. If ye call on the Father. Jer. 3: 19. 

1: IS. Redeemed not with . . . silver. Isa. 52: 3. 

1: 23. God, which livcth and abideth. Dan. 0: 26. 

1 : 21, 25. All flesh is as grass, etc. Isa. 40: 0-8. 

2: 3. Tasted that the Lord is gracious. Ps. 31:8. 

2: 4. A stone disallowed. Ps. 118: 22. 

2: 0. Behold, 1 lav in Zion a stone, etc. Isa. 

28: 10. 
2: 7. The stone which the builders disallowed. 

Ps. 118: 22. 
2: 8. A stone of stumbling. Isa. 8:14, 15. 
2: 9. A royal priesthood, a peculiar people. Ex. 

19: 5, 0; Isa. 43: 20, 21. 
2: 10. Which in time past were not a people, 

but are now. Hos. 1: 6, 10; 2: 23. 
2: 11. Strangers and pilgrims. Ps. 39: 12. 
2: 12. In the day of visitation. Isa. 10: 3. 
2: 17. Fear God. Honour the king. Prov. 24:21. 
2: 22. Did no sin, neither was guile found in 

his mouth. Isa. 53: 9. 
2: 24. Who his own self bare our sins. Isa. 53: 12. 
2: 24. By whose stripes ye were healed. Isa. 53: 5. 
3: 6. Not afraid with amazement. Gen. 18: 15; 

Prov. 3: 25. 
3: 10-12. He that will love life, and see good days, 

etc. Ps. 34: 12-10. 
3: 14, 15. Be not afraid of their terror, etc. Isa. 

8: 12, 13. 
3: 22. On the right hand of God. Ps. 110: 1. 
4: 8. Charity shall cover . . . sins. Prov. 10: 12. 
4: 14. If ye be reproached for the name of Christ, 

etc. Ps. 89: 50, 51. 
4: 14. The Spirit of God resteth upon you. Isa. 

4: 17. Begin at the house of God. Ezek. 9: 6. 
4: 18. If the righteous shall scarcely be saved. 

Prov. 11:31. 
5: 5. God resisteth the proud. Prov. 3: 34. 
5: 7. Casting all your care upon him. Ps. 55: 22. 

II. Peter. 
2: 2. By reason of whom the way of truth shall 

be evil spoken of. Cf. Isa. 52: 5. 
2: 22. The dog is turned to his own vomit again. 

Prov. 20: 11. 
3: 8. One day is with the Lord as a thousand 

years. Ps. 90: 4. 
3: 12. The heavens shall be dissolved. Isa. 34: 4. 
3: 13. New heavens and a new earth. Isa. 65: 

17; 00: 22. 


9. Michael the archangel. Dan. 12: 1. 

9. The Lord rebuke thee. Zech. 3: 2. 
12. Feeding themselves. Ezek. 34: 8. 
14. The Lord cometh with ten thousand of 

his saints. Deut. 33: 2; Zech. 14: 5. 
23. Pulling them out of the fire. Zech. 3: 2. 
23. Garment spotted by the flesh. Zech. 3: 3. 

The Revelation. 
1: 1. Things which must shortly come to pass. 

Dan. 2: 28. 
1: 4. From him which is and which was. Ex. 

3: 11; Isa. 11: 1. 
1: 5. The faithful Witness. Ps. 89: 37. 
1 : 5. The first- begotten. Ps. 89: 27. 
1: 5. Unto him who washed us from our sins. 

Ps. 130:8; Isa. 10:2. 
1: 6. Kings and priests unto God. Ex. 19: 6. 
1: 7. Behold, he cometh with clouds. Dan. 7: 

13. Cf. Isa.. 19: 1. 
1: 7. And every eye shall see him, etc. Zech. 

12: 10, 12. 

The Revelation. 

1: 8. I am Alpha and Omega. Ex. 3: II; Isa. 41:4. 
1 : 8. The Almighty. Amos 4: 13 (LXX.). 
1: 13. One like the Son of man. Dan. 7: 13; 

Ezek. 1:26; 8:2. 
1: 13. Clothed in a garment down to the foot. 

Ezek. 9:2, 11 (LXX.). 
1 : 13. Girt about with a golden girdle. Dan. 10: 5. 
1: 14. His head and his hair were white like 

wool. Dan. 7: 9. 
1: 14, 15. His eyes like a flame of fire. Dan. 10: 6. 
1: 15. His voice as the sound of many waters. 

Ezek. 1:24; 43:2. 
1: 16. As the sun ... in his strength. Judg. 5: 31. 
1: 17. Fear not. Dan. 10: 19. 

1 : 17. I am the first and the last,. Isa. 44: 6; 48: 12. 
1: 19. The things which shall be hereafter. Isa. 

48:6; Dan. 2: 29. 
2: 7. To eat of the tree of life. Gen. 2: 9; 3: 22; 

Ezek. 31:8. 
2: 8. I am the first and the last. Isa. 44: 0. 
2:10. Ye shall have tribulation ten days. Cf. 

Dan. 1 : 12, 14. 
2: 14. To eat things sacrificed to idols. Num. 31 : 

16. {See on Balaam, References to Old Tes- 
tament Histo ries. ) 
2: 14. And to commit fornication. Num. 25: 1, 2. 
2: 17. A new name written. Isa. 02: 2; 65: 15. 
2: 18. His feet like fine brass. Dan. 10: 0. 
2: 20. To eat things sacrificed to idols, etc. Num. 

25: 1-3. 
2: 23. I am he which searcheth the hearts, etc. 

Jer. 17: 10; Ps. 7:9; 02:12. 
2: 26, 27. He shall rule them with a rod of iron, 

etc. Ps. 2:8 9. 
3: 5. Blot out . .' . f roni the book of life. Ex. 32: 

33; Ps. 09: 28. 
3: 7. Hath the key of David, etc. Isa. 22: 22. 
3: 9. I will make them to come and worship, 

etc. Isa. 45: 11; 49: 23; 60: 14. 
3: 9. I have loved thee. Isa. 43: 4. 
3: 12. Name of the city of my God. Ezek. 48: 35. 
3: 12. My new name. Isa. 62: 2; 65: 15. 
3: 14. The faithful Witness. Ps. 89: 37. 
3: 14. The beginning of the creation. Prov. 8: 22. 
3: 17. I am rich. Hos. 12: 8. 
3: 19. As many as I love I rebuke, etc. Prov. 

4: 1. The voice of a trumpet. Ex. 19: 16. 
4: 1. Things which must be hereafter. Dan. 

2: 29. 
4: 2. One sat on the throne. Isa. 6: 1; Ps. 47: 8. 
4: 3. Rainbow round about the throne. Ezek. 

4: 5. Out of the throne proceeded lightnings 

and thunderings. Ezek. 1: 13; Ex. 19: 16. 
4: 6. Like unto glass, and in the midst of the 

throne, and round about the throne, 

four living creatures. Ezek. 1: 5, 18, 22; 

Isa. 6: 1. 
4: 7. Like lion, ox, man, eagle. Cf. Ezek. 1: 10; 

10: 14. 
4: 8. The four living creatures had each six 

wings about him. Isa. 0: 2. 
4: 8. Full of eyes within. Ezek. 1: 18; 10: 12. 
4: 8. Holy, holy, holy, Lord God. Isa. 0: 3. 
4: 8. Which was, and is, and is to come. Ex. 

3:14; Isa. 41:4, 
4: 9. To whim who sat on the throne. Isa. 6:1; 

Ps. 47:8. 
4: 9, 10. To him who livcth: for ever and ever. 

Dan. 4:34; 0:26. 
5: 1. Him that sat on the throne. Isa. 6: 1; Ps. 

5: 1. A book written within and on the back 

side. Ezek. 2:9, 10. 
5: 1. A book sealed. Isa. 29: 11. 
5: 5. The Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root 

of David. Cf. Gen. 49: 9; Isa. 11: 10. 
5: 0. A Lamb as it had been slain. Isa. 53: 7. 
5: 6. Having seven eyes sent forth into all the 

earth. Zech. 4: 10. 
5: 7. Him that sat upon the throne. Isa. 0: 1; 

Ps. 47:8. 



The Revelation. 
5: 8. Vials full of odours [margin, incense]. Ps. 

5: 9. They sung a new song. Ps. 144: 9. 
5: 10. Unto our God kings and priests. Ex. 19:6. 
5: 11. Ten thousand, etc. Dan. 7: 10. 
5: 12. The Lamb that was slain. Isa. 53: 7. 
5: 13. To him that sitteth on the throne. Isa. 

6:1; Ps. 47:8. 
6:2,4,5. On the white, red, and black horses. 

Cf. Zech. 1:8; 6:2,3,6. 
6: 8. Death and Hell. Hos. 13: 14. 
6: 8. With the sword and with famine, etc. 

Ezek. 29: 5; 33: 27; 14: 21; 5: 12; 34: 28. 
6: 10. How long, O Lord? Zech. 1: 12. 
6:10. Dost thou not avenge our blood? Deut. 

32:43; II. Ki. 9: 7. 
6: 10. On them that dwell on the earth. Hos 4: 1. 
6: 12. The moon became as blood. Joel 2: 31. 
6: 13, 14. The stars of heaven fell, etc. Isa. 34: 4; 

13: 10. 
6: 15. The kings of the earth, and the great ones, 

did hide themselves. Ps. 48: 4; 2: 2; Isa. 

24:21; 34: 12. 
6: 15. In the dens and rocks of the mountains. 

Jer. 4:29; Isa. 2: 10. 
6: 16. And said to the mountains, Fall on us, 

etc. Hos. 10: 8. 
6: 16. Him that sitteth on the throne. Isa. 6: 1; 

Ps. 47: 8. 
6: 17. The great day of his wrath is come. Ps. 

110: 5; Joel 2: 11; Zeph. 1: 14, 15. 
6: 17. Who shall be able to stand? Mai. 3: 2. 
7: 1. The four corners of the earth. Ezek. 7: 2. 
7: 1. The four winds. Ezek. 37: 9; Zech. 6: 5. 
7: 3. Sealed ... in their foreheads. Ezek. 9: 4. 
7:10. Sitteth upon the throne. Isa. 6: 1; Ps. 

7: 14. Came out of great tribulation. Dan. 12: 1. 
7: 14. Washed their robes ... in the blood. Gen. 

49: 11. 
7:15. He that sitteth on the throne. Isa. 6: 1: 

Ps. 47:8. 
7: 16. They shall hunger no more, etc. Isa. 49: 10. 
7: 17. The Lamb shall feed them. Ezek. 34:23. 
7: 17. Living fountains of waters. Jer. 2: 13. 
7: 17. God shall wipe away all tears. Isa. 25: 8. 
8: 3. Stood at the altar. Amos 9: 1. 
8: 3. Incense. Ps. 141:2. 
8: 5. The censer, and filled it with fire, etc. 

Lev. 16: 12. 
8: 5. Voices, and thunderings, and lightnings. 

Ex. 19: 16. 
8: 7. Hail and fire mingled with blood. Ex. 9: 

24; Ezek. 38:22; Joel 2: 30. 
8: 8. Great mountain burning. Jer. 51:25. 
8: 8. The third part of the sea became blood. 

Cf. Ex. 7:19. 
8: 10. There fell a star from heaven. Isa. 14: 12. 
9: 2. Arose as the smoke of a great furnace. 

Gen. 19:28; Ex. 19: 18. 
9: 2. The sun and air were darkened. Joel 2: 10. 
9: 3. Locusts upon the earth. Cf. Ex. 10: 12, 15. 
9: 4. Seal of God in their foreheads. Ezek. 9: 4. 
9: 6. Seek death, and not find it. Job 3: 21. 
9: 7. Locusts like unto horses. Joel 2: 4. 
9: 8. Their teeth were as the teeth of lions. 

Joel 1:6. 
9: 9. The sound of chariots. Joel 2: 5. 
9: 11. Abaddon. See Job 26: 6, R. V.; Job 28: 22. 
9:14. The great river Euphrates. Gen. 15:18; 

Deut. 1:7. 
9 : 20. Works of their hands. Isa. 17 : 8 ; Dan. 5 : 3. 
9: 20. Idols of gold and silver. Dan. 5: 4, 23. 
9: 20. Should not worship devils. Deut. 32: 17. 
9: 20. Which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk. 

Ps. 115: 7. 
9: 21. Of their sorceries. II. Ki. 9: 22. 
10: 4. Seal up those things. Cf. Dan. 8: 26; 12: 4. 
10: 5. Lifted up his hand to heaven, etc. Dan. 

12: 7; Gen. 14: 19. 22; Neh. 9: 6. 
10: 7. The mystery of G-od . . . declared to his 

servants the prophets. Amos 3:7; Dan. 

9:6,10; Zech. 1:6. 

The Revelation. 

10: 9. Little book . . . Take it, and eat it up . . . 

sweet as honey. Ezek. 3: 1. 
10: 11. Prophesy before peoples and nations, etc. 

Jer. 1: 10; 25: 30; Dan. 3: 4. 
11: 1. A reed like unto a rod. Ezek. 40:3. On 

measuring of temple cf. Ezek. 40: 47. 
11: 2. The holy city shall they [the Gentiles] 

tread under foot. Zech. 12:3 (LXX.); 

Isa. 63:18. Cf. Dan. 8: 13. 
11. 4. The two olive trees, and the two candle- 
sticks, etc. Zech. 4: 2, 3, 11, 14. 
11: 5. Fire . . . devoureth their enemies. II. 

Ki. 1:10. 
11: 5. Fire out of their mouth. II. Sam. 22:9: 

Jer. 5: 14. 
11: 6. These have power to shut heaven, that it 

rain not. I. Ki. 17: 1. 
11: 6. And over waters to turn them to blood. 

Ex. 7: 17, 19. 
11: 6. To smite the earth with all plagues. I. 

Sam. 4:8. 
11: 7. The beast that ascendeth out of the bot- 
tomless pit, etc. Dan. 7: 3, 7. 
11: 8. City spiritually called Sodom. Isa. 1: 10. 
11: 10, 11. Great fear fell upon them. Ps. 105: 38. 
11: 11. Life entered into them, etc. Ezek. 37: 5-10. 
11: 12. Ascended up to heaven. II. Ki. 2: 11. 
11: 13. A great earthquake. Ezek. 38: 19, 20. 
11: 13. Gave glory to the God of heaven. Josh. 

7: 19; Dan. 2: 19. 
11: 15. The kingdoms of our Lord. Obad. 21; Ps. 

22: 28. 
11: 15. He shall reign for ever and ever. Ex. 15: 

18; Ps. 10: 16. 
11 : 17. Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, 

and art to come. Ex. 3: 14; Isa. 12: 4. 
11: 18. The nations were angry. Ps. 99: 1 (LXX.); 

Ps. 2: 1 (Heb.) and 46: 6 (Heb.). 
11: 18. Fear thy name, small and great. Ps. 115: 

11: 18. Thy servants the prophets. Amos 3: 7; 

Dan. 9:6; Zech. 1:6. 
11: 19. In his temple the ark of his testament. 

I. Ki. 8:1, 6; II. Chr. 5: 7. 
11: 19. Lightnings, voices, thundering, and great 

hail. Ex. 19:16; 9:24. 
12: 2. Cried, travailing in birth, and in pain to 

be delivered. Isa. 66: 7. 
12: 3. Ten horns. Dan. 7:7. 
12: 4. Drew the third part of the stars of heaven. 

Dan. 8: 10. 
12: 5. She brought forth a man-child. Isa. 66: 7. 
5. Who was to rule all nations with a rod of 

iron. Ps. 2: 9. 
7. Michael and his angels fought. Dan. 10: 

13, 20. 
12: 9. The old serpent. Gen. 3: 1. 
12: 9. Called the Devil and Satan. Zech. 3: 1, 2. 
12: 12. Rejoice, ye heavens. Isa. 44: 23; 49: 13. 
12: 14. For a time, and times, and half a time. 

Dan. 7:25; 12:7. 

1. A beast rise up out of the sea, having . . . 
ten horns. Dan. 7: 3, 7. 

2. His mouth as the mouth of a lion. Dan. 

7: 4-6. 
13: 5. Speaking great blasphemies. Dan. 7:8. 
13: 7. To make war with the saints, and over- 
come them. Dan. 7: 21. 
13: 8. Whose names are not written in the book 

of life. Dan. 12: 1; Ps. 69: 28. 
13: 8. The Lamb slain. Isa. 53: 7. 
13: 10. He that leadeth into captivity shall go 

into captivity, etc. Jer. 15: 2. 
13: 15. As many as would not worship the image. 

Dan. 3:5, 6. 
14: 1. Written in their foreheads. Ezek. 9: 4. 
14: 2. As the voice of many waters. Ezek. 1: 24; 

43:2; Dan. 10:6. 
14: 3. They sung as it were a new song. Ps. 144 : 9. 
14: 5. In their mouth was found no guile. Isa. 

53:9; Zeph. 3: 13. 
14: 7. Him that made heaven and earth and sea. 

Ex. 20:11; Ps. 146:6. 






The Revelation. 

14: 8. Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen. Isa. 

21:9: Dan. 4:30; Jer. 51:7. 
14: 10. Shall drink of the wine . . . poured out 

without mixture into the cup of his 

indignation. Isa. 51 : 17 and Ps. 75: 8. 
14: 10. With tire and brimstone. Gen. 19: 24; 

Ezek. 38: 22. 
14: 11. The smoke . . . ascendeth up for ever and 

ever. Isa. 34: 10. 
14: 14. Upon the cloud one sat like unto the Son 

of man. Dan. 7: 13; 10: 16. 
14: 15, 18, 20. Thrust in thy sickle . . . for the time 

is come for thee to reap. Joel 3: 13. 
15: 1. Seven plagues. Lev. 26:21. 
15: 3. They sing the song of Moses. Ex. 15: 1. 
15: 3. Great and marvellous are thy works. Ps. 

111:2; Ex. 34:10. 
15: 3. Just and true are thy ways. Deut. 32:4; 

Jer. 10: 10. 
15: 4. Who shall not fear thee, O Lord? Jer. 10: 7. 
15: 4. All nations shall come and worship before 

thee. Ps. 86:9; Mai. 1:11. 
15: 5. The temple of the tabernacle of the testi- 
mony. Num. 1: 50. 
15: 6. Seven plagues. Lev. 26: 21. 
15: 8. The temple was filled with smoke. Isa. 6:4. 
15: 8. No man was able to enter. Ex. 40: 34, 35. 
15: 8. Seven plagues. Lev. 26: 21. 
16: 1. Voice out of the temple. Isa. 66: 6. 
16: 1. Pour out . . . the wrath of God upon the 

earth. Ps. 69: 24; 79: 6; Jer. 10: 25. 
16: 2. There fell a . . . sore upon the men. Ex. 

9:9,10; Deut. 28:35. 
16: 3. Became as blood. Ex. 7: 20, 21. 
16: 4. The rivers became blood. Ps. 78: 44. 
16: 5. Thou art righteous. Ps. 119: 137. 
16: 5. Which art, and wast, and shalt be. Ex. 3: 

14; Isa. 41:4. 
16: 6. They poured out blood. Ps. 79: 3. 
16: 6. Thou hast given them blood to drink. Isa. 

16 : 7. Even so, Lord God Almighty. Amos 4 : 13 

16: 7. Righteous are thy judgments. Ps. 19: 9. 
16: 10. Kingdom was full of darkness. Ex. 10: 22. 
16: 11. The God of heaven. Dan. 2: 19. 
16:12. The great river Euphrates. Gen. 15: 18; 

Deut. 1: 7. 
16: 12. The water thereof was dried up. Isa. 44: 

27; Jer. 50:38. 
16: 12. The kings of [from] the east [lifaj from the 

sun-rising]. Isa. 41: 2, 25. 
16: 13. Like frogs. Ex. 8 : 3. 
16 : 14. God Almighty. Amos 4 : 13 (LXX.). 
16 : 16. Armageddon. Zech. 12 : 11. 
16: 17. Voice out of the temple. Isa. 66:6. 
16 : 18. Lightnings, and voices, and thunders. Ex. 

16: 18. Such as was not . . . upon the earth. Dan. 

12 : 1. 
16 : 19. Great Babylon. Dan. 4 : 30. 
16:19. The cup of the wine of the fierceness of 

his wrath. Isa. 51: 17; Jer. 25: 15. 
16 : 21. A great hail. Ex. 9 : 24. 
17 : 1. Sitteth upon many waters. Jer. 51: 13. 
17 : 2. With whom the kings of the earth have 

committed fornication. Isa. 23: 17. 
17: 3. Beast, . . . having . . . ten horns. Dan. 7: 7. 
17: 4. A golden cup in her hand. Jer. 51:7. 
17: 5. Babylon the great. Dan. 4:30. 
17: 8. The beast shall ascend out of the bottom- 
less pit. Cf. Dan. 7 : 3. 
17: 8. Not written in the book of life. Dan. 12: 

1; Ps. 69:28; Cf. Isa. 4:3. 
17 : 12. The ten horns are ten kings. Dan. 7 : 24. 
17 : 14. Lord of lords, and King of kings. Deut. 

10:17; Dan. 2:47. 
17: 15. The waters upon which the whore sitteth. 

Cf. Jer. 51: 13. 
17:18. That great city, which reigneth over the 

kings. Cf. Ps. 2:2; 89:27. 
IS: 2. Babylon the great is fallen. Isa. 21: 9; 

Dan. 4:30. 

The Revelation. 


2. And is become the habitation of devils. 
Jer. 9:11. 

2. The hold of every foul spirit. Isa. 13:21: 
34 : 14. 

3. All nations have drunk of the wine of 
her fornication. Jer. 51:7; 25:16-27. 

4. Come out of her, my people. Jer. 51: 6, 9, 45. 
6. Reward her even as she rewarded you. Ps. 


6. According to her works. Jer. 50: 29. 

7. She saith in her heart, I sit a queen, etc. 
Isa. 47:7, 8, 11. 

8. In one day shall come. Isa. 47: 9. 

8. Strong is the Lord who judgeth her. Jer. 

9. The kings of the earth shall bewail her. 
Ezek. 26:16, 17; 27:30-33. 

9. Who have committed fornication with 
her. Isa. 23 : 17. 

10. Alas, that great city Babylon, that mighty 
city ! Dan. 4 : 30 ; Ezek. 26 : 17. 

11. The merchants shall weep and lament 
over her. Ezek. 27:36. 

13. The merchandise of . . . slaves and souls 
of men. Ezek. 27:13. 

15. The merchants . . . w^eeping and lament- 
ing. Ezek. 27 : 31, 32. 

17. Every shipmaster, . . . and sailors, etc. 
Ezek. 27 : 28, 29. 

18. What city is like unto this great city! 
Ezek. 27 : 32. 

19. They cast dust on their heads, and cried, 
etc. Ezek. 27 : 30. 

19. Wherein were made rich all, etc. Ezek. 
27:9,33,36; also, 26:19. 

20. Rejoice . . . thou heaven. Deut. 32:43. 

21. A stone, and cast it into the sea, saying, 
Thus shall Babylon the great city. Jer. 

51: 63, 64. 
18:21. And shall not rise again. Jer. 51: 64; Ezek. 

18:22. The voice of harpers shall be heard no 

more in thee. Ezek. 26: 13. 
18:22, 23. The sound of a millstone . . . and the 

light of a candle. Jer. 25 : 10. 
18 : 23. The voice of the bridegroom and the bride. 

Jer. 25:10. 
18: 23. Thy merchants were the great men of the 

earth. Isa. 23:8. 
18 : 23. By thy sorceries were all nations deceived. 

Isa. 47:9. 
18:24. In her was found the blood of all that 

were slain upon the earth. Jer. 51: 49. 
19 : 1, 3, 4, 6. Saying, Alleluia ! Ps. 104 : 35. 
19: 2. Righteous are his judgments. Ps. 19:9. 
19: 2. He hath avenged the blood of his serv- 
ants. Deut. 32 : 43. 
19 : 3. Her smoke rose up for ever. Isa. 34 : 10. 

That sat on the throne. Isa. 6:1; Ps. 47 : 8. 
19: 5. Praise our God, all ye his servants. Ps. 

19: 5. And ye that fear him, both small and 

great. Ps. 22 : 23, etc. 
19: 6. Voice of a great multitude. Dan. 10: 6. 
19: 6. Voice of many waters. Ezek. 1: 24; 43: 2. 
19: 6. The Lord God omnipotent reigneth. Ps. 

93:1; 99:1. 
19: 6,7. Let us be glad and rejoice. Cf. Ps. 97:1. 
19: 11. I saw heaven opened. Ezek. 1:1. 
19: 11. In righteousness he doth judge. Ps. 96: 13. 
19: 12. His eyes were as a flame of fire. Dan. 10: 6. 
19: 15. Out of his mouth a sharp sword. Isa. 11 : 4. 
19:15. Shall smite the nations and rule them 

with a rod of iron. Ps. 2:8, 9. 
19: 15. He treadeth the wine-press. Joel 3: 13. 
19: 15. Of Almighty God. Amos 4 : 13 (LXX.). 
19:16. King of kings, and Lord ol lords. Deut. 

10:17; Dan. 2:47. 
19: 17. Saying to all the fowls that fly, Come, etc. 

Ezek. 39: 19, 20. 
19: 19. The kings of the earth gathered. Ps. 2:2. 
19 : 20. Burning with brimstone. Gen. 19 : 24; Isa. 




The Revelation. 

19 : 21. All the fowls were filled with their flesh. 

Ezek. 39 : 20. 
20: 2. That old serpent. Gen. 3: 1. 
20: 2. The Devil and Satan. Zech. 3: 1, 2. 
20: 4. I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, 

and j udgment was given. Dan. 7 : 9, 22. 
20: 6. Priests of God. Isa. 61: 6. 
20: 8. Which are in the four quarters of the 

earth, Gog and Magog. Ezek. 7 : 2 and 

Ezek. 38:2. 
20. 9. On the breadth of the earth. Hab. 1 : 6. 
20: 9. The beloved city. Jer. 11 : 15 ; 12 : 7. 
20: 9. Fire came down from heaven and con- 
sumed. II. Ki. 1 : 10. 
20:10. Fire and brimstone. Gen. 19:24; Ezek. 

20 : 11. I saw a throne, and him that sat. Isa. 

6:1; Dan. 7:9. 
20 : 11. From whose face the earth . . . fled away. 

Ps. 114: 3, 7. 
20 : 11. No place for them. Dan. 2 : 35. 
20 : 12. The books were opened. Dan. 7 : 10. 
20 : 12. The book of life. Ps. 69 : 28. 
20: 15. Whosoever was not found written in the 

book. Dan. 12 : 1 ; Ps. 69 : 28. Cf . Isa. 4 : 3. 
21 : 1. A new heaven and a new earth. Isa. 65 : 

17; 66:22. 
21 : 2. The holy city, . . . Jerusalem. Isa. 52 : 1. 
21 : 2. As a bride adorned. Isa. 61 : 10. 
21: 3. The tabernacle of God is with men, and 

he shall dwell with them, etc. Ezek. 

37:27. Cf. Zech. 2:10. 
21 : 4. God shall wipe away all tears from their 

eyes. Isa. 25 : 8 ; Jer. 31 : 16. 
21 : 4. No more sorrow or crying. Isa. 65 : 19, 17. 
21 : 5. Sat upon the throne. Isa. 6:1; Ps. 47 : 8. 
21 : 5. Behold, I make all things new. Isa. 43: 19. 
21: 6. I will give unto him that is athirst, etc. 

Isa. 55:1; Zech. 14:8. 
21: 7. I will be his God, etc. II. Sam. 7: 14; Ps. 

21: 8. Burnetii with fire and brimstone. Gen. 

19:24; Isa. 30:33. 
21: 9. The seven plagues. Lev. 26:21. 
21 : 10. He carried me away ... to a mountain, 

Ezek. 40:2. 
21 : 10. The holy city Jerusalem. Isa. 52 : 1. 
21 : 11. Having the glory of God. Isa. 58 : 8 ; 60 : 1, 

2, 19. 
21 : 12. Had . . . gates . . . and names . . . the twelve 

tribes, etc. Ezek. 48 : 31-34 (Heb.). 

The Revelation. 

21 : 13. On this verse cf . Ezek. 48 : 31-34. 

21 : 15. A reed to measure. Ezek. 40 : 3, 5. 

21 : 16. Lieth four-square. Ezek. 43: 16. 

21 : 17. And he measured the wall. Ezek. 41 : 5. 

21 : 18, 19. The building of the wall of it was of 

jasper. Cf. Isa. 54 : 11, 12. 
21:22. The Lord God Almighty. Amos 4: 13 

21 : 23. No need of the sun or the moon. Isa. 60 : 19. 
21 : 23. The glory of the Lord doth lighten it. Isa. 

60:1,2, 19. 
21:24. Nations shall walk in its light. Isa. 60: 2. 
21:24. The kings of the earth shall bring their 

glory, etc. Isa. 60 : 10, 11. 
21 : 25. The gates shall not be shut. Isa. 60 : 11. 
21 : 27. There shall enter into it nothing that de- 

filetn. Isa. 52:1. 
21:27. Which are written in the book of life. 

Dan. 12:1; Ps. 69:28. 
22: 1. A river of water of life proceeding, etc. 

Zech. 14 : 8. Cf . Ezek. 47 : 1. 
22: 2. On either side the river the tree of life. 

Gen. 2: 9, 10; 3: 22; Ezek. 47: 7, 12. 
22 : 2. Fruit every month. Ezek. 47 : 12. 
22 : 3. There shall be no more curse. Zech. 14 : 11. 
22 : 4. They shall see his face. Ps. 17 : 15. 
22: 5. They need no light of the sun, for the 

Lord God shall lighten them. Isa. 60 : 19. 
22: 5. They shall reign for ever. Dan. 7: 18. 
22 : 6. Things which must shortly be done. Dan. 

22: 7. Behold, I come quickly. Isa. 40:10. 
22 : 10. Seal not the sayings. Dan. 12 : 4. 
22 : 12. See v. 7. My reward is with me. Isa. 40 : 10. 
22 : 12. To give every man according as his work 

shall be. Ps. 28 : 4 ; 62 : 12 ; J er. 17 : 10. 
22 : 13. The first and the last. Isa. 44 : 6 ; 48 : 12. 
22:14. Blessed are they that wash their robes. 1 

Gen. 49:11. 
22: 14. That they may have right to the tree of 

life. Gen. 2:9; 3:22. 
22 : 16. Root and offspring of David. Isa. 11 : 10. 
22 : 17. Let him that is athirst come. Isa. 55 : 1 ; 

Zech. 14:8. 
22:18. If any man shall add unto these things. 

Deut. 4:2; 12:32; 29:20. 
22:19. God shall take away his part from the 

tree of life [marginal reading, A. V.l. 

Gen. 2:9; 3:22. 

1 This is the reading of the two oldest MSS. 



By EEV. WILLIAM HEBER WRIGHT, M.A., with the Editor. 


1. Genesis.— The creation generally, Gen. 1— 
see Acts 14: 15; II. Pet. 3: 4, 5. Creation out of 
nothing, Heb. 11: 3; of light, II. Cor. 4: 6; of man 
and woman in God's image and from dust, I. Cor. 
11: 7-12; 15: 45-47. God's rest, Gen. 2— see Heb. 
4:4; cf. Mark 2 : 27, 28. Garden of Eden, Rev. 2 : 
7; 22: 1, 2. Tree of life, Rev. 2:7; 22: 2, 14. Man 
first formed, then woman, I. Tim. 2 : 13 ; I. Cor. 
11 : 9. Woman out of man, I. Cor. 11 : 8. Creation 
subject to man, Heb. 1: 8. Institution of mar- 
riage, Matt. 19: 4-6; I. Cor. 6: 16. Temptation of 
the serpent, Gen. 3— see John 8: 44; II. Cor. 11: 3; 
II. Cor. 2: 11; I. John 3:8; Rev. 12: 9; cf. 20: 2. 
Adam tempted by Eve, I. Tim. 2 : 14. Sin and 
consequences, Rom. 5: 12-19; I. Cor. 15: 22; Heb. 
9 : 27. Creation cursed for man's sake, Rom. 8 : 22. 
Struggle between good and evil, I. John 3: 8, 10; 
and victory of good, Rom. 16: 20; II. Tim. 1: 10; 
Heb. 2: 14, 15. Abel's faith, Gen. 4-see Heb. 11: 
4. Murdered by Cain, I. John 3: 12; cf. John 8: 

44; Jude 11. Blood of Abel, Matt. 23: 35; Luke 
11: 51; Heb. 12: 24. Like begets like, Gen. 5: 1— 
see John 3 : 6. Enoch's life and translation, Gen. 
5: 21-2-4— see Jude 14, 15; Heb. 11: 5. Story of 
Noah, Gen. 6 ff.— see II. Pet. 2 : 5. Preparation of 
the ark, Heb. 11 : 7; I. Pet. 3: 20. The flood, Gen. 
7-9— see Matt. 24: 37-39; Luke 17: 26, 27; I. Pet. 3: 
20; II. Pet. 2:5; 3:6. History of Abraham, Gen. 
12 ff.— see Acts 7 : 2 ff. ; Rom. 4 : 3 ff. Promise to 
Abraham, Luke 1: 73; Acts 3: 25, 26; Gal. 3: 8. 
His sojourn in Canaan, Acts 7: 4; Heb. 11: 8-10. 
Promise of the land, Acts 7 : 5. Melchizedek and 
Abraham, Gen. 14— see Heb. 7. Abraham's seed 
as the stars, Gen. 15: 5— see Heb. 11: 12; Rom. 4: 
3 ff. Abraham's faith (vi 6) — see Rom. 4 : 3, 9, 18- 
22; Gal. 3:6; Jas. 2: 23. Bondage of his seed (v. 
13), Luke 1: 72-75; Acts 7: 6, 7. Abraham and 
Hagar, Gen. 16 — see Gal. 4: 24. Father of many 
nations, Gen. 17: 5— see Rom. 4: 16, 17. Circum- 
cision (v. 10), Rom. 4: 11, 12. Abraham and the 
angels, Gen. 18: 2-5— see Heb. 13: 2. Sarah 
calls him "lord" (v. 12)— see I. Pet. 3: 6. Sodom 



and Gomorrha— Lot, Gen. 19— see Matt. 10: 15; 
11: 24; Mark 0: 11; Luke 10: 12; 17: 28, 29; Rom. 
9: 29; II. Pet. 2: (5-8; Jude 7; cf. Rev. 11: 8. Lot's 
wife (v. 20)— sec Luke 17: 32. Birth of Isaac, Gen. 
21— see Gal. 4: 23, 2S. Sarah's faith (v. 2), Heb. 11: 
11. Isaac's circumcision (v. 1), Acts 7: 8. Ishmael 
mocking (v. 9), Gal. 1: 29. Bondwoman cast out, 
Gal. 4: 30. Offering up of Isaac, Gen. 22: 10— see 
Heb. 11: 17-19; Jas. 2: 21-21. Promise "by oath" 
(v. 17)— see Luke 1: 72-75; Heb. 0: 13, 11. "Thy 
seed" (v. 18)— see Acts 3: 25; Gal. 3: 10, 17. Jacob 
and Esau, Rom. 9:7 11'. Esau and his birthright, 
Gen. 25: 31— see Heb. 12: 10. Esau's sorrow, Gen. 
27: 31 -see Heb. 12: 17. Isaac and "things to 
come " (vs. 31-10)— see Heb. 11 : 20. Jacob's dream, 
Gen. 28: 12— see John 1 : 51. Jacob's history, Gen. 
37— see Acts 7: 8 11*.; Heb. 11: 9. Joseph and his 
brethren (v. 28), Acts 7: 9 IF. Jacob blessing Jo- 
seph's sons, Gen. 48: 20— see Heb. 11: 21. The 
"lion's whelp," Gen. 19: 9— see Rev. 5:5. "The 
royal tribe" (v. 10)— see Heb. 7: 14. Joseph's 
bones. Gen. 50: 25— see Heb. 11: 22. 

2. Exodus.— Israel in Egypt, Ex. 1— see Acts 
7 : 15 ff'. Story of Moses, Ex. 2— see Acts 7 : 20 rT. ; 
Heb. 11: 23 II. Burning bush, Ex. 3— see Luke 
20: 37; Acts 7: 30. Magicians of Egypt— Moses, 
Ex. 7 : 11— see II. Tim. 3 : 8. Pharaoh's obstinacy, 
Ex. 9 If.— see Rom. 9: 17. The Passover and the 
first-born, Ex. 12— see Heb. 11: 28. Putting away 
of leaven (v. 15)— see I. Cor. 5: 7. The exodus (vs. 
37-51)— see Acts 7: 36; 13: 17; Jude 5. Pillar of 
cloud, Ex. 13 : 21— see I. Cor. 10 : 1. Passage of the 
Red Sea, Ex. 14 : 22— see Acts 7 : 36 ; I. Cor. 10 : 1, 2 ; 
Heb. 11 : 29. Song of victory, Ex. 15— see Rev. 15: 
3. Manna in wilderness, Ex. 16: 15— see John 6: 
31, 32; I. Cor. 10: 3. Gathering of manna— see II. 
Cor. 8 : 15. Pot of manna (vs. 33, 34)— see Heb. 9 : 4. 
Smitten rock, Ex. 17— see I. Cor. 10: 4. Giving of 
law on Sinai, Ex. 19, 20— see Acts 7:38 ff". ; Gal. 
3: 19; 4: 24, 25; Heb. 12: 18, 21. Mount not to be 
touched, Ex. 19: 12— see Heb. 12: 20. Sprinkling 
of the people, Ex. 24 : 8— see Heb. 9 : 18-20. Ark 
and mercy seat, Ex. 25: 10-16— see Heb. 9: 4, 5. 
Table, showbread, and candlestick (vs. 23-31), 
Heb. 9 : 2. Tabernacle, Ex. 26 : 30— see Acts 7 : 44 ; 
Heb. 8: 5; 9: 2, 7. The veil (vs. 31-33)— see Matt. 
27:51; Mark 15:38; Heb. 6:19; 9:3. Most holy 
place (v. 33)— see Heb. 9: 7, 8; 10: 19. Daily ofler- 
i ng, Ex. 29 : 38— see Heb. 10 : 11. Golden altar, Ex. 
30 : 1-3— see Heb. 9 : 4 (see marg. R. V.) ; Rev. 8 : 3, 4. 
Golden calf, Ex. 32: 4-6— see Acts 7:40; I. Cor. 10: 
7. Tables of stone (v. 16)— see II. Cor. 3:3; Heb. 
9: 4. Veil on Moses' face, Ex. 34: 33— see II. Cor. 

3. Leviticus.— Circumcision, Lev. 12: 3— see 
John 7 : 22. Purification of women, Lev. 12 : 6— see 
Luke 2: 22-24. Law of leprosy, Lev. 14: 2 ff.— see 
Matt. 8:4; Luke 17: 14. Day of atonement, Lev. 
16— see Heb. 9: 7. Adulteress to be stoned, Lev. 
20 : 10— see John 8 : 5. Showbread for priests, Lev. 
24:5, 9— see Matt. 12:4. 

4. Numbers.— Oath of exclusion, Num. 14: 23 
—see Heb. 3: 11; "Breach of promise " (v. 29), see 
Heb. 3: 16, 17; 4: 1; Jude 5. The forty years (v. 
33), see Acts 7: 30, 12; 13: 18; Heb. 3: 9. Rebellion 
of Korah, Num. 16: 32, 33— see Jude 11. Aaron's 
rod, Num. 17: 2, 4, 10— see Heb. 9: 4. Fiery ser- 
pents, Num. 21: 6— see I. Cor. 10: 9. Serpent of 
brass (v. 8), see John 3: 14. The story of Balaam, 

Num. 22— see Jude 11: 11. Pet. 2: 16; Rev. 2: 14. 
Rebellions of Israel, Num. 25: 1-9— see I. Cor. 10: 

5. Deuteronomy.— Expulsion of Canaanites, 
Dent. 7: 1— see Acts 13: 19. Prophet like Moses, 
Deut. 18: 15, 18, 19— see Acts 7: 37. Law about 
oxen, Deut. 25:4— see I. Cor. 9: 9; I. Tim. 5: 18. 
Divorce, Deut. 24: 1— see Matt. 19: 7; Mark 10: 4, 
etc. Two witnesses, Deut. 19: 15— see II. Cor. 
13: 1. Body of Moses, Deut. 34: 6— see Jude 9 
(also Zech. 3). 


Joshua.— God's promise never to forsake Josh- 
ua, see Heb. 13: 5. Rahab and spies, Josh. 2— see 
Pleb. 11: 31; Jas. 2: 25. Walls of Jericho, Josh. 
6 : 20— see Heb. 11: 30. Tabernacle at Shiloh, Josh. 
18: 1— see Acts 7: 45. Division of land (v. 10), see 
Acts 13: 19. Removal of Joseph's bones, Josh. 
24 : 32-see Heb. 11:22. 

Judges.— Rule of the judges, Judg. 2: 16— see 
Acts 13: 20. Gideon, Judg. 6-8; Barak, Judg. 4; 
Samson, Judg. 14, 15; Jepbthah, Judg. 11— see 
Heb. 11: 32. 

I. Samuel.— Samuel, I. Sam. 3 : 20— see Acts 13 : 
20; Heb. 11: 32. People ask a king, I. Sam. 8:5— 
see Acts 13: 21. Saul, I. Sam. 10: 21— see Acts 13: 

21, 22. David, I. Sam. 13: 14— see Acts 7: 46; 13: 

22. David and the showbread, I. Sam. 21: 6— see 
Matt. 12:3,4. 

II. Samuel.— David's exploits, II. Sam.— see Heb. 
11 : 32. David's seed, II. Sam. 7 : 12— see Acts 13 : 23. 
Successors of David, Matt. 1: 6 ff. ; Luke 3 : 23 ff. 
David and the temple, II. Sam. 7: 2, 3— see Acts 
7: 46. 

I. Kings.— Solomon, I. Ki . 6— see Acts 7: 47. Queen 
of Sheba, I. Ki. 10: 1— see Matt. 12: 42; Luke 11: 
31. Jezebel, I. Ki. 16 : 31-33— see Rev. 2 : 20. Elij ah 
and the drought, I. Ki. 17 : 1— see Luke 4 : 25; Jas. 
5 : 17, 18. Widow of Zarephath (v. 9), Luke 4 : 26. 
Raising of the widow's son (v. 23), see Heb. 11 : 35. 
Elijah's intercession, I. Ki. 19: 14— see Rom. 11: 
3. Seven thousand faithful (v. 18), see Rom. 11 : 4. 

II. Kings.— The Shunammite's son, II. Ki. 4: 34 
—see Heb. 11: 35. Naaman and Elisha, II. Ki. 5 
—see Luke 4: 27. Star worship, II. Ki. 17: 16; 23: 
4, 5— see Acts 7 : 42. Exile to Babylon, IL Ki. 24 : 15 
—see Matt. 1: 11; Acts 7: 43. 

I. Chronicles.— See the genealogies in Matt. 1 
and Luke 3. 

II. Chronicles.— The murder of Zechariah, II. 
Chr. 24: 20, 21— see Matt, 23: 35- Luke 11: 51. 

Ezra.— See references in Matt. 1: 12 and Luke 3 : 
27 to Zerubbabel (Zorobabel) and Shealtiel (Sa- 


Job.— Patience of Job, Job 1: 22— see Jas. 5: 11. 

Daniel.— Daniel's three friends, Dan. 3: 27— see 
Heb. 11: 34. Daniel and lions, Dan. 6: 22— see 
Heb. 11: 33. Daniel the prophet, see Matt. 24: 15; 
Mark 13: 14. 

Jonah.— Jonah in the fish, Jon. 1: 17— see Matt. 
12: 40; 16: 4. Mission to Nineveh, Jon, 3: 4— see 
Luke 11: 30. 

Book of Reference: Toy's Quotations in the 
New Testament. For the references to the Psalms 
and Prophets see preceding articles. 

By REV. C. H. H. WRIGHT, D.D., Ph.D. 



The trees making a king, addressed 

by Jothain to the men of 

^heehem, • - Judg. ( J: 7-15. 

The riddle put forth by Samson to 

his marriage guests, - - - Judg. 14: 14. 

The poor man's ewe lamb, told by 

Nathan to David, - - ' - II. Sa. 12: 1-6. 

Parable of the woman of Tekoah 

and her two sons, - - - II. Sa. 14 : 6-11, 



The escaped prisoner, addressed to 

Ahab by the unknown prophet, I. Ki. 20: 35-40. 
The vision of Micaiah, told by 

him to Ahab, - - - - I. Ki. 22 : 19-23. 
The thistle and cedar, addressed 

by Jehoash to Amaziah, - - II. Ki. 14: 9. 
The drunkard, addressed to the 

people of Israel, - - - - Pro v. 23: 29-35. 
The sluggard and his vineyard, to 

the people of Israel, - - - Pro v. 24: 30-34. 
The unfruitful vineyard, to the 

people of Israel, - Isa. 5: 1-6. 

The plowman, or good out of evil, 

to the people of Israel, - - Isa. 28: 23-29. 
The great eagles and the vine, - Ezek. 17: 3-10. 
The lion's whelps, - Ezek. 19: 2-9. 

The two harlots, addressed to the 

people of Israel, - Ezek. 23. 

The boiling pot and its scum, ad- 
dressed to the people of Israel, Ezek. 24: 3-5. 
The cedar in Lebanon, - Ezek. 31. 

The sea monster, - - Ezek. 32: 1-16. 

The shepherds and the flock, - Ezek. 34. 
The dry bones in the valley, - - Ezek. 37. 
The living waters, - Ezek. 47. 

Many others, as in Amos 7-9; Zech. 1: 7-6; and 

the true and the false shepherd in Zech. 11. 


Destruction of Sodom and Gomor- 
rah, ------- Gen. 19: 24. 

Lot's wife turned to a pillar of salt, Gen. 19 : 26. 

Birth of Isaac, ----- Gen. 21 : 1-3. 

The burning bush not consumed, Ex. 3: 2. 

Aaron's rod changed into a ser- 
pent, ------ Ex. 7: 10-12. 

The plagues of Egypt— 

1. The waters made blood, - Ex. 7: 20-25. 

2. The frogs, - - - - Ex. 8: 5-14. 

3. The lice, Ex. S: 16-18. 

4. The flies, - -Ex. 8:20-24. 

5. The murrain, - Ex. 9: 3-6. 

6. The boils, - - - - - Ex. 9: 8-11. 

7. The thunder, hail, etc., - Ex. 9: 22-26. 

8. The locusts, - - - - Ex. 10: 12-19. 

9. The darkness, - - - - Ex. 10: 21-23. 
10. The death of the first-born, Ex. 12: 29, 30. 

The Red Sea divided by east wind ; 

Israel passes through, - - Ex. 14: 21-31. 
The waters of Marah sweetened, - Ex. 15: 23-25. 
The manna sent daily — Sabbath 

excepted, ----- Ex. 16: 14-35. 
The water from the smitten rock 

atRephidim, - - - - Ex. 17: 5-7. 
Nadab and Abihu consumed for 

offering "strange fire," - - Lev. 10: 1, 2. 
Part of Israel burned for ungrate- 
ful' and faithless discontent, - Num. 11: 1-3. 
The earth swallows Koran, etc., 

fire and plague follow, - - Num. 16: 32 ff. 
Aaron's rod budding, - Num. 17: 1 ff. 

Water from the rock smitten twice 

at Meribah, - - - - - Num.20: 7-11. 
The brazen serpent; Israel healed, Num. 21: 8, 9. 
The river Jordan stopped; Israel 

crosses dryshod, - - - - Josh. 3: 14-17. 
The walls of Jericho fall down, - Josh. 6: 6-20. 
Sun and moon stayed (?); hail- 
storm in aid of Israel, - - Josh. 10: 11-14. 
Strength of Samson, - Judg, 14-16. 

The water flows from the hollow [margin. 

place, "in Lehi" (Heb.), - -Judg. 15:19. 
Dagon falls twice before the ark; 

emerods on Philistines, - - I. Sa. 5: 1-12. 
The men of Beth-shemesh smitten 

for looking into the ark, - - I. Sa. 6: 19. 
A thunderstorm causes a panic in 

the Philistines' army, - - I. Sa. 7: 10-12. 
The thunder and rain in harvest, I. Sa. 12: 17, 18. 
The sound in the mulberry trees; 

i.e., God goeth before, - - II. Sa. 5: 23-25. 
Uzzah struck dead for touching 

the ark, II. Sa. 6: 7. 

Jeroboam's hand withered and his 

new altar destroyed, - - - I. Ki. 13: 4-6. 
The widow of Zarephath's meal 

and oil increased by Elijah, - I. Ki. 17: 14-16. 
The widow's son raised from death, I. Ki. 17 : 17-24. 
Drought, fire from heaven, and 

rain at the prayer of Elijah; 

Elijah wondrously fed, - - I. Ki. 17-19. 
Wall of Aphek falls upon thou- 
sands of Syrians, - - - - I. Ki. 20: 30. 
Ahaziah's captains and men con- 
sumed by fire, - - - - II. Ki. 1:10-12. 
The river Jordan divided by Elijah [14. 

and Elisha successively, - - II. Ki. 2: 7, 8, 
Elijah translated to heaven, - - II. Ki. 2: 11. 
The waters of Jericho healed with 

salt, ------- II. Ki. 2: 21, 22. 

Bears destroy forty-two mocking 

"young men " (Heb.), - - II. Ki. 2: 24. 
Water for Jehoshaphat and the 

allied army, - - II. Ki. 3 : 16-20. 

The widow's oil multiplied, - - II. Ki. 4: 2-7. 
The gift of a son to the Shunam- 

mite, and the raising after- 
wards of that son from the 

dead, - - II.Ki.4: 14-37. 

The deadly pottage cured with 

meal, ------ II. Ki. 4: 38-41. 

The hundred men fed with twenty 

loaves, - - II.Ki.4 : 42-44. 

Naaman cured of leprosy, and the 

di'sease transferred to Gehazi, II. Ki. 5: 10-27. 
The iron ax-head made to swim, - II. Ki. 6: 5-7. 
The Syrian army smitten with 

blindness, and cured, - - - II. Ki. 6: 18-20. 
Elisha's bones revive the dead, - II. Ki. 13: 21. 
Sennacherib's army destroyed by 

a blast, II. Ki. 19:35. 

The shadow of the sun goes back 

ten degrees on the sun-dial of 

Ahaz, - II. Ki. 20: 9-11. 

Uzziah struck with leprosy, - - II. Chr. 26: 16- 
Shadrach, Mesh ach, and Abednego [21. 

delivered from the furnace, - Dan. 3 : 19-27. 
Daniel saved in the den of lions, - Dan. 6: 16-23. 
Deliverance of Jonah, - - - Jon. 2: 1-10. 


(1) Peculiar to St. Matthew. 

20: 1-17. 
22: 1-14. 
25: 1-13. 

The tares, Matt. 

The hidden treasure, - Matt. 

The pearl of great price, - - - Matt. 

The drag net, Matt. 

The unmerciful servant, - - - Matt. 
Laborers in the vineyard, - - Matt. 
The father and two sons, - - - Matt. 
The marriage of the king's son, - Matt. 
The ten virgins, ----- Matt. 

The talents, ------ Matt. 

The sheep and goats, - Matt. 

(2) Peculiar to St. Mark. 

Growth of seed. Mk. 4: 26-29. 

The household watching, - - Mk. 13: 34-36. 

(3) Peculiar to St. Luke. 

The two debtors, - - - - Lk. 7: 36-50. 
The good Samaritan, - Lk. 10 : 25-37. 

The friend at midnight, - Lk. 11: 5-8. 

The rich fool, Lk. 12: 16-21. 

The servants watching, - Lk. 12: 35-40. 

The steward on trial, - Lk. 12: 42-48. 

The barren fig-tree, - - Lk. 13: 6-9. 

The great supper, - - - - Lk. 14: 16-24. 
The tower and the warring king, Lk. 14: 28-33. 
The lost piece of money, - - Lk. 15: 8-10. 
The prodigal son and his elder 

brother, Lk. 15: 11-32. 

The unjust steward, or dishonest 

land agent, Lk. 16: 1-13. 



The rich man and Lazarus, - - Lk. 16: 19-31. 
The master and servant, - - Lk. 17: 7-10. 
The importunate widow, - - Lk. 18: 1-8. 
The Pharisee and the publican, - Lk. 18: 9-14. 
The pounds, Lk. 19: 12-27. 

(4) Peculiar to St. John. 
The bread of life, - John 6. 

The shepherd and the sheep, - John 10. 
The vine and the branches, - - John 15. 

(5) Common to Matthew and Luke. 
House built on rock and 

on sand, - - - Matt. 7: 24; Lk. 6: 48. 
The leaven, - - - Matt. 13: 33; Lk. 13: 20. 
The lost sheep, - - - Matt. 18: 12; Lk. 15. 

(6) Common to Matthew, Mark, and Luke. 

The candle under a 

bushel,- - - - Matt. 5; Mk.4; Lk.8. 

The new cloth on old 

garment, - - - Matt. 9; Mk.2; Lk.5. 

New wine and old bottles, Matt. 9; Mk. 2; Lk. 5. 

The sower, - Matt. 13 ; Mk. 4 ; Lk. 8. 

The mustard seed, - - Matt. 13: 31, 32; Mk. 4: 
31,32; Lk. 13:18, 19. 

The vineyard and hus- 
bandmen, - - - Matt.21;Mk.l2;Lk.20. 

Young leaves of the fig- 
tree, - - - - M att. 24; Mk. 13; Lk. 21. 


(1) Peculiar to St. Matthew. 
Two blind men cured, - Matt. 9: 27-31. 

Dumb spirit cast out, - - - Matt. 9 : 32, as. 
Tribute money provided, - - Matt. 17:24-27. 

(2) Peculiar to St. Mark. 

Deaf and dumb man cured, - - Mk. 7: 31-37. 
Blind man cured, - -Mk. 8:22-26. 

(3) Peculiar to St. Luke. 
Jesus passes through crowd at 

Nazareth, Lk. 4: 28-30. 

Draught of fishes, - - Lk. 5: 1-11. 

Widow's son raised to life at Nain, Lk. 7: 11-17. 
Woman's infirmity cured, - - Lk. 13: 11-17. 

Dropsy cured, Lk. 14: 1-6. 

Ten lepers cleansed, - Lk. 17: 11-19. 

The ear of Malchus healed, - - Lk. 22: 50, 51. 

(4) Peculiar to St. John. 

Water made wine at Cana, - - John 2: 1-11. 

Nobleman's son cured of fever, - John 4: 46-54. 

Impotent man cured at Jerusalem, John 5: 1-9. 

Jesus passes through crowd in the 

temple, John 8: 59. 

Man born blind cured at Jerusa- 
lem, John 9: 1-7. 

Lazarus raised from the dead at 

Bethany, John 11: 38-44. 

Falling backward of the soldiers, John 18: 5, 6. 

Draught of 153 fishes, - - - John 21: 1-14. 

(5) Common to Matthew and Mark. 
Syrophenician's daugh- 
ter cured, - - - Matt. 15: 28; Mk. 7: 24. 

Thejfour thousand fed, - Matt. 15: 32; Mk. 8: 1. 
The fig-tree blasted, - - Matt. 21 : 19; Mk. 11 : 13. 

(6) Common to Matthew and Luke. 
Centurion's palsied serv- 
ant cured, - - - Matt. 8:5; Lk. 7: 1. 

Blind and dumb demo- 
niac cured, - - - Matt. 12:22; Lk. 11:14. 

(7) Common to Mark and Luke. 
Demoniac in synagogue 

cured, - - - - Mk. 1: 23; Lk. 4: 33. 

(8) Common to Matthew, Mark, and Luke. 
Peter's mother-in-law 

cured, - Matt. 8: 14; Mk. 1: 30; Lk. 4: 38. 

The tempest stilled, - 

- Matt. 8: 23; Mk. 4: 37; Lk. 8: 22. 
The demoniacs cured, 

- Matt. 8: 28; Mk. 5: 1; Lk. 8: 26. 
The leper cured, Matt. 8: 2; Mk. 1: 40; Lk. 5: 12. 
The daughter of Jairus 

raised to life, Matt. 9: 23; Mk. 5: 23; Lk. 8: 41. 
Woman's issue of blood 

cured, - - Matt. 9: 20; Mk. 5: 25; Lk. 8: 43. 
A paralytic cured, 

- Matt. 9: 2; Mk. 2: 3; Lk. 5: 18. 
Man's withered hand 

cured, - - Matt. 12: 10; Mk. 3: 1; Lk. 6: 6. 
Devil cast out of boy, 

- Matt. 17: 14; Mk. 9: 14; Lk. 9: 37. 
Blind men cured, 

- Matt. 20 : 30; Mk. 10: 46 ; Lk. 18 : 35. 

(9) Common to Matthew, Mark, and John. 
Christ walks on the sea, - 

- Matt. 14: 25 ; Mk. 6 : 48 ; John 6 : 19. 

(10) Common to All the Evangelists. 
The five thousand fed, - 

- Matt. 14: 15; Mk. 6: 30; Lk. 9: 10; 

John 6: 1-14. 


The outpouring of the 

Holy Spirit, with the 

accompanying signs, - Acts 2. 
The gift of tongues, - - Acts 2: 4-11; 10: 44-46. 
Lame man at Beautiful 

Gate of the temple, - Acts 3. 
Death of Ananias and 

Sapphira, - - - Acts 5. 
Healing of sick in streets 

by Peter, etc., - - Acts 5: 15, 16. 
Prison opened for apos- 
tles by angels, - - Acts 5: 19; 12: 7-11. 
Stephen's dying vision of 

Christ, - Acts 7: 55, 56. 

Unclean spirits cast out 

by Philip, - - -Acts 8: 6, 7. 
Christ's appearance to 

Saul on his way to 

Damascus, - - - Acts 9: 3 ff.; 22: 6 ff.; 
26: 13-19. 
Saul's recovery of his 

sight, ... - Acts 9: 17, 18; 22: 12, 13. 
Eneas healed of palsy by 

Peter, - - - - Acts 9: 33, 34. 
Raising of Dorcas to life 

by Peter, - - Acts 9: 40. 

Vision of Cornelius, - Acts 10: 3, 4, 30-32. 
Vision of Peter, - - - Acts 10 and 11. 
Peter miraculously re- 
leased from prison, - Acts 12: 7-11. 
Ely mas stricken with 

blindness by Paul, - Acts 13: 11. 
Healing of cripple at Lys- 

tra, Acts 14: 8-18. 

Vision of "man of Mace- 
donia" seen by Paul, - Acts 16: 9. 
Spirit of divination cast 

out of a damsel by 

Paul, - - - Acts 16: 16-18. 

Earthquake atPhilippi, - Acts 16: 25, 26. 
Special miracles wrought 

by Paul at Ephesus, - Acts 19: 11, 12. 
Evil spirit puts to flight 

Sceva's sons, - - Acts 19: 13-16. 
Raising of Eutvchus to 

life by Paul, - - - Acts 20: 9-12. 
Prophecies of Agabus, - Acts 11: 28; 21: 11. 
Appearances of Christ to 

Paul, - Acts 9: 3 ff.; 22: 17-21; 

23: 11; 27:23,24. 
Paul unharmed by bite of 

viper, - Acts,28: 3-5. 

Paul heals Publius' fa- 
ther and other sick at 

Melita, - - - -Acts 28: 8, 9. 




Miracles wrought by Paul 

and others, - - - Rom. 15: 18, 19; I. Cor. 
12: 9, 10, 28-31; 14: 
18; Gal. 3: 5; I. Tim. 
Miracle of tongues, - - I. Cor. 14: 27-33. 
Appearances of Christ 

after his resurrection, I. Cor. 15: 4-8. 
Visions and revelations 

of Paul, - - - - II. Cor. 12: 1-5, with 12. 

'Powers of the world to 
come" (i.e., of gospel 


The visions of John in 
Patmos, - 

- Heb.2:4; 6:5. 

Rev. 1: 10; 4 to end of 

Books of Eeperence: Trench on the Parables 
and Miracles; Thompson's Christian, Miracles ; Burton's 
Christ's Acted Parables; Thomson's The Parables and 
Their Home; Taylor's Parables and. Miracles of Our 
Saviour; Arnot's Parables of Our Lord; Laidlaw's The 
Miracles of Our Lord; George MacDonald's Miracles 
of Our Lord; Goebel's Parables of Jesus. 


MATTHEW 6: 9-13, and LUKE 11: 1-13. 

The Lord's Prayer is the true model of prayer 
— "After this manner," etc.; "When ye pray, 
say," etc. It lays down the lines on which we 
should frame our petitions; removes the dis- 
tance and ceremoniousness of our approach to 
God; counteracts the selfishness of our desires, 
and enlarges our horizon so as to comprehend 
the welfare of the whole world. It was given 
by Christ to his disciples on two different occa- 
sions: the first in connection with the Sermon 
on the Mount; the second after two years, when 
the disciples asked Jesus to teach them how to 
pray. It is the Ten Commandments turned into 
prayer, the commandments to keep God's law 
being converted into prayers to enable us to 
keep that law. There is a striking correspond- 
ence between each clause of the Lord's Prayer 
and one of the commandments, and the order 
in which they mutually occur. 

It consists, first, of an invocation or mode of 
address to God. The word "Our" indicates the 
great change which Christ introduced into the 
whole conception of worship. There was no so- 
cial worship in the Jewish temple. The priest 
went alone into the holy place, while the people 
stood outside. But in the Christian church the 
worship of God is for all the people, with one 
heart and one voice ; and in private prayer we 
cannot be accepted if we come in a selfish and 
exclusive spirit. 

Our "Father." The relation of God as a Father 
belongs to all men alike by right of creation 
and providence ; but it is by the grace of God in 
conversion that we receive the spirit of adop- 
tion whereby we cry, "Abba, Father." 

The words " which art in heaven " imply that as 
our Father is in heaven, so our desires and 
affections should ascend beyond earth. 

The order of the petitions is very remarkable. 
It begins with the recognition of God's rights as 
Maker, Sovereign, Proprietor, — " thy name," 
"thy kingdom," "thy will"; and then it goes 
on to the recognition of man's needs— our bread, 
our debts, our temptations, and our deliverance. 
The essence of sin is the inversion of this di- 
vine order, putting the creature first and the 
Creator last, giving precedence to man's need 
over God's rights. 

"Hallowed be thy name" teaches us that as chil- 
dren we are to treat with a holy love and fear 
the name and relation of Father in which we 
stand to God. 

"Thy kingdom come" is a petition that God's 
reign of righteousness and peace and joy may 
be set up in our hearts, and that we may be 
enabled to extend it by our character, conduct, 
and work in the world around. 

"Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven" 
shows to us that God's will is the highest ulti- 
mate good of all his creatures; that all his laws 
have been devised to bring about this result; 
and that in proportion as we obey this will is 
our true welfare promoted. When our will and 

the Father's are absolutely one, we shall know 
that all things work together for our good. 

"Give us this day our daily bread." At first sight 
referring to the most urgent want of man, we 
find that this petition is only one out of several 
others;" not the first as the most important, not 
the last as the longest remembered, but en- 
closed among those which refer to spiritual 
things, to the establishment of God's kingdom 
and the overthrow of Satan's. If we hallow 
God's name and submit to his reign and seek to 
do his will, then we can with confidence ask 
him for the blessings which our natural life 
requires for its support and welfare. God gives 
us that for which we ourselves have to toil ; not 
arbitrarily, but by wise and beneficent law ; not 
all at once, but day by day. 

"Forgive us our debts, as ice forgive our debtors." 
The word "forgive," being made up of the prep- 
osition "from," means literally "allow our 
debts to be put away from us." The word " debt " 
has a very close resemblance to the word " duty " ; 
and our debts are therefore our failures in duty. 
We ask God to take away from us the careless- 
ness and indifference in which such failures 
originate ; not to save us from our obligations or 
the consequences of our sin, but from our sin 
itself. Forgive us, not in proportion as, but like as, 
we forgive others. If we forgive others slowly, 
grudgingly, coldly, so shall we be treated. 

"And lead us not into temptation." It is by 
temptation that we are tried and educated ; yet 
we are justified in praying to our Father not to 
lead us into temptation so long as we leave, 
with childlike submission, to his loving will 
the means by which our faith is to be strength- 
ened and our spiritual life purified and en- 
nobled. We are not to go willingly into temp- 
tation. The temptation itself is not sin, but we 
fear that we may sin through it. And therefore 
this petition is linked along with the next, so as 
to make of the two one petition. KnoAving 
God's power, we ask him to deliver us from the 
evil that is in the temptation, relying upon his 
promise that he will not suffer us to be tried 
above what we are able, but with every tempta- 
tion will provide a way of escape. The Revised 
Version has the reading, "deliver us from the 
evil one"; but the usage of the Greek language 
requires that the original should be translated, 
not as a personal word, but as meaning moral 
evil in its totality. 

The doxology, "For thine is the kingdom, and the 
power, and the glory, for ever," is not found in St. 
Luke, and is omitted in many manuscripts. But 
it is an appropriate ending of the Lord's Prayer, 
giving us good grounds of encouragement to 
pray, and at the same time ascribing all the 
praise to God. It is for his glory that all wor- 
ship is carried on, therefore he will hear our 
prayer, and do for us exceeding abundantly 
above all that we can ask or think. "Amen." 

Books of Reference . Boardman's The Model 
Prayer; Gladden 's The Lord's Prayer. 




By REV. ALEXANDER STEWART, D.D., Principal of St. Mary's College, Uni- 
versity of St. Andrews. 

MATT. 5- 

LUKE 6: 20-49. 

1. Introductory.— Our Lord's Sermon on the 
Mount has in every age commanded the admi- 
ration, not only of Christian believers, but even 
of skeptics and opponents of Christianity. By 

common consent it sets forth an ideal which 
"carried morality to the sublimest point at- 
tained, or even attainable', by humanity." 

2. Time and Place.— Jesus had returned to 
Capernaum after his iirst circuit among the 
cities and villages of Galilee. This journey, as 
well as the sojourn in Capernaum by which it 
was preceded and followed, appears to have been 
marked by a series of miracles of healing which 
spread abroad his fame, but at the same time 
excited against him the suspicions and hostility 
of the Pharisees and of the influential classes 
among the Jews. It was probably this circum- 
stance that decided him to select definitely from 
among his more immediate followers the twelve 
apostles, that they might not only have the 
benefit of his immediate supervision and train- 
ing, but might prepare to extend his work. 
Leaving Capernaum, therefore, he retired to a 
mountain, and spent the night in prayer. In 
the morning he summoned his disciples, and 
chose the little band who were henceforth to be 
so closely associated with him. The multitudes, 
too, began to crowd around him. Then it was 
that, selecting some conspicuous position from 
which he might be seen and heard, he addressed 
to his disciples, and to the multitudes, this great 
discourse. The locality is doubtful. " The moun- 
tain" cannot have been far from Capernaum, 
but it has been questioned whether the phrase 
even indicates a particular eminence. A tradi- 
tion of the Latin Church, which, however, does 
not go back very far, points to the Horns of 
Hattin, on the road from Tiberias to Nazareth. 
The indications of the sermon itself, in its allu- 
sions to the flowers and birds, are taken as evi- 
dence that when it was spoken summer had 
already begun. Andrews {Life of Our Lord upon 
the Earth; revised edition, 1892) dates it midsum- 
mer, a.d. 28. 

3. Two Accounts.— The resemblance of the 
discourses reported in Matt. 5-7 and Luke 6 is so 
great — they coincide in so many passages, and 
follow so much the same general order— that 
only the weightiest reasons will satisfy the 
intelligent reader that they are not to be re- 
garded as identical. Differences there are, both 
in substance and in setting, but where these 
cannot be directly reconciled, they may be ex- 
plained by considerations drawn from the gen- 
eral nature and arrangement of the respective 
Gospels, or the special aim which the writers 
seem to have had before them. Andrews {Life 
of Our Lord, pp. 209, 270) gives a summary of the 
opinions which have been held as to the rela- 
tion of the two accounts. 

4. Outline.— The question has been raised as 
to whether the Sermon on the Mount is, even 
in St. Matthew's report of it, anything more 
than a collection of fragments, sayings spoken 
at various times and places, arranged by the 
evangelist, or whether it may be regarded as a 
more or less systematic development of one 
theme. We have a noble introduction and an 
impressive peroration ; can the portions between 
be said to be linked together in anything like 
order? If so, what is the general subject? It 
may perhaps be granted that we have not the 
whole discourse, but only those portions which 
fascinated and impressed the hearers, and that 

there are some paragraphs the connecting links 
between which may have been omitted, but in 
general the order of thought can be traced, the 
great theme being the righteousness required of 
those who would be members of the new king- 

(Ch. 5: 1-12) Christ pronounces those " blessed " 
(hence the name Beatitudes) in whom are found 
the various phases of this righteousness, the 
characteristics of^the subjects of the kingdom. 
The central beatitude is the fourth— " Blessed 
are they which do hunger and thirst after right- 
eousness." The first three dwell more upon 
what men should be in themselves; the last 
four upon what they Should be in relation to 
others. The eighth especially emphasizes the 
distinction between blessedness and happiness; 
between the inward peace and the outward lot 
of those who suffer for righteousness' sake. 
(Vs. 13-16) Righteousness is not only to be held 
fast, but to be propagated; it is to exert its 
influence upon others. (Vs. 17-20) Contrast 
between the righteousness demanded by Christ 
and that current in the religious circles of his 
day. (Vs. 21-26) The spirit of worship (vs. 23, 21), 
as well as the dictates of prudence (vs. 25, 26), 
reinforces this extension of the commandment. 
(Vs. 27-32) The second and third examples are 
found in the law forbidding adultery, and in 
the permission of divorce. (Vs. 33-37) The 
fourth example deals with violations of the 
Third Commandment, including also a refer- 
ence to the Ninth. The insincere use of the 
oath it condemns as profanity; the attempt to 
get credit for sincerity by means of it, while 
leaving a loophole for the evasion of its obliga- 
tions, it condemns as unveracity. (Vs. 38-42) The 
fifth example meets the temptation to turn the 
arrangements for securing public justice into 
the instrument of private vengeance. (Vs. 43-48) 
The sixth example is the misunderstanding of 
the law, which supposed that the command- 
ment, " Love thy neighbour," was meant to limit 
the sphere of love, and not rather to be a stage 
in its gradual expansion. Here Jesus show T s 
that the righteousness of the kingdom is limit- 
less as the perfection of the heavenly Father. 

(Ch. 6: 1) This characteristic of the true right- 
eousness involves, it is now seen, a purification 
of its motive as well as of its method. Not "to 
be seen of men," but the approbation of "the 
Father which seeth in secret," is its appropriate 
reward. This is illustrated with respect to alms- 
giving (vs. 2-4), prayer (vs. 5-15), and fasting (vs. 
16-18). In contrast with the false idea of prayer, 
a model of true prayer is given (vs. 9-13; see pre- 
ceding article), and again in regard to the subject 
of forgiveness (vs. 14, 15) the state of the heart 
is made the test of true righteousness. Unlim- 
ited trust is opposed to dependence upon the 
outward means of living (vs. 19-21), or upon that 
which is in itself evil, and even to a double or 
alternate dependence on the higher and the 
lower, upon God and upon mammon (v. 24). 
Trust in God must be absolute, and it will be 
justified. The true good will come as certainly 
as food to the birds, which sow not, and beauty 
to the flowers, which spin not (vs. 25-30); only 
that true good must be sought first and fore- 
most, and it consists not in food, or drink, or 
raiment, but in "the kingdom of God, and his 
righteousness " (vs. 31-34). 

(Ch. 7) As in the series of Beatitudes, that 
concerning righteousness divided those which 
described the inner personal life of the follower 
of Christ from those which set forth his relation 



to others, whether man or God, so this renewed 
mention of righteousness (eh. 6: 33) forms a 
turning point in the discourse. The sixth chap- 
ter had treated of the training of the believer's 
spirit; the seventh proceeds to describe the 
regulation of his outward life— righteousness in 
act as the other had been righteousness in prin- 
ciple. Here (ch. 7) the method is still from the 
inward to the outward— knowledge of self the 
key to treatment of others : charity, not censo- 
riousness (vs. 1-5) ; discretion, not impulsiveness 
(v. 6); a right reading of the better tendencies of 
human nature, as on the one hand an interpre- 
tation of the mind of God in his love and wis- 
dom, and so an encouragement to prayer, and 
on the other hand a key to the mind and needs 
of men, so leading to consideration for them 
(vs. 7-12). The Golden Rule (v. 12) is thus a prac- 
tical guide to the righteousness which is the 
theme of the whole discourse, at least in its 
man ward aspect. This only is the safe course ; 

the easy path is only too likely in the end to 
cost those dear who follow it (vs. 13, 14). Pie is a 
false prophet who teaches otherwise, and such 
teaching should be judged, not by its plausi- 
bility or its acceptableness, but by its results 
(vs. 15-20). Even sincerity cannot make wrong 
right, or turn falsehood into truth. A man 
may be self-deceived and never doubt that the 
easy is as safe as the difficult path, the broad 
way as the narrow, until the event shows his 
mistake (vs. 21-23). How momentous, then, the 
choice lying before each man! how important 
that he should select as the foundation of his 
life-building the true righteousness, which is 
like the rock, and not the false righteousness of 
scribe and Pharisee, of self-pleasing and self- 
deceiving men, which is like the shifting sand 
(vs. 24-27). 

Books of Reference: Trench's The Sermon on the 
Mount; Wright's Jfaster mid Men. 


By KEV. A. B. DAVIDSON, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Hebrew, etc., 

New College, Edinburgh. 

In the traditional reading of the synagogue, 
only the three books, Psalms, Job, and Proverbs, 
are delivered with a special musical intona- 
tion, and provided for this purpose with a dis- 
tinct accentuation in the Bible, though other 
books, such as the Song and Lamentations, have 
equal right to be called poetical, as well as many 
occasional pieces scattered throughout the prose 
parts of the Bible. 

Subjects.— The Old Testament does not em- 
brace all the literature of Israel — the collection 
contains only writings adapted for public wor- 
ship, or at least for religious edification. Many 
sides of the popular life of ancient Israel are 
unrepresented in it. Poetry, accompanied by 
music, is the earliest form in which human 
feeling expresses itself. The lute and the pipe 
were among the first inventions of mankind 
(Gen. 4: 21); and a piece of poetry is perhaps the 
earliest writing preserved in Scripture (Gen. 4: 
23). The Eastern ear is very sensitive to the 
influence of speech, particularly when rhyth- 
mical or assonant, and the speaker, especially 
when greatly moved, very readily expresses 
himself in impromptu verse, as Judg. 15: 16: 

" With the jawbone of an ass— heaps upon heaps: 
With the jawbone of an ass— I have slain a thousand 


(Cf. Gen. 4: 23; Judg. 14: 14; 11. Sam. 3: 33.) Deeds 
of heroism in national warfare were celebrated 
in song (Ex. 15; Num. 21: 27-30; Judg. 5; I. Sam. 
18: 7; II. Sam. 1: 19-27), and poetry and music 
enlivened the marriage and other feasts (Judg. 
14: 14; Isa. 5: 12; Amos 6: 5). The harvest day 
(Isa. 9: 3), the treading of the wine-press (Isa. 16: 
10; Judg. 9: 27), the sheep-shearing, and other 
joyful seasons in the domestic life of the hus- 
bandman, were all occasions of feasting, accom- 
panied with music and song. The " capable " 
wife (Prov. 31 : 10) and thrifty husbandry (Prov. 
27: 23) have both been sung in poetry. Even 
the discovery of a living spring in a barren land 
was hailed in improvised verse, and the welling 
up of its waters accompanied or imitated by 
rhythmical strains (Num. 21: 17). The people of 
Israel, in its more prosperous times, lived a 
joyous life, and on every occasion of special 
gladness the emotion found living expression 
in poetry. 

Naturally, however, in Israel it was to the 
service of religion that music and poetry were 
mostly dedicated. The sound of songs and the 
melody of the viol were heard in the courts of 
the Lord's house in northern Israel as well as in 

Judah (Amos 5: 23); and the joyous bands of 
pilgrims came up to Jerusalem to the sound of 
the flute, and kept the feast with songs in the 
night (Isa, 30: 29). The great body of Hebrew 
poetry is of a religious kind, and it runs through 
the whole scale of devout feeling, and expresses 
every form of religious experience. The great 
collection of poetry of this kind is the Psalter; 
but this collection consists exclusivel y of hymns 
suitable for divine worship. A good amount of 
religious poetry was not embraced in it, and lies 
scattered throughout the pages of the Old Tes- 
tament. 1 

Classes.— Of the various kinds of poetry, epic, 
dramatic, and lyric, and gnomic or didactic, only 
the last two were cultivated by the Hebrews. 
In Job and the Song there is dramatic move- 
ment and dialogue, a kind of plot and a denoue- 
menty but no idea of a scenic representation 
probably ever occurred to the writer or to the 
readers. Even in some of the lj^rical pieces, as 
Ps. 2; Ex. 15, speakers are occasionally intro- 
duced, showing that the poet was not without 
dramatic feeling. There are mythological allu- 
sions in the Old Testament (Gen. 6), but to the 
religious mind of Israel the distinction between 
God and the world was so absolute, and his 
supremacy over all physical forces and personal 
beings so immediate and complete, that the 
elements of epic composition were wanting. 

The mind of the Hebrew was emotional, with 
strong feelings, his phantasy powerful, and his 
thinking intuitive and little sustained; hence, 
even historical writing is a series of separate 
pictures rather than a continuous, well-knit 
narrative, and his poetry, for the most part, 
consists of brief pieces in which a single feeling 
or an intuition finds expression. Thus the great 
majority of strictly poetical pieces is lyrical, and 
even the elevated half-poetical oratory of the 
prophets often rises into lyric measure (Isa. 5, 
12, 47, 60; Ezek. 19). In the lyric the poet ex- 
presses his feeling because expression is delight- 
ful, or, if the feeling be painful, because it 

1 The principal poetical pieces, whether religious or 
not, dispersed through the Old Testament are these: 
Gen. 4: 23, 24; 27: 27-29, 39, 40; 49: 1-27; Ex. 15: 1-19, 21; 
Num. 10: 35, 36; 21: 14, 15, 17, 18, 27-30; 23: 7-10, 18-24; 
24: 3-9, 15-24; Deut. 32. 1-43; 33: 1-29; Josh. 10: 12, 13; 
Judg. 5: 1-31; 9: 8-15; 14: 14, 18; 10: 23, 24; I. Sam. 2: 
1-10; 18: 7; II. Sam. 1: 19-27; 3: 33, 34; 22: 1-51 (Ps. 18); 
23: 1-7; I. Chr. 16: 8-36; Isa. 38: 9-20; Jon. 2: 2-9; Hab. 
3: 2-19. There are also many pieces of poetry in the 
Prophets; e. g., Isa. 5: 1-7; 12; 47, etc. 



affords relief. Often er instead of speaking to 
himself he speaks to God, disburdening his 
griefs or fears, his despondency in sackness 
(Ps.6), or when forsaken (Pfe. 12, 43), in the ear 

of God; or he utters his thankfulness (Ps. 30), 
his anticipations of success (Ps. 21), or of the 
triumph of tile kingdom of the Lord (Ps. 93 ct 
seq. i, or his feeling of the great ness or goodness of 
God experienced in his history or displayed in 
nature (Ps. N, 19, KM, 29, 22, 2:5, 116, etc.). On the 
other hand, the intuition or thought usually 
expresses itself in a (/name, or proverb. When 
the poet becomes conscious of others besides 
himself, both the lyric and the proverb may 
become didactic (Ps; 2, 15. .'52, 37, 49, etc.), and this 
is the prevailing tone of the proverb, in which 
the "wise" seek to impart instruction to the 
young and the simple (Prov. 1: 2-7). 

Forms.— Hebrew poetry is distinguished from 
prose partly by its diction, but particularly 
by its form. The poetical diction employs words 
not found, or rare, in prose, and also affects 
sonorous grammatical forms; e. g., the fern. 
athah, and suffixes like amo, cmo, aiki, etc. The 
poetical words are partly archaic, partly bor- 
rowed from other strata of language than that 
in classical prose. Many of them belong to the 
wider common stock of Semitic speech, and 
arc found in the dialects of the neighboring 
peoples. In form, like all other poetry, the He- 
brew is rhythmical ; but the rhythm in Hebrew 
is not bound by such rigid laws as in modern, or 
classical, or even Arabic poetry. The ancients, 
as Josephus, Origen, and Jerome, found the 
classical meters in Hebrew, and modern schol- 
ars have been unwearied in their efforts to 
discover meters of some kind; but meter in the 
strict sense, i. e., lines containing a definite 
number of feet, whether composed of recurrent 
groups of long and short syllables, or recurrent 
accentual beats, does not appear to exist. All 
that can be said is that the line or stich is 
usually of a certain length, less or more within 
certain limits, seven or eight syllables being the 
average. Two or more such lines make a verse. 
The members of a verse correspond to one 
another; and this parallelism in thought and 
consequently of rhythmical expression is the 
characteristic of Hebrew poetry. The rhyme, or 
final assonance, occurs occasionally (Gen. 4: 43; 
Ps. 8:5; Isa. 23: 16), but is not of the essence of 
the verse. Assonance, or paronomasia, is greatly 
affected, though no fixed place in the line is 
assigned to it. 

The parallelism of members is of various kinds, 
the most common being the synonymous, in 
which the second member repeats the idea of 
the first with some variation of language, as 
Ps. 114:3: 

"The sea saw it and fled, 
Jordan, and it was driven back," 

and throughout the psalm. Sometimes the 
parallelism is double, both halves of one mem- 
ber being parallel to both halves of the other, as 
Ps. 19: 7: 

" The law of the Lord is perfect— restoring the soul; 
The testimony of the Lord is sure — making wise the 
simple," etc. 
Another kind of parallelism is the antithetic, in 
which the two members express ideas opposed 
to one another. This form is common in Prov- 
erbs, particularly in chs. 10-15, but less usual in 

" Righteousness exalteth a nation, 
But sin is a reproach to any people." 

—(Prov. 14: 34.) 
In other kinds of parallelism the second mem- 
ber merely completes the idea of the first, some- 
times with a reason or reflection, and sometimes 
with a comparison. 

" Also unto thee, O Lord, belongeth mercy. 
For thou renderest to every one according to his 
work." — (Ps. 02: 12.) 

Each line of the parallelism is usually complete ■ 
in itself, but occasionally the sense is suspended 
and completed only in the second line. 

" (live unto the Lord, ye sons of the mighty, 
Give unto the Lord glory and strength." 

— (Ps. 29: 1.) 

This climacteric parallelism appears in an am- 
plified form in some of the Songs of Degrees (Ps. 
120-134), as Ps. 121:3,4: 

" He will not suffer thy foot to be moved: 
Ho that koopetli thee will not slumber. 
Behold, ho that keepeth Israel 
Shall neither slumber nor sleep." 
(Cf. Ps. 122: 1, 2; 124: 1, 2; Isa. 2G: 5, 6.) 

The verse usually consists of two parallel lines, 
as in the examples already given, but it may 
have one to six members. Verses of one mem- 
ber are rare, and usually occur at the beginning 
or end of a poem; the effect of the monostich 
is to express emphasis, or pathos, or add solem- 
nity, as Ps. IS: 1; 23: 1; Ex. 15: 18; in the 
middle of a poem (Ps. 29: 7). In verses with 
three members (tristichs), the first two may be 
parallel and the third stand more alone. 

f " The kings of the earth set themselves, 
1 And the rulers take counsel together 

Against the Lord, and against his anointed." 

— (Ps. 2: 3.) 
(Cf. Ps. 30: 7; 39: 5; 65: 13.) Or the first may stand 
apart and the last two be in parallelism. 
" Arise, O Lord; save me, my God: 
fFor thou hast smitten all mine enemies upon the 
< cheek-bone. 

(Thou hast broken the teeth of the ungodly." 

-(Ps. 3: 7.) 
(Cf. Ps. 67: 4; Job 3: 6.) Sometimes each of the 
three lines expresses virtually the same thought 
(Ps. 15: 3; 40: 10; 46: 9); or, on the other hand, 
the thoughts of each may be independent (Ps. 
18: 35). More rarely there is a correspondence 
between the first and third lines (Ps. 57: 3). 

In verses with four members, one and two 
usually correspond, and three and four, 

" How should one chase a thousand, 
And two put ten thousand to flight, 
Unless their Pock had sold them, 
And the Lord had delivered them up ? " 

—(Deut. 32: 30.) 
(Cf. vs. 10, 21, 22, 25, 32, 38; Ps. 39: 12.) Occasion- 
ally one and three correspond and two and four, 
as Ps. 40: 14; 55: 21. Sometimes the tetrastich 
has a double parallelism, one and two as well as 
three and four being parallel, while one and 
three and tw T o and four are also related. 

" Fear not, for thou shalt not be ashamed, 
Be not abashed, for thou shalt not bear reproach; 
For thou shalt forget the shame of thy youth, 
And the reproach of thy widowhood shalt thou re- 
member no more." — (Isa. 54: 4.) 
Or the antithesis may be between one and four, 
two and three. 

" For ye shall not go out in haste, 
Neither shall ye go out by flight; 
For the Lord will go before you, 
And the God of Israel will be your rearward." 

—(Isa. 52: 12.) 
Verses with five members are less common (cf. 
Deut. 32: 14, 39; Ps. 39: 12). Those with six lines 
are also uncommon, and, naturally, often fall 
into three pairs (Num. 24: 17; Hab. 3: 17). 

While ordinarily it is the lines in a verse, be 
they two or more, that are rhythmically coordi- 
nated to one another, in one case the words in 
the single member or line itself are related to 
one another in a peculiar rhythm. This is the 
kinah, or elegy, in which the line is divided into 
two parts by a cesura, the second part being 
shorter, and falling with a mournful cadence. 
" How hath become an harlot— the faithful city, 
Full of justice, righteousness lodging in her— but 
now murderers." —(Isa. 1: 21.) 



(Cf. Auios 5: 2: Jer. 9: 21, 22— first words of v. 22 
being omitted.) This elegiac line is sometimes 
treated as a verse, sometimes as half and some- 
times as a third of a verse. In Lam. 8 each line 
is a verse. 
11 1 am the man that hath seen affliction— by the rod 

of his anger." 
In ch. 4 each line is half a verse. 
V Even the jackals draw out the breast— give suck to 

their whelps, 
The daughter of my people is become cruel— like the 

ostriches in the desert." 
And in chs. 1 and 2 the line is mostly the third 
of a verse. 
" She weepeth sore in the night— her tears are on her 

She hath none to comfort her— of all her lovers, 
All her friends have deceived her— they are grown 

her enemies." 
Examples of the elegy, besides the book of 
Lamentations, appear in Isa. 14: 4 fT.; 47; Ezek. 
19, and in fragmentary form, often throughout 
the Prophets and Psalms; e. g., Ezek. 26: 17 fT.; 
32: 19 fT. This type of rhythm, however, was 
made use of in other kinds of poetry, e. g., Isa. 
52: 8 ff., and on the other hand, was not always 
employed in the lament proper. David's elegy 
on Saul (II. Sam. 1 : 19-27) is in a different meas- 

When a number of verses are grouped to- 
gether, they form a strophe; but here again 
the term "strophe" is used in a much looser 
sense than it is in classical poetry. The He- 
brew strophe is merely a number of verses 
containing the same or similar thoughts; the 
number of verses may be more or fewer. The 
group of verses is occasionally marked by the 
recurrence of the same or a similar refrain; 
e. g., in Ps. 42 and 43 (to be read as one) the 
words, "Hope thou in God," etc., occur at 42: 5, 

11 and 43: 5. In Ps. 46 the words, " TJie Lord 
of hosts is ivith us," etc., recur at vs. 7, 11. In Ps. 
49 the refrain is at vs. 12, 20; in Ps. 80, at vs. 3, 
7, 19. In Isa. 9:7-10:4 a series of strophes oc- 
cur, with the refrain, "For all this his anger is not 
turned away," etc. (cf. Amos 4 : 6, 9, 11). Ps. 119 con- 
sists of twenty-two strophes of the same length, 
according to the letters of the alphabet. Like the 
"Amen" (Ps. 106: 48), the refrain appears occa- 
sionally to have been chanted responsively by 
the congregation (II. Chr. 7:3; cf. Ps. 136). Pos- 
sibly such psalms as 20, 24, 91, may have been 
sung antiphonally, one body of singers respond- 
ing to another; but more probably the change 
of voice is merely dramatic. 

The acrostic, or alphabetical poem, does not 
constitute a distinct, kind of poetry ; it is merely 
an example of a somewhat artificial and exter- 
nal manner of combining the verses together. 
The alphabetical arrangement was possibly used 
at first for the purpose of aiding the memory to 
follow consecutively a number of unconnected 
verses, such as separate proverbial sayings; or, 
as is greatly affected in the elegy (Lam. 1-4), it 
might express the monotony of feeling charac- 
teristic of the lament. In some poems each 
half verse is marked by the successive letters of 
the alphabet, as Ps. Ill, 112; in others, each 
single verse, as Ps. 25, 34, 145; Lam. 1, 2, 4; in 
others, the first of every two verses, as Ps. 37 
(Ps. 9, 10, one psalm). Occasionally the arrange- 
ment is more artificial, each of a group of verses 
being opened by one letter, as Lam. 3, where the 
verses are grouped in threes, all commencing 
with the same letter, and Ps. 119, where the 
eight verses of the strophe all open with one 

Books of Reference : Bhys's (editor) Lyrical 
Poetry from the Bible; Moulton's Literary Study of the 
Bible; Schaff' s Literature and Poetry, and Church His- 
tory, Vol. LLL. 


By REV. T. K. ABBOTT, D. Litt., F.T.C.D., Professor of Hebrew in the University 

of Dublin. 


Its Mention.— Music is frequently mentioned 
in both the Old and New Testaments, although 
no minute description is given concerning it, 
save what may be learned from the mention of 
the instruments employed, and from the mu- 
sical terms found mainly in the Psalms. Sing- 
ing men and singing ivomen are incidentally stated 
to have formed part of the accompaniment of 
the court of David and of Solomon {LL Sam. 
19: 35; Eccl. 2: 8). Minstrels are mentioned in 
the New Testament as employed to sing dirges 
over the dead (Matt. 9: 23; cf., in Old Testa- 
ment, Jer. 9: 17-20; Amos 5: 16). Instrumental 
music was employed on all important occasions, 
and often accompanied with singing and danc- 
ing (see Ex. 15: 20; 32: 6, 18, 19). The prophets 
made use of the same (see I. Sam. 10: 5, 10; II. 
Ki. 3: 15; I. Chr. 25: 1), for it must not be forgot- 
ten that what was termed prophesying was not 
necessarily connected with any foretelling of 
future events, but consisted largely in testifying 
or bearing testimony, often in hymns and spir- 
itual songs, to the majesty and truths connected 
with the worship of Jehovah, and, in New Tes- 
tament times, of his Christ. 

Harmony.— The Hebrews do not appear to have 
used harmony, or at least varying harmony 
such as we use, or such as the Greeks used (as 
shown by Chappell against Burney)— see II. Chr. 
5: 12. This passage has, indeed, been cited on 
the other side, as if the remark, "When the 

trumpeters and singers were as one," would be 
superfluous if there were no harmony. But the 
exact agreement of a large number of instru- 
ments in time and tune might well be thought 
deserving of note. Harmony of a simple kind, 
as consecutive thirds, or even fifths, is, how- 
ever, practiced by very backward nations; and 
some Egyptian paintings appear to indicate 
playing in harmony. Some of the Psalms were 
certainly sung antiphonally, i. e., by half chorus 
alternately, or by the leader and the choir an- 
swering one another (see Ps. 24 ; 115 : 9-11 ; 136, and 
cf. Isa. 6: 3). No authentic tradition has reached 
us as to the melodies employed, there being no 
agreement between Jews of different countries. 



In the absence of contemporary information 
and authentic representations, there is much 
uncertainty about the identification of the mu- 
sical instruments of the Hebrews. What one 
writer calls an organ another thinks was more 
probably a bagpipe, and a third perhaps con- 
siders it to have been a guitar. Nor is this to be 
wondered at when we find the Alexandrian 
translators in a similar perplexity, the word 
which is rendered u kithara " (lyre, or guitar) by 
one being rendered "organum" by another. The 
Talmud gives little help, and, being much later 
than the Greek translation of the LXX., cannot 



be supposed to be a more certain guide. In this 
perplexity we have recourse to the monuments 
— Egyptian and Assyrian. These show as, at 
least, what kind of' instruments the Hebrews 
probably possessed, although they do not ena- 
ble us to idenl ii'y them by name. 

Classes.— Musical instruments generally may 
be classified as (:1) stringed instruments, (2) wind 
instruments, and (3) those of percussion; We 
have these three Classes referred to in I. Sam. 
10: 5, "tabret, pipe, and harp," and in Job 21: 
12, "timbrel, harp, pipe," and elsewhere. 

I. Stringed instruments fall into two classes, 
exemplified by the lyre, or harp, on one hand, 
and by the guitar on the other, the essential dif- 
fereneebeing that i n the forme r c 1 ass the stri ngs, 
at least in their upper part, are free on both 
sides, While in the latter they are stretched over 
a beck with finger-board, in which case dilfer- 
ent notes may be produced from the same string 
by stopping it with the linger. Again, the tones 
may be produced by plucking either with the 
linger or with a plectrum or quill (as in the 
zither), or else by striking with hammers, or 
lastly, by a bow. The use of the bow, however, 
was unknown to the Hebrews, as well as to the 
Egyptians and Assyrians. 

paratively late) bear the figure of a lyre with 
three, four, or six strings. The kmndr was light 
and portable, so that it was carried about by 
itinerant singers (Isa. 23: 10), and was hung up 
when not in use (Ps. 137: 2). 

Nebel is represented in the A. V. by "psaltery," 
except in four places in Isaiah, and Amos, 
where it is "viol." We learn from Ovid also 
that it was of the class with free strings, for 
he speaks of sweeping it with both hands 
(Ars Am., 327). Joseph us says that it differed 
from the kimidrin having more strings (twelve, 
he says), and in being played with the hand. 
Jerome says that in shape it was like an in- 
verted A. The Egyptian monuments show in- 
struments of this kind; but the name nebel 
may have included some of a more developed 
form, which also appear on the monuments, 
and may not improperly be termed "harps." 
Only Ave must think of a harp deprived of its 
front pillar, which is absent from the Egyptian, 
as it is at the present day from Indian, Bur- 
mese, and other Asiatic harps (see illustration). 
But it must be remembered that the strings were 
only catgut. Some of these Egyptian harps 
were portable, others were as tall as the player. 
The R. V. renders the word "lute" in Isa. 5: 12. 

ft^gSffgiffiL^? *-, > 

Elamite Musicians coining to welcome the new ruler, Umman-igas, the prince set on the throne of Elam by 

Assur-bani-apli, king of Assyria. From a bas-relief from Kouyunjik {Nineveh). 

British Museum. (See p. 141.) 

Stringed instruments in general are designated 
by " neginoth," which occurs in the titles of sev- 
eral psalms, as 4, 6, where it is rendered in the 
Q reek " hymnus," or (once) "psalms." It also oc- 
curs in Hab. 3: 19, where it is rendered "ode," 
but in the A. V., correctly, "stringed instru- 
ments." The word is used also of music so 
played — "My songs to the stringed instru- 
ments" (Isa. 38: 20), and of songs sung to such 
an accompaniment, as Ps. 77: 7, "I was their 
song" (Job 30: 9), etc. The specifically named 
instruments arc kinnor and nebel. 

.kin nor occurs first in Gen. 4: 21, where Jubal 
is said to be the father of all that handle the 
bar}) and organ (II. V., pipe), i. e., he was the in- 
ventor of wind and stringed instruments. In 
the A. V. it is always rendered "harp." The 
Greek rendering is usually "kithara." but five 
times it is "psalterion" and once "organon." 
( ►pinions still difleras to which of the two classes 
it belonged to. Recent writers generally con- 
sider it to have been a kind of lyre, and, if so, it 
doubtless resembled those which are represented 
on Egyptian monuments. 

An Assyrian bas-relief in the British Museum 
represents captives playing lyres, and if, as 
some suppose, these arc Jews, the doubt would 
be solved. There has also been found in Egypt a 
picture of the arrival of strangers, apparently 
Semites, one of whom is playing a lyre with a 
plectrum. Some Jewish coins also (but coin- 

But the number of strings is decisive against 
th is, at least if we trust Josephus, and the Roman 
nablium is also against it. Both the kinnOrs 
and the nebeU were made of sandalwood by 
Solomon (I. Ki. 10:12). 

The word minnini occurs in Ps. 45: 8 (see R. V.) 
and 150: 4, of stringed instruments; but whether 
it is a general or special name is uncertain. 

2. Wind instruments may be divided into 
those which are blown from the side like the 
common flute, and those which are bloArn from 
the end like a whistle. The latter may or may 
not have a tongue (or "reed") like the clarinet 
and oboe. The side-blown flute is depicted on 
Egyptian but not on Assyrian monuments. 
The other, or direct pipe, was sometimes double, 
two pipes of different pitch being joined to one 
mouth-piece. These appear on both Egyptian 
and Assyrian monuments, and are still in use in 
Egypt. They are sometimes used on solemn 

The English "pipe" represents the Hebrew 
chalil, which occurs only five times. The plain- 
tive pipe was possibly a reed instrument. The 
word rendered "dance" {macfwl) in Ps. 149: 3; 
150: 4; 30: 11; Jer.31 : 4, 13; Lam. 5: 15, is supposed 
by some to mean "pipe" (sec A. \. margin, in 
the first two places). 

More obscure is the word rendered in the A. 
V. " organ," viz., ugab (R. V., " pipe "). It is men- 
tioned with "kinnor" as invented by Jubal 



(Gen. 4: 21); elsewhere only in Job 21: 12; 30: 31; 
and Ps. 150: 4). It is plain from the passages in 
Job that it was a cheerful instrument. The Tar- 
guni always renders it by a word meaning 
"pipe"; the Greek in Genesis "kithara," in Job 
"psalmos," and in Psalms "organum." The lat- 
ter word is adopted in all cases by the Vulgate, 
and from it by modern versions. It is an indefi- 
nite word used of any instrument, but, as it is 
sometimes applied to a multiple pipe, most 
moderns have adopted the view that the vgab 
was a syrinx, or Pandean pipes, an instrument 
which was certainly ancient and popular in 
Syria, with from five to twenty-three pipes. 

A kind of shepherd's pipe, perhaps a Pan 
pipe, is mentioned in Judg. 5: 10 (A. V., "bleat- 
ings"; R. V., "pipings"). The word is "sheri- 

Of instruments of the trumpet kind the most 
important, ceremonially, was the chatzdtzerah, 
for the construction of which in silver special 
directions are given in Num. 10:2. The name 
was probably from the sound. As these were 
specially intended for sacred purposes, they are 
doubtless the same that are figured on the arch 
of Titus, straight, with a bell expansion at the 
end, and so Josephus describes them. Such 
trumpets were used by the Egyptians, but not 
by Assyrians. With the exception of Ps. 98: 6 
and Hos. 5: 8 the mention of the chatzdtzerah 
is limited to the books of Numbers, Kings, and 
Chronicles, with Ezra and Nehemiah. But the 
trumpet most frequently mentioned is the shop- 
har, four times rendered in A. V. " cornet," on 
account of "trumpet," as the rendering of 
"chatzdtzerah," occurring in the same verse (I. 
Chr. 15: 28; II. Chr. 15: 14; Ps. 98: G; Hos. 5: 8); 
elsewhere always "trumpet." It was used for 
military purposes, but not for these only. In 
Josh. 6: 5 it is called a "horn," and in I. Chr. 
25 : 5. This instrument is peculiarly interesting 
as being employed in the synagogue at the pres- 
ent day. It is of horn, from one to two feet in 
length, curved near the end into about a right 
angle. In Ps. 98: 6 the Prayer-Book version 
has " shawm " for "shophar." Shawm, from the 
French chcdumeau, which is derived from Latin 
calamus, "reed," was a sort of shepherd's pipe. 
Another name for trumpet occurs in Ezek. 7 : 14, 
viz., "takoa." 

3. Of instruments of percussion the toph, cor- 
rectly rendered "tabret," "timbrel," was a kind 
6f tambourine used on joyful occasions, chiefly 
by women, as is still the custom in the East. So 
Jn Ps. 68: 25, 26 we have damsels playing tim- 
irels in the sanctuary (but see R. V. margin). 
%r female singers in the temple see I. Chr. 25 : 

% Cymbals consisted of two partly-hollowed 

an plates of metal, which were dashed to- 

gether. In I. Chr. 15: 19 cymbals of brass ap- 
pear to be used by the conductors to mark time. 
They were called tziltzclim or metziltaim, and were 
of two kinds, loud and high (Ps. 150: 5). The 
word rendered " bells " (of the horses) in Zech. 14 : 
20, no doubt, means those small metal plates 
often used in the East, and sometimes in this 
country, on the trappings of horses. The golden 
"bells" on the high priest's robe {panamo) were 
probably similar plates, which sounded by strik- 
ing the alternating "pomegranates." But bells 
proper were used both in Egypt and in Assyria. 
"Castanets" occurs in the R. V. in II. Sam. 6: 5 
(A. V., "cornets"). The margin gives "sistra." 
The sistrum consisted of a metallic frame shaped 
somewhat like a tennis racket, crossed by one or 
more rods on which were loose rings. 

The shallsh is mentioned once only in I. Sam. 
18 : 6. From its name it must be three-sided, or 
three-stringed (see R. V. margin). It may have 
been a sistrum with three rods, or the same as 
the Greek triangle, trigdnon, stated to be a Syrian 
invention, which was probably a kind of harp. 
The "pieces of silver "(Ps. 68: 30) are supposed 
by Lowth to refer to the Egyptian sistrum used, 
as we know, in their religious feasts — "which 
excite themselves to dance with the sistrum." 


The names of these are familiar to every one 
as "cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, dulci- 
mer," in Daniel. The "cornet" is the keren, or 
horn, of Josh. 6: 5. The "flute," mashrokttha, 
rendered in the Greek "syrinx," was the Pan- 
dean pipes, one of the oldest and most universal 
of instruments, sometimes called a "mouth 
organ." " Harp " here stands for kithdris, i. e., the 
Greek kitharis, or kithara, already referred to. 
This was a kind of lyre. It traveled from 
the Greeks to the Moors of Spain, and thence to 
us as "guitar," and by a different route as 
" zither." " Sackbut " represents sabbeca, known 
to the Greeks and Romans as the "sambuca," 
or "Phenician lyre," received by them from 
Syria. It was (so AthenaBus tells us) of a trian- 
gular shape, with four strings. " Psaltery " is in 
Daniel "psanterion," a word formed from the 
Greek. The Persian santir, still in use, is a dulci- 
mer. The " dulcimer " in its earliest form consist- 
ed of flat boards (afterwards a box) of four sides, 
two of them converging, the strings, which were 
stretched over it, being struck with small ham- 
mers. It is the ancestor of the pianoforte (the 
sackbut was quite different, being a sort of 

Books of Reference : Drysdale's Early Bible 
Songs; Hutchinson's The Music of the Bible; Julian's 
Dictionary of Hymnology. 


By KEV. OWEN C. WHITEHOUSE, M.A., Professor of Hebeew, Cheshunt 

College, near London. 

[rom Genesis 23: 16 we learn that the precious 

Itals, when used in commercial transactions, 

\e weighed out. Precisely the same practice 

i phraseology prevailed among the Assyrians 

L Babylonians. The Hebrews, we know, 

Isessed also standard weights. Thus we read 

the "royal weight" (lit., stone) in II. Sam. 14: 

Dr. Schrader points out ( Cuneiform Inscrip- 

w and the Old Testament, vol. i., p. 128) that in 

} imperial or standard weights discovered at 

tieveh, in the form of figures of lions, ducks, 

I., the weight is designated as imperial by the 

■rase "of the king," e.g., "nrina (or maneh) of 

■■ king." The following tables of weights, 

money, and measures will present as clearly as 
possible all that can be ascertained on this 
obscure subject by the highest authorities. 
Among the best of these authorities may be 
mentioned J. Brandis, Das MiXnz, Maas, und Ge- 
wichtswesen in Vbrderasien; and the various 
articles contributed by Mr. F. W. Madden, M.R. 
A.S. The figures furnished by the latter have, 
in the main, been followed by us. In the early 
history of Israel silver appears to have been the 
prevailing medium of commerce, the mention 
of gold being comparatively rare and incidental 
(Gen. 13:2; 24:35), 





1 Gerah 0. 

1 Bekah (lOgerahs) 0. 

1 Shekel (2 bekahs) 0. 

1 Maneh or mina (60 shekels) 2 . 

1 Talent {kikkar) (60 manehs), i.e., weight-talent "of the king" 

Troy W r eight. 
oz. dwts. grs. 

....0 12.65 

....0 5 6.5 

....0 10 13 

....7 12 12 

.. 158 1 10.. 


I. Old Testament Period. 

Troy Weight. Money 

(a) Silver. lb. Value. 

1 Shekel (holy 

shekel) 9 8.8... $0.61 

1 Maneh (mina) 

(=50 shekels)... 1 11 8 8 ... 32.00 
1 Talent (=60 ma- 
nehs) 117 (about) 1,920.00 

(6) Gold. 

IShekel 10 13 ... 9.60 

1 Maneh or mina 

(=50 shekels)... 2 2 6 22 ... 480.00 

1 Talent (=60 ma- 
nehs) 131 8 14 14 ...28,800.00 

II. New Testament Period. 

{a) Copper. 

Lepton (mite) about .0012 

Quadrans (farthing) =2 lepta.. about .0025 

Assarion or As (penny) =4 quadran- 

tes about .01 

(6) Silver. 

Denarius (pen ny) = drachma =16 

asses about .16 

Didrachm=2 drachmas or denarii. . . .32 

Stater or tetradrachm=shekel .64 

Mina or pound {Attic)=3d shekels. . . 19.10 

Talent=m minee {Attic) 1,146.00 

(c) Gold. 

Imperial Aureus 5.04 

Stater 5.28 


Respecting measures of liquid and dry capacity, 
it is impossible to give an accurate standard of 
content; for rabbinic authorities measure an 
ephah or bath as four gallons, while Josephus 
assigns it double this measure. Assuming, then, 
eight gallons as an approximate hypothetical 
estimate for the content of an ephah, we ob- 
tain the following table of Hebrew measures of 
capacity : 

1 Log % pint. 

1 Cab=4 logs S% pints. 

1 Hin=3 cabs 1% gallons. 

1 Omer=lt cabs 6 pints. 

1 Seah=3>£ omers 2% gallons. 

1 Ephah or bath=3 seabs 8 " gallons. 

1 Lethech=5 ephahs 40 gallons. 

1 Hoiner=10 ephahs 80 gallons. 

Similarly, respecting measures of length, we 
have insufficient data to enable us to do more 
than present the following approximations: 

1 Digit % inch. 

1 Palm=4 digits 3 inches. 

1 Span=3 palms 9 inches. 

1 Cubit=2 spans \y 2 feet. 

1 Reed=6 cubits 9 feet. 

In the Greek and Roman periods the following 
measures of distance prevailed in common use : 

A Roman foot 11.65 inches. 

A Greek foot 1 foot 0.135 inch. 

A Roman passus 4 feet 10% inches. 

A Greek fathom (bpyvtd) 6 feet 1 inch. 

A Greek furlong (o-raSioi') 202 yards. 

A Roman mile 0.92 English mile, 

or about 1,615 yards. 

A Persian parasang .8% miles (nearly). 

Book of Reference: Williamson's The Money of 
the Bible. 


By THEOPHILUS G. PINCHES, M.R.A.S., Department of Egyptian and 
Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum, London. 

Assur-bani-apli ("the great and noble Asnapper" of Ezra 4: 10— see p. 120), attended by his eunuch, 
hunting lions. From a bas-relief from Kouyunjik {Nineveh). British Museum. 



Of these two great nations of the ancient East 
it is the Bible that gives us the earliest account. 
When Nimrod, the mighty hunter, son of Cush, 
began to get powerful, the beginnings of his 
kingdom were Babel or Babylon, Erech or Uruk 
(now Warka), Akkad (a city close to Sippara, 
now Abu-habbah), and Calneh, in Shinar or 
Sumer, the northern part of Babylonia. He 
then went out into Assyria (according to 
the translation of the margin of the A.V. and 
the text of the R.V.) and built Nineveh, Reho- 
both-Ir ("the streets of Ir," or "of the city"), 
Calah (now Nimroud), and Resen (Assyr., Res- 
ini, "the head of the fountain"), "the great 
city " between Nineveh and Calah. The confu- 
sion of tongues (Gen. 11) took place at Babel, the 
Babylon of the Greeks and the Babilam of many 
of the native inscriptions, which was changed by 
a folk-etymology to Bdb-ili ("gate of God ") at a 
very early date. A very common name of the 
country was Kar-Dunias. The province of 
Akkad was also known by the non-Semitic 
name of Uri, or Ura, and it is probably this, 
rather than Mugheir, which is the Ur-Casdim 
of the Old Testament, where Abraham was born. 
The original inhabitants of the country were 
apparently Semites. How the non-Semitic Ak- 
kadians got into the country is not known, but 
they seem to have made themselves masters of 
the greater part of it, bringing with them their 

superior civilization and the now well-known 
cuneiform writing, which afterwards became 
the common vehicle of communication in the 
ancient East. Probably one of the states which 
soonest became re-Semitized was that of which 
the city of Agade (Akkad) was the capital. One 
of the principal cities of this part was Sipar, or 
Sippara, the center of the worship of the sun- 
god and of the goddess Anunit. Here ruled, 
3800 B.C., according to the native records, Sargani 
or Sargon of Agade, a warlike king, who subju- 
gated Babylon, Elam, Phenicia, and set up his 
image on the shores of the Mediterranean. His 
son, Naram-Sin, was also a warlike ruler. At 
a later date ruled Chedorlaomer (Kudur-Laga- 
mar), king of Elam, whom the changes brought 
about by time had made overlord over a great 
part, if not the whole, of Babylonia. Under 
him were Arioch or Eri-Aku of Ellasar (prob- 
ably the Babylonian town of Larsa, or Larrisa), 
Amraphel of Shinar or Sumer, and. Tidal (i.e., 
Tudgal, if an Akkadian name), king of nations. 
Chedorlaomer was the leader of these three vas- 
sal states in the campaign against the rebellious 
west country, which then, as later, acknowl- 
edged the sway of the principal ruler of Baby- 
lonia. Akkadian influence was already on the 
decline, notwithstanding that Akkadian names 
appear in the history of the country until a 
much later date. About 2300 B.C. the consolida- 
tion of the Babylonian states into a single king- 
dom probably took place, and Babylon became 
the capital of the whole country, the viceroys 
of Assur, or Assyria, however, still maintaining 




their semi-independent position. Foreign (Sem- 
itic) names of rulers (Khanimurabi, Ebisu or 
Abesii', who claims also to have ruled over Phe- 
nicia, Ammi-zaduga, etc.) now appear, implying 
a conquest of Babylon by Semitic hordes during 
the preceding period. About the sixteenth cen- 
tury B.C. the Assyrian viceroys seem to have 
found themselves strong enough to contend suc- 
cessfully with Babylonia, and declared their in- 
dependence. The influence of Babylonia, how- 
ever, still continued, and the Babylonian lan- 
guage and the cuneiform script became a very 
common medium of intercommunication all 
over the western portion of Asia Minor as far as 

The now independent country of Assyria 
proved to be a troublesome neighbor to Baby- 
lonia, and the kings of the former overran and 
conquered the latter from time to time, Tu- 
kulti-Ninip, king of Assyria, being recorded as 
having ruled over Babylonia for seven years (892- 
885 B.C.). He was killed in a revolt in which 
Assur-nasir-apli, his son, who succeeded him, 
took part. The new ruler, a most warlike and 
cruel man, invaded the countries on almost 
every side, and even laid Phenicia under trib- 
ute. The successor of Assur-nasir-apli was Shal- 
maneser II., who came to the throne (according 
to Assyrian chronology) about 860 B.C. The king 
continued the warlike policy of his father, and 
defeated Benhadad of Damascus and Ahab of 
Israel {Akhabbit mdt SirHlda), with their numer- 
ous allies, at the battle of Karkar. Though the 
allies were too strong for the Assyrian king, 
who, notwithstanding the victories that he 
claims, obtained no real advantage, they must 
have been considerably weakened, and perhaps 
demoralized, and it may have been this which 
allowed the Israelites to gain the advantage over 
the Syrians at the battles of Samaria and Aphek 
(I. Ki. 20). In the year 842 B.C. Shalmaneser re- 
ceived tribute from Jehu, "son of Omri," and 
the tribute-bearers are shown on the Black Obe- 
lisk now in the British Museum (Plate IV.) 
(see p. 139), which was carved by order of this 
king. The old line of Assyrian kings seems to 
have ended with Assur-nirari II., and in 745 B.C. 
Tiglath-Pileser III., apparently a usurper, came 
to the throne. For Tiglath-Pileser the Baby- 
lonian canon substitutes Pulu, or Pul (II. Ki. 
15: 19), which seems to have been his original 
name. In 742 B.C. Tiglath-Pileser overthrew 
Hamath, then in alliance with Azariah (Uz- 
ziah), king of Judah, and in 738 B.C. he received 
tribute from Menahem of Samaria and Rezin 
of Syria. In 734 B.C. he made an expedition to 
Palestine, and received tribute from Ahaz of 
Judah, confirming II. Ki. 16: 8. The name un- 
der which Ahaz appears in the cuneiform in- 
scriptions is Jehoahaz, from which it is con- 
jectured that the biblical writer left out the 
sacred name with which it was joined on ac- 
count of Ahaz's wickedness. In return for the 
submission of Ahaz, Tiglath-Pileser attacked 
(735-732 B.C.) Rezin of Damascus, and Israel. 
Damascus was captured, Rezin, the king, put 
to death, and Syria became an Assyrian prov- 
i nee. Next year Merodach-Baladan ottered hom- 
age to the Assyrian king, and two years later 
Tiglath-Pileser overran Israel (II. Ki. 15: 29), set 
up Iloshea as "king of the land of the house of 
Omri," in place of Pekah, who had been mur- 
dered, and imposed a tribute of 10 talents of 
gold and 1,000 talents of silver. Tiglath-Pile- 
ser also made numerous other expeditions. 
In 727 h.c. Shalmaneser IV., called by the Baby- 
lonians ITlulaa (Elulseus), succeeded Tiglath- 
Pileser 111. This new ruler, in consequence of 
Hoshea's alliance with So, king of p]gypt, began 
the siege of Samaria in 724, but, as he died in 
722, it is supposed that (he city was taken under 
Sargon the Later, king of Assyria, who carried 
its inhabitants, 27,280 souls, into captivity. The 
rest were allowed to retain possession of their 

land, however, seemingly under Assyrian gov- 
ernors. Sargon 's first move was against Mero- 
dach-Baladan, king of Babylon, whom he de- 
feated. Sargon then settled the Babylonians in 
the land of Khatti (Hit). In 711 B.C. he captured 
Ashdod, and laid all Palestine under tribute. 
In 710 b.c. he defeated Merodach-Baladan, and 
next year mounted the Babylonian throne. In 
705 B.C. Sargon died (supposed to have been as- 
sassinated), and Sennacherib, his son, already a 
man who had seen much service, mounted the 
throne on the 12th day of Ab (July-August). 
After defeating Merodach-Baladan at the battle 
of Kes in 704 B.C., he marched (B.C. 701) against 
Hezekiah, who had been encouraging the Ekron- 
ites in their revolt against the Assyrian domin- 
ion, they having delivered Padi, their king, who 
was faithful to Assyria, into Hezekiah's hands. 
The Assyrian king first defeated Hczekiah's 
ally, Tirhakah, king of Egypt, at the battle of 
Eltakeh, and then, severely punishing the chief 
men of Ekron, he overran Judah, capturing 
forty-six fortified cities and numberless villages, 
of which Lachish was one. Whilst the siege 
of Lachish was going on, Hezekiah tried to buy 
off the Assyrian king, who appointed a tribute 
of 300 talents of silver and 30 of gold (II. Ki. 
18: 14). He did not succeed, however, in induc- 
ing the king of Assyria to spare Jerusalem, for 
the latter, after sending 300,150 Jews, with their 
cattle and camels, into captivity, sent the tar- 
tan or commander-in-chief, the rab-shakeh or 
chief of the captains, and the rab-saris or chief 
of the princes to besiege Jerusalem. The dis- 
comfiture of the Assyrian army is very well 
known, and after its destruction Sennacherib 
returned home, and afterwards carried his arms 
against Chaldean pretenders in Babylonia and 
Elam. He was murdered in 681 B.C. by Adram- 
melech {Assur-mulih) and Sharezer, his sons, who 
afterwards fled into Armenia. Esarhaddon, who 
is supposed to have been a younger brother, now 
took possession of the throne, and defeated an 
Armenian army (with which his brothers seem 
to have been) in eastern Cappadocia. Esarhaddon 
captured and plundered Sidon, conquered Egypt, 
which he divided into satrapies, and received 
tribute from Palestine and Cyprus. Manasseh 
of Judah, who was afterwards carried captive to 
Babylon and confined there for a time (il. Chr. 
33: 11), is mentioned among the tributaries. 

Esarhaddon was the first Assyrian king to 
conciliate the Babylonians. He rebuilt a great 
part of the city of Babylon, which had been de- 
stroyed by Sennacherib, and held his court 
there, thus accounting for the statement that 
the "king of Assyria" brought Manasseh to 
Babylon, and not to Nineveh. Esarhaddon died 
when on his way to Egypt in 068 B.C., and was 
succeeded by his two sons, Assur-bani-apli in 
Assyria (on the 12th day of lyyar— April-May), 
and Samas-sum-ukin (Saosduchinos) in Babylo- 
nia. The attempted revolt of the Egyptians 
under Tirhakah, who had taken possession of 
Memphis, led to the destruction of Ni'a (No, or 
No-Amon, i.e., Thebes, "No of the god Anion," 
not "populous No," as in the Authorized Ver- 
sion). The city was sacked, its monuments de- 
stroyed and carried away, and the people carried 
into captivity. It is to this captivity that Na- 
limii refers in his prophecy (Nah. 3:8) as a re- 
cent event. Assur-bani-apli is generally re- 
garded as "the great and noble Asnappcr" of 
Ezra 4: 10. His portrait will be found on page 119. 

After the death of Assur-bani-apli the Assyri- 
an empire began to decline, and her enemies 
began to take their revenge upon her. In the 
time of Sin-sarra-iskun (Saracos) Nineveh was 
besieged and destroyed by Cyaxares, king of 
Media, assisted by Nabopolassar, the rebel vice- 
roy of Babylonia. Nebuchadnezzar (better Neb- 
uchadrezzar), son of Nabopolassar, who reigned 
from 601 to 501 b.c, raised the power of Babylo- 
nia to a greater pitch than it had ever reached 



before. Tvre was added to the Babylonian do- 
minions, Palestine conquered, and Jehoiachin 
and the Jewish nobles carried into captivity to 
Babylon (596 B.C.). In 585 B.C. Jerusalem was de- 
stroyed, together with the temple, and the exile 
of the remnant of the nation of David and 
Solomon began. Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt the 
greater part of the city of Babylon, restoring 
and enlarging its fortifications, rebuilding the 

or Nabonidus, who reigned from 555 to 538 b.c, 
He does not seem to have been by any means 
a warlike monarch. This king refers, in one of 
his inscriptions, to his eldest son, Bel-sarra-usur, 
or Belshazzar, who is also often mentioned in 
private documents. He was probably associated 
with his father on the throne of Babylonia, and 
might thus be regarded as the second ruler in 
the kingdom of which, on the night of his 
death, Daniel was made the third (Dan. 5: 29). 
Gobryas took possession of the city for his 
master, Cyrus, who was proclaimed king in suc- 
cession to Nabonidus and his son, in 538 B.C. 
Nabonidus, who surrendered, is said to have 
been made governor of Carmania, and Babylo- 
nia became a part of the Persian empire. 


The religion of the Semitic inhabitants of 
Babylonia and Assyria seems to have been orig- 
inally a very near approach to monotheism 
(the worship of Ya, or Jah), though no records 
of that period are known, to enable it to be said 
with certainty how far it was so. The arrival 
of the Akkadians, with their extensive and 
well-developed pantheon, caused a great change, 
though there is the possibility that many fami- 
lies or tribes (such as that of Abraham) clung 
with tenacity to their ancient monotheistic 
beliefs, such as they were. The Akkadians 
brought with them the worship of Ami, the god 
of the heavens; Mi or Ae (Oannes), the god of 
"the deep"; Mum (or Alim), identified with Bel, 
Marduk or Mcroclach (a corruption of Amar-utuk, 
"the brightness of day"); Nana or Istar; Beltis; 
and a host of minor gods and goddesses. The 
number of divine personages amounted to 
about 5,000 (Assur-nasir-apli says 65,000), but the 
principal gods numbered only 50 or 60. At an 
early date the worship of the sun-god (Samas) 
assumed large proportions, and the city of Sip- 
para, the center of that worship, attracted vo- 
taries from all sides, and offerings were made 
even by Egyptians. Other cities had temples to 
the moon-god Sin, and Istar or Venus. This 
worship of the heavenly bodies was probably 
due to the study of astronomy, which induced a 
kind of star ivorship, many of the gods being 
identified with th/e stars and planets. This star 
worship, in later days, seems to have found 
favor with the Israelites, as is indicated by Amos 
5: 26, "Yea, ye have borne Sikkuth, your king, 
and Chiun, your images, the star of your god 
which ye made to yourselves " (R.V.), Sikkuth 
being regarded as the Akkadian Sakkut, a name 
of the god Ninip, and Chiun as the Assyrian 
Kaawann, the planet Saturn. The "host of 
heaven" which Manasseh worshiped (II. Ki. 
21: 3) is probably the Ansar ("host of heaven") 
of the Babylonian creation-legend (cf. Gen. 2: 1). 
Reference to this worship is made in II. Ki. 23: 5, 
where the people are spoken of as burning in- 
cense to Baal, to the sun, the moon, the planets, 
and all the host of heaven, and in Zeph. 1: 5, 
and Jer. 19: 13, from which we learn that this 
worship took place upon the housetops. These 
idolatrous practices were suppressed by Josiah. 
The idolatries of the Jews of the exile are men- 
tioned in Isa. 65: 3, where they are spoken of 
as sacrificing in gardens and burning incense 

upon bricks, and are contrasted (v. 7) with their 
forefathers, who worshiped upon the high places 
and hills of Palestine. Horses and chariots were 
also dedicated by the Jewish kings to the sun 
(II. Ki. 23: 11), as did the Babylonians at Sippara 
(the seat of the worship of the sun-god), and, 
later, the Persians. Jewish women seem to 
have been most attracted by the Akkadian 
myth of Adonis (from the Semitic adonai, 
"lord"), which had spread all over the Semitic 
East. Adonis, or Tammuz (Ezek. 8: 14), was the 
Akkadian Dumu-zi (" son of life "), and stood for 
the sun, whose wintry decline after the summer 
solstice was bewailed by women, who commem- 
orated thus, in accordance with the Babylonian 
ritual, the descent of Istar's spouse into Hades. 
Women wept for Tammuz even in the north 
gate of the temple at Jerusalem (Ezek. 8: 14). 
Besides all the above-named deities, however, 
the Babylonians and Assyrians believed in the 
existence of a large number of evil spirits or 
demons, which constantly had to be exorcised, 
and it is probably from this that the later Jews 
borrowed their demonology, of which the book 
of Tobit gives a specimen in the story of Asmo- 
deus (3: 8), and the description how the evil 
spirit was to be exorcised (6: 17; 7: 2). Clay 
images of gods were placed by the Assj T rians 
under the floors of the palaces, etc., apparently 
to protect the building. These remind one of 
the small images, or terapliim, so often men- 
tioned in the Bible (Gen. 31: 19, 34; II. Ki. 23: 24; 
IIos. 3: 4, etc.), which were apparently the 
household gods, from whom, also, oracles were 
sought (Zech. 10: 2). 


The Babylonian story of the flood is inscribed 
on the eleventh tablet of the series recounting 
the exploits of the Babylonian hero Gilgames 
(pr. GU-gah-mess, with hard g.) *The hero had 
become smitten with some disease (for which 
in his own land there was no remedy), and 
with the desire for immortality. He therefore 
set out with a companion named Ur-Sanabi, 
"the boatman," to seek Um-napistim, the 
Babylonian Noah, who dwelt "in a remote 
place at the mouths of the rivers," which was 
reached, by water, and which is supposed to be 
the island of Bahrein. Whilst yet afar off, they 
saw the patriarch, and a conversation took 
place, in which Gilgames mentions wonder- 
ingly Um-napistim's unchanged appearance, 
and asks him how he has attained immortality. 
In answer, the deathless sage tells the story of 
the Hood. The gods, who dwelt within the city 
Suripak, or Surippak, on the Euphrates, decided 
to make a flood, and Ea, or Ae (Oannes), god 
of the sea, repeated their decision to the earth, 
saying: "Land, land; field, field,— O land, hear; 
and field, understand! Surippakite, son of Um- 
bara-Tutu (Otiartes), destroy thy house, build a 
ship (cf. Gen. 6: 14) ... . cause the seed of life, 
all of it, to go up into the ship " (cf. Gen. 6: 19-21). 
The god Ea then goes on to tell him the dimen- 
sions of the ship, and Um-napistim asks the god 
concerning it. After a mutilated portion and a 
break, the building of the ship is described, how 
it was caulked, within and without, with bitu- 
men (cf. Gen. 6: 14), and how it was provisioned. 
Um-napistim then collected all his property, in- 
cluding his silver and gold, and made all the 
seed of life to go up into the ship, together with 
his family, his female slaves, and all the beasts 
and cattle of the field (cf. Gen. 7: 7-9, 13-15). Sa- 
mas (the sun-god) appointed the time, and gave 
directions to Um-napistim to enter the ship, for 
he was about to cause a heavy storm to come. 

1 A brief portion only of the account is here given. 
Its style and narrative may be judged by what is thus 



Um-napistim then says : " Four days I watched 
his [the sun-god's] image— the time to be ob- 
served. I was afraid; 1 entered into the midst 
of Hi.' ship, and shut the door. To close the 
ship, I gave to Buzur-Kurgal, the boatman, the 
great house with its goods." 

Reverse of the best preserved of the fragments in- 
scribed with the Babylonian account of the flood, 
from Kouyunjik (Nineveh), and now in the British 
Museum. The first (right-hand) column tells of Bel's 
anger at the preservation of a portion of the human 
race, how he was appeased and conferred immor- 
tality on Um-napistim (-=Noah). 

At dawn there arose from the horizon of 
heaven a dark cloud, in the midst of which 
Hadad thundered. In front of it went Nebo 
and Sarru (=Merodaeh), and the bearers of 
their thrones carried them over mountains and 
plains. The weapon of Uragal (Nergal) cast 
down, Ninip went, causing the storm to de- 
scend; the spirits of the earth (Anunnaki) 
raised their torches, lighting up the land with 
their brightness (cf. Gen. 7: 11-20); then Hadad's 
raging waters sought even the heavens, and 
everything that was bright turned to darkness. 
In the next column the text runs as follows (a 
small portion only being here given to indicate 
its charaeter): 
Like a battle against the people, it sought [to de- 
They saw not each other— the people in heaven rec- 
ognized not each other. 
The gods feared the tempest, and 
Brew back, they ascfeiided to the heaven of Anu- 
The gods like kenneled dogs lay down in the dwell- 
Istar cried out as one travailing [variant: filled with 

The Supreme One [variant: the lady of the gods] 

made known her goodness: 
"The past bath turned to clay 

Because I spoke evil in the presence [variant: assem- 
bly] of the gods. 
When I spoke evil in the presence [variant: assem- 
bly] of the gods, 
For the destruction, of my people I spoke of battle. 
Have I begotten mankind? Where is he? — 
Like the sons of the fishes he filleth the sea! " 
The gods above the Anunnaki Inspirits of earth] were 

weeping with her. 
The gods sat bowed down in lamentation, 
Pressed together were their lips [in all?] the assem- 
The wind hloweth, the flood and hurricane destroy. 
'the seventh (lav, when it came, Unit hurricane, and 

t lie advancing Hood, 
Whiclv-had stricken down like a whirlwind, 
Ceased, the sea became calm, and the storm and 
flood stopped (cf. Gen. 8:1,2). 

Besides the account given above, there was 
another story of the flood, told in the third per- 
son, in which the principal personage is called 
At r a- k basis (as in line twenty-three of the 
reverse of the above fragment), the Xisithrus 
of the Greeks. Fragments only of this version 



The fact that Abraham came from Ur of the 
Chaldees probably accounts for a certain amount 
of likeness between the account of the creation 
as given in Genesis and the Babylonian account, 
as well as the striking similarity that exists in 
the story of the flood in the Bible and in the 
cuneiform inscription.- In the Babylonian leg- 
end of the creation, the beginning of all things, 
the coming forth of the gods, the creation of the 
heavenly bodies and of the animals of the earth, 
are treated of, but there is no division into 
periods corresponding with the "days" of Gen. 
1. There is also a non-Semitic story of the cre- 
ation which has some analogies with the ac- 
count given in the second chapter of Genesis. 
In both these accounts, as well as in the 
story of the flood, polytheism plays a prominent 
part. In the Semitic Babylonian story of the 
creation there is a long account of the fight be- 
tween Merodach and Kirbis-tiamtu, the original 
of Bel and the dragon, whose images Daniel is 
represented as having destroyed. It is not un- 
likely that the story of the tower of Babel is 
connected with some legend current at the time 
when Abraham was in the country. At a later 
period, and notably during the exile, the large 
literature referring to magic and charms had 
effect on the Jewish mind, and we find, there- 
fore, Ahaz using the brazen altar in the temple 
for the purpose of divination (II. Ki. 10: 15), and 
the circumstance of the witch of Endor, at a 
rather earlier date, may be due to the same in- 
fluence, for the literature concerning witchcraft 
was very extensive in Babylonia and Assyria. 
The Babylonians and Assyrians were, on the 
whole, very religious. They were constantly 
invoking and adoring their gods, and prayer 
was made to them on every possible occasion. 
They seem to have believed in the immortality 
of the soul, and it is probable that they regarded 
the spirits of the departed as ultimately attain- 
ing the bliss of life among the gods. All, how- 
ever, had first, like Tamiiiuz, to go down into 
Hades, the land of no return, corresponding 
closely with the Hebrew Shcol, and, passing 
through its seven gates, there to dwell, in the 
realm of the queen Eres-ki-gal, among the bird- 
like spirits who filled the place, feeding on dust. 
From this gloomy place the souls of the dead 
could only be brought forth by magical incan- 
tations, as in the case of the raising of Samuel 
by the w r itch of Endor (see also Isa. 8: 19). The 
Tel-el-Amarna tablets (see Plate I.) show that 
the legends of the Babylonians were known 
even in Egypt. 



The idolatrous practices of the Israelites have 
already been mentioned, as well as the magic 
and incantations. It is also not unlikely that 
the burning of sweet spices at the burial of 
the dead (II. Chr. 16: 11) was borrowed from 
Babylonia, where, however, the bodies seem to 
have been burned— not committed to the earth. 
Some of the Jewish festivals, such as the new 
moons and Sabbaths, may havecomo originally 
from thai country. The "shepherd of the great 
people" was not to eat flesh that had been 
cooked by a lire of embers, was not to change 



his clothing or wear white apparel, and was not 
to make sacrifice. The king was not to ride in 
his chariot, the seer was not to disclose a secret 
place, and the physician was not to lay his hand 
on the sick. The king was to make offerings to 
Merodach and Istar at nighttime, and to sacri- 
fice victims, and the raising of his hands (in 
prayer) would be acceptable to the deity. The 
nineteenth day of the month was also a day of 
the same kind, because it was a week of weeks 
from the first day of the foregoing month, and 
three weeks from the twenty-eighth day of the 
same. This nineteenth day was called "the 
white," apparently on account of its extreme 
sanctity. None of these days, which were un- 
suitable for work, had any of the strictness of 
the Jewish Sabbath, nor does that name seem to 
have been applied to them. Besides the abqve, 
there was another day to which the name of 
Sabattu, or Sabbath, was really given, and which 
is explained as "a day of rest for the heart." 
This, however, was the fifteenth day of the 
month, and was probably only kept if business 
were not pressing. With the Akkadians, Assyr- 
ians, and Babylonians, the number seven was 
a sacred number, probably originally for lin- 
guistic reasons, but also because of the seven 
planets, the mystic serpent with seven heads, 
and similar things. The observance of the 
seventh day as sacred went back to a very 
remote period, and extended, with many other 
practices, all over the ancient East. 



The name by which Egypt is mentioned in the 
Bible is generally Mizraim, "the two marches" 
or "boundaries," and it is by that name, or its 
singular, that the country was and is known to 
all Semitic nations. The dual form is generally 
regarded as referring to the two divisions of 
Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt. 
The modern name, Egypt, is from the name of 
the nome called Koptites in Greek (from Qefti, 
the capital) and Horui in Egyptian. It is from 
the Greek form of this name that the word 
Copt, by which the Egyptian Christians are 
known, comes. Whether Egypt be the oldest 
kingdom in the world or not is uncertain, but 
there is no people existing whose history can be 
traced back to such a remote period as theirs. 
Manetho, the Egyptian priest of Sebennytus, 
gives thirty djmasties from Menes to the time of 
Nectanebo II. (3-10 B.C.), extending over a period 
of 3,555 (really 3,553) years. The best approximate 
date for the foundation of the kingdom is there- 
fore about 3893 B.C. The chronology becomes 
more definite after the beginning of the New 
Empire (1701 B.C.), and the dates of the kings of 
Egypt from 685 B.C. (the 20th dynasty) are now 
well known. The primeval monarchy followed 
the mythical period. Menes was the first mortal 
king, and is said to have founded Memphis (Hos. 
0: 6, Moph, elsewhere Noph, both a corruption 
of the Egyptian Mennofer), which was the capi- 
tal until the sixth dynasty (about 2956 B.C.). 
Cheops, Chephren, and Mycerinus, the three 
well-known kings of the fourth dynasty, built 
the three great pyramids of Gizeh. Under the 
twelfth dynasty the scepters of Upper and 
Lower Egypt were united, and a revival of the 
art of the country took place. Fortifications 
also were erected on the northeast frontier, ex- 
tending across the present Isthmus of Suez. It 
was probably about this time that Abraham 
and Sarah visited Egypt (Gen. 12: 10), and other 
Semitic families are known also to have applied 
for permission to enter the country. During 
the thirteenth dynasty (about 2194 B.C.) these 
immigrations became more frequent, and the 
Semitic settlers grew so powerful that they were 
able to obtain possession of the whole of Lower 

Egypt, and were known as the Hyksos, or Shep- 
herd kings. These kings ruled at Zoan (or 
Tanis) and Avaris, whilst the native kings, 
whom they had driven out, ruled in Upper 
Egypt. It was during this period that Joseph 
and Jacob came to Egypt, and the favorable 
treatment which they met with at the hands of 
the king then ruling was probably due to their 
being of the same race as himself. According 
to Brugsch, the name of the ruler under whom 
Joseph acted was Nub, a foreign prince who 
ruled about 1750 B.C., and the famine itself, which 
took place during Joseph's administration, has 
been identified by him with that to which an 
official named Baba refers in an inscription in 
which he gives an account of his services to his 
king and country. 

Fortune went at last against the foreign dy- 
nasty, however, and the Shepherd kings were 
driven out by the native princes, with which 
the New Empire (beginning with the eighteenth 
dynasty) was inaugurated. The "new king 
who knew not Joseph " was probably Rameses 
II. (see Plate VII.) of the nineteenth dynasty, 
after whom the treasure-city Raamses (Ex. 1: 11), 
built by the Israelites, was named. 1 The op- 
pression of the Israelites is to be attributed to 
the fact that they were associated with the 
Hyksos, upon whom, as conquerors of Egypt, 
and as a race of heretics, the Egyptians looked 
with the bitterest hatred. A great literary re- 
vival took place during the reign of Rameses 
II. Merneptah II., his successor, is generally 
regarded as the Pharaoh of the exodus. It is 
not improbable that the departure of the 
Hebrews from Egypt was due to and facilitated 
by external troubles, namely, the inhabitants 
of Canaan throwing off the Egyptian yoke, 
whilst the former country, weakened by its 
struggle with Egypt, would naturally fall an 
easier prey to the wandering and hardship- 
hardened sons of Jacob. The residence of the 
kings of this dynasty seems to have been Tanis 
(Zoan), thus confirming the statement (Ps. 7S: 43) 
as to God's "wonders in the field of Zoan." 
With the next dynasty (the twentieth— that of 
Rameses III. and his successors), a revival took 
place, but the throne was afterwards usurped 
by priests of Tanis (Zoan), who, however, could 
not exact obedience from their Asiatic vassals 
by force, and tried, therefore, a conciliatory 
policy. It was probably a daughter of a prince 
of this dynasty that Solomon married, and from 
whom he received the many favors mentioned 
in I. Ki. 3: 1; 9: 16; 10: 28. Shishak or Sheshonq 
1., the founder of the twenty-second dynasty 
(which is supposed to have been of foreign- 
Assyrian or Elamite— origin), again attempted 
military expeditions, assisted Jeroboam, Solo- 
mon's rebellious servant (I. Ki. 11: 26, 40), against 
Rehoboam, and besieged and captured Jerusa- 
lem (I. Ki. 14:25,26), spoiling the temple. His 
conquests, with a list of the towns taken in 
Judah and Israel (one of the names given reads 
Yudah malek, perhaps " kingdom of Judah "), is 
inscribed on the south wall of the temple of 
Ammon at Karnak. Osorkon I., his successor, 
is supposed by some to be the Zerah of II. Chr. 
14: 9, who invaded Palestine and was defeated 
by Asa, but this is very doubtful, as the Ethio- 
pians do not seem to have gained real possession 
of Egypt until a hundred years later, and 
Osorkon could hardly have been called one. It 
was about 715 that the Ethiopians took posses- 
sion of Nubia and Upper Egyjot, and Shabaq, 
the biblical So, made an alliance with Hoshea 
of Israel (II. Ki. 17: 4), an alliance which led to 

*The other treasure-city built by the Israelites, 
Pithom, has been discovered by M. Naville. The 
monuments found on the spot show that it was 
founded by Rameses II., thus confirming the identi- 
fication of this king as the Pharaoh of the oppression. 
His mummy is now in the museum of Gizeh. 



the Assyrian captivity of the Israelites. Later 
on, also, the Jewish kings were; compelled to 
turn to Egypt for deliverance, hut Egypt proved 
to be but a "broken reed." Sahatok, the suc- 

Ceated by Sennacherib at the battle of feltakeh. 
After a struggle extending over several years, 
Egypt was conquered by Esarhaddon ((>70 n.c.), 
but revolted after his death, which took place 
as he was again going to Egypt two years later. 
It was again subdued by the generals of A ssur- 
bani-apli on two occasions, on the latter of 
which Thebes was sacked (Nah. 3), but the 
Assyrians found it impossible to retain posses- 
sion of so large and distant a country; Psahi-, 
metichus, the leader in the battle "with the 
Assyrians, ascended the throne about <i(J(i B.C., 
and founded the twen(y-sixt fa dynasty. Necho 
his son and successor, after slaying Josiah at 
the battle of Megiddo (II. Ki. 23:29)', was defeated 
by Nebuchadnezzar at Carchemish. Necho 
afterwards deposed Jehoahaz, whom he im- 
prisoned at Hi blah, exacted from the country a 
tribute or tine of 100 talents of silver and a 
talent of gold, and made Jehoiakim king in 
his stead (II. Ki. 23; 31-35); Hophra, or Apries. 
i.>!)1-;>70 r>.r.) captured Sidon, and marched to 
the relief of Zedekiah when the latter was 
attacked by Nebuchadnezzar (Jcr. 37:5, 7, 11). 
Jerusalem having been captured by the Baby- 
lonian king, however, Hophra accorded an 
asylum to its exiled inhabitants, including 
Jeremiah, after the murder of Gedaliah. In 
consequence of a defeat, Hophra's army re- 
belled against him, and placed Amasis on the 
throne. This king had a prosperous reign, 
though beseems once to have come into con- 
flict with Nebuchadnezzar, and on his death in 
526 B.C. Psammetiehus III., Ins son, was defeated 
by < 'ambyses, who had invaded Egypt, and the 
counhy was reduced to the condition of a 
Persian province. The country passed success- 
ively under the dominion of the Ptolemies, 
Romans, Byzantines, and Mohammedans. 

One of the fundamental principles of Egyp- 
tian religious belief was the worship of the sun 
(Ra), which was adored under various forms, as 
the evening sun, the sun passing through the 
lower hemisphere during the hours of night, 
and as the rising sun (as with the Hebrews, 
evening and night preceded the morning and 
day). The rising of the sun daily to new birth 
ty pi lied the creation, which power was wor- 
shiped by the Egyptians. According to the 
esoteric or inner teaching of the Egyptian 
priesthood, Ra was the great Universe, and the 
other gods merely personifications of his var- 
ious attributes, thus making a kind of mono- 
theism, which was the belief of the initiated. 
Ra is sometimes termed the sonl of Osiris, who 
was, therefore, also a form of the sun. Osiris 
was regard ( d as the principle of life, a pure and 
perfect being, and the personification of the 
good and the beautiful. Many of the gods 
Were worshiped under the forms of animals, 
which weie selected to represent them, and 
whose dispositions and habits corresponded to 
the power or phenomenon of nature which the 
god typified. All the Egyptians believed in the 
immortality of the soul, the resurrection of the 
body, and a future state of rewards and punish- 
ments. Once within the Amenti (Amenthes, or 
Hades), the sonl had to undergo many trials, 
and after being judged, might, if the decision 
had been favorable, unite with the divinity 
from which it had emanated, or walk new 
among tike living in any form it liked. If, 
however, the judgment were otherwise, it had 
to sutler the torments of hell, or else to pass 
into the bodies of animals, in which it con- 

tinued its existence, and at last returned to its 
original human form to live regain, and to be 
tried once more, after death, by the judges of 
Hades. It was on account of this belief of the 
resurrection of the body that embalming was 
practiced, the intention being to preserve the 
earthly abode of the soul for reoccupancv at 
the last day. It is doubtful whether Egyptian 
polytheism or animal worship was ever prac- 
ticed by the Hebrews or not. The circumstance 
of the golden calf (Ex. 32) implies that they had 
inclinations that way, but this idol was prob- 
ably really a Phenician one, and not, as would 
at first be supposed, a, representation" of the 
bull Apis. It was to this same influence that 
Jeroboam's calf-worship was probablv due. 
With the Hebrews, too, the idea of a "future 
state does not seem to have taken definite 
shape until a comparat i vel v late date, and this 
shows how little Egyptian beliefs, attractive as 
t hey were, had effect upon them. It was rather 
the idolatry of their Semitic kinsmen of the 
Delta that the prophets feared than that of 
Egypt proper. The sacerdotal system of the 
two nations also differed considers Id v, for win 1st 
that of the Hebrews was inherent in the tribe 
of Levi exclusively, the Egyptian priesthood, 
though mostly hereditary (females as well as 
males being included in it), could be entered by 
any member of the laity. Priests could also 
hold various civil offices. 



Persia was originally con lined to the small 
province of Fars, or l^arsistan, extending from 
Media on the north to the Persian Gulf on the 
south. The Persians were Aryans, like their 
modern descendants and most European na- 
tions, and were allied to the Aryan Medes, who 
had invaded and overcome the old so-called 
Turanian inhabitants of Media, in the eighth 
century B.C. The PasargacUe were the most dis- 
tinguished of the noble tribes of Persia, and 
from them sprang the Aclmemenians, to which 
royal line the great rulers of the race, Cvrus. 
Cambyses, and Darius the Great belonged. Ci/rus, 
whom God had chosen as the instrument to 
punish Babylon, founded the Persian empire 
by the conquest of Media, quickly followed by 
that of Lyelia and Babylonia. It is owing to the 
fact that the Persians were at first practically a 
Median tribe that we find them so often men- 
tioned together (Esth. 1 : 19, " Persians and Medes "; 
Dan. 6:8, etc., " Modes and Persians"). Moved 
by the sympathy of a common monotheism, 
and perhaps also a recognition of services 
rendered by Jewish exiles when the Persians in- 
vaded Babylonia, Cyrus allowed them, bv a 
special royal proclamation, to return to their 
native land and rebuild the temple, thus fulfill- 
ing the prophecies of Jeremiah (Ezra 1 : 1). This 
permission was principally taken advantage of 
by the priests, but few of (lie people Venturing 
to give up their positions at Babylon for the un- 
certainties of a new settlement at .Jerusalem. 
Under Sheshbazzar, or Zerubbabel, who was 
made governor of the district of Jerusalem by 
Cyrus, and under Ezra and Nehemiah, the 
temple, after a delay of sixteen years on ac- 
count of the Opposition of the Samaritans, was 
rebuilt, and dedicated in the sixth year of Darius 
Hystaspes. During this period many changes 
had taken place. Cambyses, after reigning for 
a short period with his father (the former as 
king of Babylon, the latter as king of countries), 
had become sole king, and had conquered and 
added Egypt to the empire. On the death of 
Cambyses a whole host of pretenders to the 
throne had arisen. It was in the second year of 
Darius Hystaspes, 51!) or 520 b.C, after he had 
overcome the pretender Nidintu~Be>, that the 



original decree of Cyrus for the rebuilding of 
the temple at Jerusalem was found at Ecbatana 
in Media, and thus furnished the new ruler 
with an opportunity to show his sympathy 
with the Jews by issuing a new and stall more 
favorable decree for its completion (Ezra (>). 
The Jews prospered greatly during his long 
reign. His successor was Xerxes, who is prob- 
ably the Ahasuerus of the book of Esther and 
of Ezra 4:6. Under the reigns of both Xerxes and 
Artaxerxes (Longimanus) the Samaritans made 
difficulties for the Jews with regard to the build- 
ings at Jerusalem, and in the year 4o8 B.C. the 
latter sent Ezra again thither to organize and re- 
assure his co-religionists there, and Neliemiah 
who had been made Artaxerxes' cupbearer, was 
appointed governor of Judea, and succeeded not 
only in the restoration of the walls of the city, 
but in the consolidation of the Jewish com- 
munity into an organized state, under the over- 
lordship of the Persian king. 


The Persians were, in a sense, monotheists, and 
followers of Zoroaster, but their beliefs were 
fundamentally different from those of the 
Jews. They believed in Ormazd {Ahura-mazda, 
the all-wise lord), the creator and only god in 
the true sense of the word. This supreme being 
was the principle of light and goodness. Op- 
posed to him was Ahriman {anra mcani/u, the 
evil spirit), emblematic of darkness and evil, 
who brought sin and misery into the world. 
Under Ormazd and Ahriman were a vast num- 
ber of inferior beings— angels and evil spirits 
(daeva), at the head of the former being the 
seven Ameshaspentas (deathless spirits), or arch- 
angels. \ > 

Persian monotheism, however, had at various 
times certain tendencies towards polytheism, 
hence the worship of the sun {Mithra) and of 
the goddess of love (Anahita). The Persians have 
also been known, from very ancient times, as 
fire-worshipers. Their dislike for images of 
gods, which won for them the sympathy of 
their Jewish subjects, was not a very thorough- 
going one, for Ahura-mazda, or Ormazd, is 
often represented under the form of a man 
within a winged disc or ring, like the figures of 
the Assvrian national god Assur, and Ahriman 
appears as a monster with a bull's head, wings, 
his hind legs as those of a bird, and a scorpion's 
tail, like a figure often seen on Babylonian 
boundary stones. The Jews remained quite un- 
influenced by Persian monotheism, but it is 
possible that Persian demonology, with that of 
Babylon, as the book of Tobit indicates, was to 
a certain extent adopted by them, or at least 
caused a change in their previously formed 



The Phenicians called themselves Kanaani 
(Canaanites), that is to say, "lowianders," and 
this name seems to have extended to denote 
the whole of Palestine. Their power began with 
the increase of the coast cities — Sidon (before 
2000 B.C.), Gebal, or Byblos (certainly not later 
than 2000 B.C.), Arvad, Zemer, and Arke. The 
Egyptians called the country Kefi, and the in- 
habitants Kef a. The Delta of the Nile was 
called Keft-ur, a word regarded as meaning 
"Great Phenicia," from the number of Pheni- 
cians settled there. This Kcfl-ur is explained as 
the original of the Caphtor of Deut. 2: 23, Amos 
9:7, and Jer. 47: 4; and the Philistines who came 
from Caphtor must therefore have been of Phe- 
nician origin. Many Phenician towns were con- 
quered, one of the last being Laish (Judg. 18: 27), 

which belonged to Sidon, and which, being at a 
distance from that place, fell an easy prey to 
the Danites, who afterwards changed its name 
to Dan. After Israel had become settled, when 
David was at the height of his power, the rela- 
tions between the Israelites and the Phenicians 
were of a most peaceful and cordial character, 
and Hiram, son of Abibal, king of Tyre, became 
the ally of David, and sent him gifts (II. Sam. 
5- 11). The Phenicians had become the chief 
commercial power in the world, and were fa- 
mous for their artistic skill. The friendship 
which Hiram had shown to David he continued 
to his son Solomon, to whom he sent cedar, 
precious metals, and workmen for the temple 
and other buildings which were erected during 
his reign at Jerusalem. The principal artificer, 
the half-Hebrew, half-Tyrian, Hiram (not the 
king), whom Solomon caused to be brought to 
Jerusalem, produced for the decoration of the 
temple, etc., palm-trees, pomegranates, lions, 
oxen, and cherubim (common Phenician deco- 
rative objects), together with the various vessels 
required. Not onlv was this Hiram a skilled 
artisan in metal, but also in stone and wood, in 
the art of dyeing, and in embroidering and the 
manufacture of cloth. Solomon was also in- 
debted to Hiram the king for sailors to navigate 
his ships to Ophir, and gave him in return corn 
and oil, and "twenty cities in the land of Gali- 
lee," which, being of small value, did not please 
the Phenician king, who showed his own su- 
perior generosity by giving Solomon "sixscore 
talents of gold" (cf. I. Ki. 9: 11-14, 26-28). After 
the death of Hiram political dissensions arose. 
His four sons ruled, not uninterruptedly, how- 
ever, for short periods and then Etlibaal, or 
Ithobal, father of Jezebel, the wife of Ahab, 
came to the throne. The division of the king- 
dom of Solomon into two parts had cut off 
Judah from direct intercourse with Phenicia, 
but notwithstanding this, the Tyrians rejoiced 
over the fall of Jerusalem (Ezek. 26: 2), perhaps 
on account of the reforms instituted by Josiah 
—reforms in which they saw an attack on their 
own heathen faith— though they seem to have 
thought that they would benefit commercially 
thereby. Tyre and Sidon occupy also a promi- 
nent place in the prophecies of Isaiah (ch. 23) on 
account of the evil influence the idolatry of the 
country exercised over Judah. Though wealthy, 
the Tyrians, Sidonians, and Gebalites do not at 
this time seem to have been strong enough to re- 
sist the Assvrians, and therefore submitted to 
pay tribute to Shalmaneser II. of Assyria. Tyre 
and Sidon also felt the power of the Assyrian 
king. Ramman-nirari, about the year 804 B.C., and 
later Tiglatli-Pileser (III.) exacted tribute from 
Hiram of Tyre, and Sibitti-Baal of Gebal. Sar- 
gon, too, besieged Tyre. In 702 B.C. Lulia (the 
Elukeus of Josephus), king of Tyre and Sidon, 
w T as attacked" by Sennacherib, and fled to Cyprus, 
both Tvre and Greater and Lesser Sidon being 
captured by the Assyrian king. Tubaal w r as 
now raised to the throne by Sennacherib as 
tributary to Assyria. Urumelek, king of Gebal, 
also sent tribute to the Assyrian king. Sidon, 
at that time ruled by Abdi-Melkutti, was at- 
tacked bv Esarhaddon about the year 677 B.C.; 
the city was captured and destroyed, and the 
king put to death. Esarhaddon, in order to 
complete its ruin, built another city near it, 
peopled with captives from the old town, but 
the commerce of Sidon must have flowed, for 
the time being, to its rival, Tyre. Twelve kings 
belonging to the mainland, among them Baal ol 
Tyre, now gave tribute to Esarhaddon. Ten 
kings of Cyprus also gave tribute. Sidon seems 
soon to have recovered, for we find it mentioned 
in Jer. 25: 22 and 27: 3, and it was the most pros- 
perous citv, in Persian times, in northern Pales- 
tine. Esarhaddon now made an agreement with 
Baal, by which, in return for services rendered, 
the Assyrian king gave him a considerable por- 



tion of the coast hind. The Tyrian king was 
not reconciled to the Assyrian yok«\ however, 
so he entered into an alliance with Tirhakah of 
Egypt, t he result being that Tyre was blockaded, 
though at first with no great success, by the As- 
syrians. In the time of Assur-bani-apli, how- 
ever, they were compelled to sue lor peace, and 
the king of Tyre sent his eldest son, Yahimelek, 
to treat with the Assyrians. Internal dissen- 
sions were caused by t lie tyranny of its last king, 
Baal II., who was deposed in 5G2 B.C., and annual 
mffetes, or judges, appointed. Nebuchadnezzar 
had besieged i he city for thirteen years, and it 
seems to nave been regarded as part of the Bab- 
ylonian empire in 564 n.c, so that Baal II. must 
have reigned as vassal of the Babylonian king. 
The monarchy was restored six years after Baal 
II. had been deposed. Whilst all the othereities 
of Phenicia submitted to the victorious Alex- 
ander, Tyre shut her doors against him, but was 
taken after a.long siege (332 B.C.). Though shorn 
of much of her commerce, Tyre still remained, 
and retained a certain amount of trade. She is 
now a small coast town, surrounded by numer- 
ous garde us, but otherwise a miserable place. 
Sidon took the lead when Tyre was besieged by 
Nebuchadnezzar (Ezek. 26: 7), and maintained it 
until her unlucky contest with Artaxerxes Oc- 
hus (351 B.C.). After Alexander's time Sidon (and 
Phenicia in general) failed to maintain her old 
prosperity. At the present time the trade of 
the place is of no importance at all. 




The Phenicians, in common with the Canaan- 
ites, Philistines, Moabites, Edomites, and Am- 
monites, worshiped Baal and Ashtoreth as their 
grincipal deities. The meaning of the name 
aal (Aram., Bed in Becl-zebub) is "lord," and 
designated the sun. Other names are Moloch 
and Milcom, both meaning king. This deity, 
like Ashtoreth, was worshiped under many 
different forms, each of which could be regarded 
as a different deity, as was also the case with 
the Akkadian polytheism of Babylonia and 
Assyria. This worship, with that of Astarte, or 
Ashtoreth, constantly led the Israelites astray, 
partly on account of their speaking the same 
language, partly because of living in continual 
communication with those who practiced it. 
This worship had, moreover, all the seductions 
of a sensual nature-worship. 

As the hot summer sun, Baal is called, in the 
inscriptions of Africa, Baal chammCui (=Baal- 
sofaris)i and as such was regarded as chief of the 
gods. As the waning winter sun, he was Tam- 
muz, or Adonis, descending to the underworld. 
As Baal-berith in Sichem (Judg. 8: 33; 9: 4, 4G), he 
was the god who kept the covenant between 
men; as Baal-Gad, he was lord of good luck; as 
the patron god of Tyre, he was Baal 8ur ("lord 
of Tyre") or Melkarth ("king of the city"). 
The number of the different forms of this god 
was very great, many of the cities of Phenicia 
and Palestine having a different one. Though 
fundamentally the same as the Babylonian Bel- 
Merodach and Samas (see p. 121) the sun-god 
(Phen., Baal-SJiemesh), the worship of Baal dif- 
fered from that of those gods in being of a far 
grosser nature; hence the severe punishment 
meted out to those who had joined in the worship 
of Baal-Peor (Num. 2o: 3 ff.; Deut. 4: 3). Besides 
Moloch and Milcom, as the sun was called by the 
Ammonites (Lev. 18: 21; I. Ki. 11: 5, 33), he also 
bore the name of Malchan (so read Jer. 49: 1,3, 
instead of " their king ") among the Moabites and 
Ammonites. Both these nations also knew him 
under the name of Chemosh (Judg. 11: 24; I. Ki. 
11: 7). To both these forms of Baal human sacri- 
fices were made, and people burnt their children 

to death (Jer. 7: 31; II. Ki. 3: 27; II. Chr. 28: 3). 
This custom was common to the Canaanites to 
the latest times, and, as in II. Ki. 3: 27, it some- 
times took place upon the walls of the city in 
times of peril. Fortnesatme reason, the propitia- 
tion of the wrath of the deity, the priests of Baal 
cut themselves with knives, dancing around the 
altar with frantic shouts the while, as in I. Ki. 
18: 26-28. As an abomination of the service of 
Baal, there is repeated mention in the Old Testa- 
ment of the male and female devotees against 
whom a law is formulated in Deut. 23: 18. Like 
the other Semitic nations and the Egyptians, the 
Phenicians were worshipers of nature and its 
generative powers, and symbolie pillars were 
therefore dedicated to Melkarth. In accordance 
with this idea, also, every god had a consort, and 
that of Baal was Baaltis, or Ashtoreth (I. Ki. 11 : 
r>, 33), the Greek Astarte and the Assyrian Istar, 
with this difference, however, that whilst with 
the Phenicians she was the reflection of Baal, the 
sun-god, as creator, with the Babylonians she was 
the planet Venus, the daughter of Sin, the moon. 
As the reflection of Baal, she was called by the 
Phenicians shem Baal (" the name of Baal ") and 
p'ne Baal ("the face of Baal "), also Tanith with 
the same meaning. Ashtoreth therefore repre- 
sented the moon, the reflection of Baal as the sun- 
god, and the city Aslitonih-karnaim ("the Ashto- 
reth of the two horns " of the new moon) Mas 
probably so named because the chief seat of her 
worship under this aspect. It was upon this ac- 
count, as mentioned by Philo of Byblos (Gebal), 
that she was represented horned. As goddess of 
love, and counterpart of the Assyro-Babylonian 
Istar, daughter of Sin, the so-called "groves" 
(A. V.), or Asherahs, were dedicated to her (Judg. 
6 : 25-30; II. Ki. 21 :7, etc.). These were the upright 
stems of trees, with, as some suppose, their 
branches, and, if so, would offer some analogies 
with the sacred trees of the Assyrians and Baby- 
lonians. The Phenician Asherah was set up near 
the altar of Baal (Judg. 6 : 28), and as, like the pil- 
lar or obelisk erected to Baal,or Melkarth, it could 
be adapted to Jehovah, that also was prohibited 
in the worship of the latter (Deut. 16 : 21). Besides 
Baal and Ashtoreth, the Phenicians also wor- 
shiped many other deities, to whom they attrib- 
uted various inventions. Among these were 
seven planets, or kabiri ("great ones "), who were 
honored as the directors of all things, their chief 
being Saturn (another form of Baal). 

The names which parents gave their children 
were similar among both Phenicians and Jews. 
It seemed to be no great matter whether a man 
should call his child Jonathan or Baal-yathan, 
Hanniel or Hannibaal. It was probably this 
identity of Baal with El ("God," the Assyr.-Bab. 
ila), indicating the retention of a certain mono- 
theism, which misled the Israelites into idola- 
try. Thus a depraved Solomon could easily be 
of secret opinion that the worship of Baal and 
that of Jehovah were essentially the same, and 
the repeated falling away of Israel was proba- 
bly due to this cause. This, however, did not 
prevent the introduction of the grossest abomi- 
nations. The worship of Baal seems to have 
been instituted among the Jews with great mag- 
nificence. Temples were erected to him, with 
altar and Asherah (I. Ki. 16: 32; II. Ki. 10: 21; 11: 
18; Jer. 11: 13); the altars were built on high 
places and on the roofs of houses (I. Ki. 18: 20; 
Jer. 32: 29); the priests, prophets, and worship- 
ers of Baal and of the Asherah were very nu- 
merous (I. Ki. 18: 19; II. Ki. 10: 19), and were ar- 
rayed in special vestments (II. Ki. 10: 22). Houses 
were built for the sodomites, and women wove 
hangings for the Asherah there. At the worship 
incense was burnt (Jer. 7: 9), and burnt sacrifices, 
with sometimes human victims (Jer. 19: 5), were 
offered; and the worship was accompanied by 
frenzied dances (I. Ki. 18: 26M28). , 

The calf made in Horeb had probably to do 
with Baal- worship (Ex. 32: 4), though in this 



and later instances of calf-worship there may 
have been an intention to worship Jehovah, 
as the case of the prophets of Samaria, who, 
whilst sanctioning it, regarded themselves as the 
prophets of the Lord as well (I. Ki. 22: 5, 6, etc.). 
As early as the times of the judges (Judg. 3: 7; 
10: 6) the children of Israel forsook the worship 
of Jehovah and served "Baalim and Ashtaroth" 
and " the Asherah," and the gods of Syria, Si don, 
Moab, the children of Amnion, and the Phil- 
istines; and Gideon's father, Joash, had an altar 
to Baal and an Asherah (Judg. 6: 25). After the 
death of Gideon the Israelites worshiped Baal- 
berith (Baal of the covenant) at Shechem (Judg. 
8: 33; 9: 4), and after the capture of Dan (Laish), 
Jonathan, Moses' grandson, became, with his 
sons, priest of a graven image, which was prob- 
ably a Sidonian Baal. For the later heathen 
rites Solomon may be regarded as having pre- 
pared the way (I. Ki. 11 : 5). Rehoboam, his son, 
continued it in Judah (I. Ki. 14: 24) with im- 
moral rites, and the marriage of Ahab to Jez- 
ebel, daughter of Ethbaal of Sidon (I. Ki. 16: 31, 
32), gave the worship fresh life in the kingdom 
of Israel. Manasseh of Judah, however, went 
even further than any of these, for he built 
altars to all the host of heaven in the courts of 
the temple at Jerusalem, and set a "graven 
image of Asherah" there, practicing augury and 
witchcraft, and even making his son to pass 
through the fire (II. Ki. 21: 4-7; 23: 6, 11, 12). 


1. The most important of the Aramean states 
to the Israelites was Aram of Damascus, which 
is therefore often called merely Aram (Isa. 7:8; 
Amos 1:5). This district was subjugated by 
David when they came to succor Hadadezer 
of Aram-Zobah. Rezon, however, a vassal of 
Hadadezer, founded the kingdom of Aram of 
Damascus anew, and became a bitter enemy to 
Israel (I. Ki. 11 : 23-25). Benhadad I. made Da- 
mascus supreme in Syria, and his alliance was 
courted by both Baasha of Israel and Asa of 
Judah, with the latter of whom he made a 
league. Later, Benhadad II. (perhaps the son 
of the above), who was a contemporary of Ahab 
of Israel, unsuccessfully besieged Samaria, and 
was defeated by Ahab at the battle of Aphek, 
and afterwards made a league with the Israel- 
itish king (I. Ki. 20: 22-34) by which the latter 
was allowed to "make streets " (trading quarters 
for Israelite subjects) in Damascus. Shalma- 
neser II. of Assyria gives, in his annals, the 
account of his attempts to overcome the Syrian 
league, the chief of which was Addu-idri (iden- 
tified with Benhadad) of Damascus, with Ak- 
habbu mat SirHlda ("Ahab of the land of Israel ") 
as one of his allies. The Assyrian king de- 
feated them at Karkar, and later in two other 
battles. Ahab afterwards lost his life in battle 
with the "king of Syria" (I. Ki. 22:37). The 
next king of Damascus was Hazael, who mur- 
dered his predecessor to get the throne. This 
king ravaged and oppressed Israel, though he 
had himself been defeated by the Assyrian king, 
Shalmaneser II. Benhadad III., the son of 
Hazael, came into contact with Jehoash, and 
was defeated (II. Ki. 13: 25), and Jeroboam even 
captured Damascus itself (II. Ki. 14: 28). Rezin 
of Damascus afterwards made alliance with 
Pekah of Israel, and together they attacked 
Jothan, king of Judah (II. Ki. 15: 37). Ahaz, 
who had meanwhile ascended the throne, in- 
voked the help of Tiglath-Pileser III. of Assyria, 
but this step proved disastrous to the whole of 
Palestine, for although Damascus was taken and 
Rezin slain, the Assyrians conquered the three 
kingdoms, one after the other. In the Assyrian 
inscriptions the kingdom of Damascus is called 
mat Imerisu or mdtu sa Imerisu, the city Dimaski 
or Dimaska. 

2. Aram-Zobali (supposed by Schrader to be 

the Assyrian Subiti, which he sets to the north of 
Palestine). It was ruled, in the time of Saul, by 
several petty kings (I. Sam. 14: 47), and a later 
ruler, Hadadezer, though aided by Damascus, 
was defeated by the forces of David (II. Sam. 
8: 3-8; 10: 6,8). 

3. Other Aramean states are Aram-RehoD, 
Aram-MaachalL, and Geshur in Aram. These 
were merely petty tribes, and were absorbed by 
the more powerful states of Damascus. The po- 
sition of Rehob is doubtful. Aram-Maachah bor- 
dered on Geshur (II. Sam. 15: 8; 3: 3), and both 
formed a part of the tract allotted to the tribe 
of Manasseh (Josh. 13: 11, 13). 

4. Aram-Naharaim, or "Aram of the two 
rivers," is the name given to Mesopotamia in 
the Old Testament (Gen. 24: 10; Deut. 23: 4; Judg. 
3: 8). It lay between the Tigris and the Eu- 
phrates, but only the northwestern portion is 
called Naharaina and Nairi, on the Egyptian 
and Assyrian monuments. In Gen. 25: 20 it is 
called Padan-Aram (the Padan of the inscription 
of Agu, or Agu-kak-rime, an early Babylonian 
king), as well as simply Aram (Gen. 25: 20, "the 
Svrian" — i.e., Aramean — " of Padan-Aram"; Gen. 
28: 5; 31: 20, 24, etc.). The Babylonian Agu-kak- 
rime (about 1800 B.C.) claims to be ruler of that 
country, which also came into conflict with the 
Egyptian kings Thothmes I. (seventeenth cen- 
tury B.C.) and Thothmes III. (sixteenth century 
b.c), who took tribute in large quantity from 
it. It also came into contact with many other 
Egyptian kings. Later, Cushan-rishathaim con- 
quered Palestine, and oppressed the Israelites 
for eight years (Judg. 3: 8-10). This country was 
frequently attacked by the kings of Assyria, who 
took possession of part of it. Haran ("Road"), 
the meeting-point of several trade-routes, was 
one of the most important towns on this tract 
(Gen. 11: 31, 32, etc.). 


The Hittites were descended from Heth, the 
second son of Canaan, and seem to have been a 
considerable power at a comparatively early 
date. During the patriarchal period a portion of 
them had settled in the neighborhood of Hebron, 
and Abraham's contract with the sons of Heth 
for the cave of Machpelah is well known. They 
are regarded as the Khatti of the Assyrian 
monuments and the Kheta of the Egyptian. 
The Khatti are mentioned on the Babylonian 
astrological tablets of an unknown but evi- 
dently exceedingly early date. The Kheta are 
mentioned in the Egyptian inscription of Thoth- 
mes III. (sixteenth century B.C.), who records 
having fought with and defeated them at 
Megiddo. At this time their chief cities seem 
to have been Kadesh, on the Lake of Horns 
(Emesa or Kadas), and Carchemish, now Jera- 
blus, south of Biredjik, on the Euphrates— a 
great trading center. This city seems to have 
been the center of a powerful kingdom until 
captured by Sargon the Later, in 717 B.C., though 
it had given tribute to Assyria long before that 
time. In the fourteenth century B.C. Rameses 
II. of Egypt made a treaty (which was inscribed 
on a plate of silver) with a king of the Khita, 
and married his daughter. Even after the 
power of the Hittites had waned, and they had 
practically disappeared from western Asia, the 
Assyrians still called the country by the name 
of Khatti. Hamath also seems to have been a 
Hittite town, as is indicated by its occurrence 
in a list of the time of Thothmes III., and by 
the fact that Hittite inscriptions have been 
found there. In the time of David it was ruled 
by a king named Toi, with whom he made 
alliance (II. Sam. 8: 10). Later Solomon seems 
to have captured the district, and built store- 
cities there (II. Chr. 8 : 3, 4). Jeroboam also recon- 
quered the city (II. Ki. 14: 25-28), which had 
fallen away in consequence of the troubles 



aixipng t he Jews. In 740 n.c. Azariah formed an 
alliance with the king of Hamatn against As- 
syria, which, however, failed, and Uaniath and 
its nineteen districts were captured by the 

Assyrians. In 720 n.<\ Ham at h revolted under 
Yan-bi'di, who, however, was taken prisoner by 
Sargon the Later at the battle of Karkar. it 
is apparently to this that Sennacherib's rub- 
shakeh refers in II. Ki. 19: 34. 

Besides Ephron the .Ilittite (Gen. 23), there are 
also mentioned as belbhging to the same race 
Judith and Bashemath, Esau's wives ((Jen. 20: 
31; ef. 36: 2, 3), Abimelech, David's companion 
(I. Sam. 26: 0), and Uriah, one of his warriors 
(II. Sam. 11). It is to be noted, however, that 
these names are Semitic. Judging from the 
large number of inscriptions that exist even 
now, the 1 1 it t ites must have been a people who 
had a literature, and it is noteworthy that the 
former name of Pcbir, near Hebron, was Kir- 
iath-sepher, "the book town " (Josh. 15: 15)— also 
a Semitic; name. The inscriptions of the Hit- 
t ites are found at Hamath, Aleppo, Carchemish. 
Marash, Bogaz-keui, and show the wide extent 
of their dominion at the height of their power. 
The art shows considerable similarity to that 
of Assyria. They worshiped a large number of 
divinities, the names of which, however, are 
not known, though the Ashima, or Ashimath, of 
II. Ki. 17: 30, a liamathite deity, may prove to 
be one. 


There was in ancient times a considerable 
trade in western Asia, which followed a large 
number of routes, those by land being neces- 
sarily the most frequented. Caravans went from 
Arabia Felix to Petrsea and Gerrha, from Gerrha 
to Tyre, and from Phenicia to Egypt. There 
were also trade-routes from Lydia to Susa, and 
from Babylon to Phenicia, Syria, Susa, and 
India. The western sea-route from Phenicia was 
by Cyprus, or Chittim, the islands of the .Egean, 
Sicily, Malta, the north coast of Africa, to Tar- 
shish (Supposed to be Tartessus) in Spain, near 
Gibraltar. Phenician sailors seem to have ven- 
tured even beyond this, and have been sup- 
posed to have visited Britain. The eastern sea- 
route was from Ezion-geber and Elath to Ophir. 
The Israelites also seem to have tried to rival 
the Phoenicians, not only in sending ships to 
Ophir (I. Ki. 22: IX, 40), but also Tarshish (Isa. 
2: 10; Jon. 1: 3). In the earlier period it was the 
Midi an ites and Ishmaelites who went to Egypt 
(Gen. 37: 2~>; 39: 1), and later the people of Teina, 
theSa beans (Isa, 21: 1 1; Job. (I: ill), and theDedan- 
ites (Isa. 21 : 13). There I was also maritime trade 
between Phenicia and the Egyptian Delta,' and 
the P>abylonians or Chaldeans, "whose cry is in 
their ships" (isa. 43: 1-1), probably did an exten- 
sive coast-trade. The route to India is probably 
indicated in Isa. 49: 12, where the Sinim are men 
honed, and are, perhaps, to be identified with 
the Shinas of the Hindu-kush. The use of the 
vnaneh of Carchemish as a standard weight at 
Nineveh shows how important the trade of this 
city had heroine. Trade with Babylonia is indi- 
cated by the "goodly Babylonish garment" 
found among the spoils of Jericho (Josh. 7: 21); 
the lapis lazuli (A. V., "sapphires") (Cant. 5: 11; 
Ezek. 28: 13), and probably other precious stones, 
Which were imported into Babylonia from India; 
and, if Indian, the ivory used by the Israelites 
and Phenicians (I. Ki. 10: IS; 22: 39; Amos 6: 4; 
Cant. 7: 4, etc.), though it was also brought by 
the caravans of Arabia | Deda.n) (Isa. 21: 13; Ezek. 
27: 15), and the navy of Tarshish (1. Ki 10: 22). 
Solomon, the wise king of Israel, saw the im- 
portance of developing the trade of his country, 
and it was probably mostly for this reason thai 
he made alliance with Hiram of Tyre, who 
manned the Israelitish ships (L. Ki. 0: 2G, 27), 

which brought gold and other valuable things 
from Ophir (1. Ki. 9:28; 10: 11) and Tarshish (1. 
Ki. 10: 22), and obtained spices and gold from 
the Arabian merchants (I. Ki. 10: 15). The 
united fleets of Solomon and U nam sailed every 
three years to ophir (from which place David 
obtained gold, I. Chr. 2t): 4). and brought, be- 
sides the gold, silver, precious stones, ivory, 
sandalwood, apes, and peacocks (I. Ki. 9: 28; 
10: 11,22). Solomon also caused horses and char- 
iots to be imported from Egypt, at certain prices, 
apparently through the Ilittite and Syrian 
kings (I. Ki. 10: 28, 29.) With the death of'Soio- 
mon the prosperity (and, therefore, the trade) of 
Israel declined, though they probably always 
maintained a certain number of ships for the 
foreign carrying-trade. Jehoshaphat tried to re- 
vive the trade with < )phir (I. Ki. 22: 48, 49), which, 
as the passage here cited implies, had gradually 
ceased, but he was unsuccessful. 

The commercial intercourse of the Israelites 
with the idolatrous nations by whom they were 
surrounded naturally tended to seduce them 
from the worship of Jehovah, and this is the 
reason of the opposition to the importation of 
horses in the Law and the Prophets. (Deut. 
17: 1G; cf. Isa. 30: 1G; Ps. 20: 7). The introduction 
of Phenician heathen practices was probably 
due to the close commercial intercourse with 
that country. 


The fact that Abraham, the father of the 
Israelitish race, came from Ur of the Chaldees, 
probably had some influence on the introduc- 
tion of Babylonian and Assyrian forms into the 
art of the country, but it was the Phenicians 
who were the masters of the Israelites in design 
—indeed, the long wanderings of the Israelites 
before their settlement in the Holy Land must 
have i>re ven ted their attaining skill in any hand- 
icraft that did not produce an actual necessity; 
hence the need of employing Phenician work- 
men in the building of the temple at Jerusalem 
(I. Ki. 5-7). The forms of decoration used by 
them, however, were mostly adaptations of 
those found in Assyria and Babylonia, though 
they were probably modified by the artisans 
who used them. The column was a product of 
Babylonian builders, and seas, or reservoirs, in 
temples (I. Ki. 7: 23) also originated in that 
country. The plan of the temple building was 
probably pure Phenician, but the devices of 
cherubs, palm-trees, pomegranates, "knops and 
open flowers," lions, etc., show that the decora- 
tions were of Babylonian or Assyrian origin. 
The prohibition of the laws of the Israelites 
against reproducing living forms probably pre- 
vented their becoming great in art; hence their 
adoption of foreign ideas and designs, and em- 
ployment of foreign workmen. The pattern of 
the altar which Ahaz ordered to be made (II. Ki. 
10: 10, 11) was not obtained from Assyria, but 
from Damascus. Later on, however, the He- 
brews came into direct contact with Babylonia, 
and we therefore get in Ezekiel (eh. 10) a de- 
scription of the winged figures ol' Assyrian and 
Babylonian art, as well as of their well-known 
style of wall decoration in the reference to the 
"men pourtrayed upon the wall, . . . after the 
likeness of the Babylonians in Chaldea, the land 
of their nativity" (Ezek. 23: 14). 

The Hebrews, like all the Oriental nations, 
loved to deck themselves with jewelry— ear- 
rings, collars, chains, bracelets, armlets, anklets, 
plaques for the breast, and the girdle, as well as 
ornaments for the nose, such as are still worn 
in the East. In the production of all these it is 
probable that the Phenicians were their teach- 
ers, as well as in the art of stone seal-engraving, 
which they practiced. From the Phenicians 
came also the art of writing, and they kept the 



Phenician style of character until the captivity, 
when they adopted the related Aramaic style, 
which ultimately developed into what is now 
used, namely, the "square" Hebrew character. 
It is not unlikely that the cuneiform system, 
which was in use in Palestine before the entry 
of the Jews, still lingered after they took pos- 
session of the country, here and there, and it 
has been supposed that Jer. 32: 10, 11 contains a 
reference to the writing of a contract, in the old 
Babylonian style, on a clay tablet, and provided 
with an envelope of clay, also inscribed, so as 
to insure the preservation of the record. This, 
however, is very doubtful. 

The illustration on page 122 will serve to show 
what an Assyrian tablet in the cuneiform char- 
acter was like (this example, however, is merely 
a fragment, and the trade documents of the 
Assyrians and Babylonians differed somewhat 
from texts of this class). The lapidary style of 
Assyrian cuneiform will be found on page 139 
(Black Obelisk). See also Plates IV. and VI. 

Books or Reference: By-Paths of Bible Knowl- 
edge: Sayce's Fresh Light from the Ancient Monu- 
ments; Assyria; Hittites; Social Life Among the Assyr- 
ians and Babylonians, and Times of LsaiaJi; King's 
Recent Discoveries; Wood's Modem Discoveries in 
Ephcsus; Tompkins' Life and Times of Joseph. 

Wright's Ancient Cities; Archibald's The Bible Veri- 
fied; Sayce's Higher Criticism and the Monuments; 
Wright's The Empire of the Hittites; St. Clair's Buried 
Cities and Bible Countries; Stones Crying Out. 

Bayard's Discoveries at Nineveh; Smith's Assyrian 
Explorations and Discoveries, and Chaldean Account of 
Genesis; Smith's Assyria and Babylonia; Campbell's 
The Hittites; Bobinson's Egypt and Babylon; Budge's 
Babylonian Life and History; Conder's Syrian Stone 

Brugsch-Bey's Egypt Under the Pharaohs; Bobin- 
son's Pharaohs of the Bondage and Exodus; Petrie's 
Ten Years' Digging in Egypt; Trumbull's Studies in 
Oriental Social Life; Freeman's Handbook of Bible 
Manners and Customs; Wilkinson's The Manners and 
Customs of the Ancient Egyptians ; Bawlinson's ^tncienZ 
Monarchies. Consult also articles on Bible Geogra- 
phy and Ethnology. 


Tiberias is mentioned in the history of our Lord in John 6: 1, 23; [21: L After the fall of 
Jerusalem it became one of the chief residence cities of the Jews in Palestine. To its rabbinical 
school we are indebted for the "Masoretic vowel-points." 



By MAJOR C. R. CONDER, D.C.L., LL.D., M.R.A.S., R.E. 

The biblical geography is mainly concerned 
with the Holy Land, although it refers to coun- 
tries from Italy to Persia, and from the Cau- 
casus to the extreme south of Arabia. 


Limits and Features.— The range of mountains 

which runs parallel to the Mediterranean, south- 
wards froin the Taurus to the tongue of the Si- 
naitic peninsula, is bounded by the valleys of 
the Orontes and the Jordan, and extends 000 
miles, with a mean breadth of 40 miles, having 
on the west a narrow plain, which gradually 
broadens into the plateau of the desert of Beer- 
sheba. This region includes three districts: (1) 
The Lebanon, extending 200 miles south to Her- 
mon; (2) western Palestine, from Dan under Her- 
nion (143 miles) to Beersheba at the foot of the 
Hebron bills, with an area of 6,000 square miles; 
(3) the Sinaitie desert, descending in steps from 
the Beersheba plateau to the granitic group of 
the Sinai mountains. East of the rivers men- 
tioned, the shorter chain of the Anti-Lebanon, 
the plateau of Bashan, and the hills of Gilead 
extend east towards the broad Syrian desert. 
Further south, in Moab, a flat plateau extends 
to the clifls above the Dead Sea, and south of 
this, again, the chain of Edom separates the 
desert from the broad valley of the Arabah (Ha 
Arabah, Josh. 18: .18), which runs from the Dead 
Sea to the Gulf of Akabah. The chain of Leba- 
non rises to 10,000 feet above the Mediterranean, 
and Herman, which is an outlier of the Anti- 
Lebanon, is 9,200 feet high— an isolated summit. 
In Palestine the watershed rises to 4,000 feet in 
northern Galilee, and sinks to 250 feet in the 
plain near Jezreel. In Samaria and Judea the 
greatest heights are about 8,000 feet above 
the Mediterranean, gradually decreasing to- 
wards Beersheba, where the plateau is about 
1,000 feet above the same level. The summit of 
Sinai is 7,363 feet above the sea. The Jordan val- 
ley sinks, at the surface of the Dead Sea, to 1,292 
feet below the sea-level, and the highest point 
in the Arabah is GG0 feet above the Mediterran- 
ean. Further east the Anti-Lebanon rises to 
8,000 feet, and the plains of Bashan are about 
2,000 feet. Jebel Osha, the highest point in 
Gilead, is 3,600 feet, and the Moab plateau aver- 
ages about 2,500 feet. Mt. Hor, in the Edom 
chain, is about 4,580 feet above the sea. Petra 
itself is about 3,000 feet. The hills in Gilead are, 
however, only some 500 feet higher than the 
plateau of the Syrian desert to their east. 

Geology.— The Lebanon and the Palestine 
hills consist of a cretaceous limestone, the up- 
per beds being soft chalk and the lower hard 
dolomite. Beneath this main formation is the 
Nubian sandstone (of the greensand period), 
which appears on the west of the Lebanon 
and of Hermon, and on the east side of the Jor- 
dan valley, and in the Edomite mountains, but 
not in western Palestine. Various tertiary 
marls, of marine and lacustrine character, 
occur in the Jordan valley, which was occupied 
in the tertiary period by a series of lakes, per- 
haps connected with the Red Sea. The Jordan 
valley was formed by a convulsion, occurring 
after the chalk period, which caused an im- 
mense fault in fche strata on the east side of the 
depression. This convulsion was accompanied 
by volcanic outbreaks, which covered part of 
the plains of Bashan, near Hermon, with lava. 

Basalt outbreaks also occur west of the great 
fissure, in the Lebanon and in the plains of 
Lower Galilee, but to a less extent. The exist- 
ence of hot springs in the Jordan valley, ami 
the frequent earthquakes, mentioned in various 
ages (I. Ki. 19: 11; Amos 1:1; Matt, 27:54), and 
occurring in recent, times, prove that these vol- 
canic forces are still not quite exhausted. The 
Sinaitic group consists of grani I e and diorite of a 
primitive formation, existing beneath the marls 
and chalks of the Beersheba plateau. This for- 
mation extends also east of the Gulf of Akabah, 
and reaches to Petra at the base of the Edomite 
mountains. On the west of the Palestine hills 
calcareous sandstones occur, on the plains of 
Sharon and Philistia, with raised beaches ex- 
tending to the recent sand-dunes on the coast, 

Mountains.— Among the mountains of the 
north are (1) the Lebanon (Jebel Libnan, Josh. 13: 
6; I. Ki. 5: 6; Ps. 29: 5; Isa. 14: 8; Ezra 3: 7), a 
very narrow, rugged range of hard limestone, 
well watered, and with good soil near its feet. 
"Lebanon towards the sun-rising" {Jebel esh 
Sherki, Josh. 13: 5; Judith 1-7), is the Anti-Li b- 
anus — an arid and desert chain, ending in white 
peaks of chalk on the north, near Palmyra, (2) 
Mt. Hermon, dome-shaped and rugged. To the 
west stretches Ml. Carmel. Along the west of 
the Jordan River are Tabor, Gilboa, andEbal and 
Gerizim, "mountains of blessing and cursing." 
About Jerusalem are Olivet, Moriah, and Sion. 
In the southern limit rises Horeb, or Sinai. 

Rivers.— In the extreme north is the broad, 
rapid Orontes, the Eleutherns; and further north- 
east, the Abana and JPharpar, the rivers of Da- 
mascus. The Leontcs forms the natural division 
of Syria and Palestine. In the center, flowing to 
the sea, is the Kishon. East of the Jordan "are 
the Jabbok, the Arnon, which forms the north 
border of Moab, and the Brook Zered, the north 
boundary of Edom. The River of Egypt (Nakhal), 
is the great torrent which bounds the Holy 
Land on the south. There are several minor 
streams watering Palestine, both those which 
flow west into the sea, and those which join the 
Jordan. The perennial streams of Syria are 
more numerous than those of Palestine, and in 
Judea there are no streams that run all the year, 
as there are in Galilee. 

The Jordan.— The important river of Pales- 
tine is the Jordan. Its historic springs are at 
Banias (Ca^sarea Philippi, Matt. 16: 13; Mark S: 
27), at the foot of Hermon, about 600 feet above 
sea-level; geographically a longer stream (Nahr 
Hesbany) forms the real source on the west slopes 
of the same mountains, 1,700 feet above sea-level. 
The fall of the river is at first very rapid (70 feet 
per mile); but at its furthest end it is less so, 
though still presenting a formidable current (6 
feet per mile of fail). The evaporation in the val- 
ley, 1,000 feet below sea-level, is so great that, in 
spiteof important affluents (of which the largest 
have been named), the river at its mouth is not 
much larger than at its source; at the Jericho 
ford it is about 30 yards across in its ordinary 
condition. The main spring— from the cave at 
Banias— rushes forth in foaming cascades, among 
poplars and shrubs, and Hows to the HiUeh lake 
(waters of Merorn, Josh. 11:7), which is a swampy 

1 Details of the description of mountains, rivers, 
cities, and other geographical features will be usually 
found under their proper name in the Word Book, 
which forms Part VIII. of these Aids. — Editor. 




expanse, with beds of papyrus (about at the 
level of the sea) measuring four miles in length 
by two and one-half in breadth. Thence it falls 
682 feet in ten miles to the sea of Galilee— a nat- 
ural basin ; and the Jordan has formed a delta 
at the north end, which appears to have in- 
creased about a mile in length since the Chris- 
tian era, when Bethsaida Julias (near et Tell) was 
at the river mouth (Matt. 11: 21, etc.; Josephus, 
Antiq., xviii., 2, 1 ; Wars, iii., 10, 7). Leaving the lake 
at the site of Tarichese {Kerak), the Jordan flows 
in a shallow bed, within the sunken channel, 
about one mile across, called the Zor ; there are 
several cascades in this part, and some twenty 
fords, of which the most important— northeast 
of Bethshean— is called Abarah, apparently the 
true site of Bethabara (John 1: 28). After re- 
ceiving the streams from near Tabor and Jez- 
reel, the Hieromax and other affluents from the 
east, the river becomes deeper; the serpentine 
course is often hidden by tamarisk brakes in 
the swamps near the bank. Half-way to the 
Dead Sea a perennial stream from the waters of 
JEnon (John 3: 23) joins on the west, a little 
above the Jabbok mouth on the east. Entering 
the plains of Jericho and Shittim, which lie west 
and east of the stream, two more affluents join 
—the waters of Beth Nimrah (Num. 32: 36) on the 
east, and the torrent of the Kelt on the west. 
The whole length of the Jordan is about 100 
miles, and the fall nearly 2,000 feet. The Jordan 
is a very turbid river, and contains some coarse 
fish of large size. In winter it is swollen by the 
heavy rains, and often fills the whole Zor to a 
width of about a mile. The melting of snow on 
Hermon causes floods also in early spring, which 
is the harvest time in this hot valley (Josh. 3: 
15). The river is liable to be dammed by the 
crumbling in of the high banks of marl, and 
this is said to have occurred in the middle ages. 
Bones of the lion are said to have been found in 
the gravel beds, which are exhibited in the 
Munich Museum (Jer. 49: 19). The modern name 
of the river is EshSheriah{ u the watering-place.") 

Lakes. — The principal lakes in Palestine are 
the Sea of Galilee (of Gennesaret, or of Tiberias) 
and the Dead Sea. The former is a pear-shaped 
basin, twelve miles north and south by eight 
miles east and west at its broadest, and which 
has a depth of one hundred and sixty feet. On 
the east, the Golan plateau falls in steep slopes 
and cliffs to the water; on the west, the plateau 
east of Tabor has equally steep crags; on the 
north, a long slope descends from the Safed 
mountains to the shore, which has here many 
little creeks and bays, and the hard limestone 
is here strewn with basalt. There are two small 
plains— one on the northeast, now called the 
Batihah, which is very swampy; one on the 
west (Gennesaret), which is watered by several 
springs, and has a fertile soil. The papyrus 
grows on the border of the lake in this part, and 
the Coracinus fish (Josephus, Wars, iii., 10, 8) is 
found, with numerous shoals of other species, 
in the waters. The chief places round the lake 
were, Gamala and Hippos in the hills to the 
east; Bethsaida on the north; Chorazin on the 
slopes further west; Caphar Ahim (probably Tell 
Hum) ; Capernaum, of which the site is disputed, 
but which was probably at Minieh, in the plain 
of Gennesaret; Magdala, a poor village at the 
south end of the same plain; Tiberias (ancient 
Rakkath, Josh. 19: 35); Emmaus, at the famous 
hot baths south of the preceding; and finally, 
Taricheo3, mentioned in Egyptian records as early 
as 1350 B.C., at the south end of the lake. The 
waters of the lake are sweet, but somewhat tur- 
bid near the Jordan. The basin is subject to 
sudden storms, such as are mentioned in the 
New Testament (Matt. 8: 24; 14: 24; Mark 4: 37; 
Luke 8: 23). 

The Dead Sea extends forty miles in length by 
ten in breadth, and its level is kept down entirely 
by evaporation, which makes a difference of 

fifteen feet in the winter and summer water- 
marks. The saltiiess is greater than that of any 
other known body of water, 25 per cent, of vari- 
ous chlorides having been found in the analysis 
of specimens. No fish can live in the waters, 
which are extremely buoyant. The greatest 
depth near the east shore is about 1,300 feet. The 
scenery is wild and magnificent, entirely bare 
of trees, except some palm groves in the eastern 
gorges. The formation is of limestone, with 
sandstones on the east. The Sea of Galilee pre- 
sents a much quieter and less savage scenery, 
with more cultivation. No traces of the " cities 
of the plain" (Gen. 13: 12; 14: 8; Josephus, Wars, 
iv., 8, 4) have been discovered; but the balance 
of opinion is in favor of their having been at 
the north end of the Dead Sea, where Zoar {Tell 
Shaghur) has been identified. 

Springs.— Syria and Palestine are well supplied 
with water in most parts, but where the surface 
is of porous chalk the rain soaks down, and in 
such parts the supply is from cisterns. The 
only quite waterless parts are the deserts men- 
tioned below. Gilead and Galilee are especially 
rich in springs, and the hills of Samaria and 
Hebron are well watered. The most famous 
springs noticed in the Bible are five in all: The 
spring of Jezreel (I. Sam. 29: 1) is probably the 
large pool Ain Jalud under the north clitt of 
Gilboa; Harod (Judg. 7: 1), in the same valley, 
west of Bethshean, the site of which is uncer- 
tain; the waters of JEnon (John 3: 23), probably 
the fine brook of Wady Farah, between Salem 
{Salim) on the south and iEnon (Ainun) on the 
north; the spring of Gibeon (II. Sam. 2: 13), which 
rises in an artificial cavern, reached by a tunnel 
from above — where the ancient city stood— as 
well as by steps on the east; En Bogel, or Gihon, 
the only spring now existing at Jerusalem (I. 
Ki. 1: 9, etc.), which may also be the "sheep 
pool" (John 5: 2) or Bethesda ("house of the 
stream "), which is remarkable for the sudden, 
intermittent flow of its waters, in the cave 
which now communicates, by an aqueduct, 
with the pool of Siloam. It is visited by the 
Jews for the healing of disease. Many of the 
names of places in the Bible denote towns near 
springs, which still exist. The sites of Jacob's 
well at Shechem (John 4: 6), and of the well of 
Sirah, north of Hebron (II. Sam. 3: 26), are also 
well known. The name Hammath (Josh. 19: 35) 
denotes the hot springs south of Tiberias (140° 
Fahr.), and other hot springs occur, both east 
and west of Jordan. 

Seacoast.— The Palestine coast has only one 
natural harbor— the open roadstead under Car- 
mel, at the south end of the Bay of Accho. The 
small ports of Gaza, Jabneel, Joppa, and Ca?sa- 
rea are formed by dangerous reefs. Tyre pos- 
sessed two ports, still extant, but both small, 
and formed by reefs. Sidon had a larger port of 
the same character. The other Phenician cities 
had also unimportant harbors, except Tripoli, 
which is said to be the best on the coast. This 
disadvantage may account for the small mari- 
time power of the Hebrews, as compared with 
the Phenicians, Egyptians, and Greeks. 

Plains.— Lower Galilee includes the large Plain 
of Jezreel or Esdraelon (fourteen miles by ten 
miles), of triangular shape. The seaside plains 
of Sharon and Philistia are remarkable for the 
fertility of the soil; on the north of the former 
there was an open woodland of oaks, which still 
exist, though much injured. The plains of 
Bashan are also remarkable for the same rich 
volcanic soil, suitable for corn-land. The plain 
or valley of Jericho and Shittim is less natu- 
rally fertile, owing to the saltness of the soil, and 
is only tilled towards the north, while on the 
south it is scattered with acacias, and near the 
Dead Sea grows only the alkali plant. Corn is 
still grown in the upper part of the Jordan 
valley, where a few stunted palms represent the 
remains of former palm gardens (Josephus, 



Antiq.y xviii., 11, 2). The plateau of Beersheba is 
entirely pastoral, and still sustains Large nocks, 
watered at deep wells. The corn plains cease on 
the south near Gaza. 

Deserts.— The desert parts of Palestine include 
Moab and the southeast part of Gilead, with 
Edoni. West of the Jordan the desert Of Judea 
(Matt. 3: 1) is one of the most desolate regions in 
the world, growing only a little scanty grass in 
early spring. It is shut out from the west breezes 
by the high ridge of the Hebron hills, and is 
entirely waterless, consisting of white chalk 
ridges, reaching to the tremendous cliffs— "the 
rocks of the wild goats" (I. Sam, 24: 2)— by the 
Dead Sea. Even this region, however, supports 
an Arab population. The Beersheba deserts and 
those of the Arabah become more desolate to- 
wards the south, with a white, chalky soil, and 
scattered broom bushes (juniper, I.Ki. 19:4, 5, etc.), 
gradually descending towards the true desert of 
the Sinaitic peninsula, which consists of hard 
rocks, having only here and there an oasis with 
palms beside the stream of Wady Feiran (Pa- 
ran) and elsewhere. The proportion of desert 
to cultivated land in Palestine is, however, per- 
haps not greater than in England. 

Climate and Products.— The climate of Syria is 
not unlike that of Italy, and its seasons are the 
same. In summer, w T hen the west wind blows, 
beginning about 10 a.m., the heat is rarely above 
90° Fahr.; but in May, with the east wind from 
the Syrian desert, it ranges to 104° Fahr. In 
the Jordan valley in summer it is as high 
as 120° Fahr., or even higher, in the shade. The 
summits of Lebanon and Hermon are, however, 
annually covered with snow, which sometimes 
is not altogether melted even in autumn. Snow 
also falls at times on the hills of Samaria and 
Judea. In April the temperature is very pleas- 
ant, and the fields covered with flowers. An 
occasional thunderstorm occurs in June, during 
harvest (I. Sam. 12: 17), but it is not till Novem- 
ber that the rains begin, as a rule. After the first 
thunder showers ("former rains," Deut. 11: 14), 
the plowing begins, the harvest operations being 
then finished. In December and January there 
is much cold and wet weather, with hail and 
snow; this continues till March, which is the 
time of the spring showers, or "latter rains.'' 1 
The average rainfall— 20 to 25 inches— is similar 
to that of other Mediterranean countries, and is 
quite sufficient for the fertility of the country, 
except that the storage of rain water is most de- 
ficient, and the Roman aqueducts in the plains 
of Sharon and Jericho are entirely ruined. The 
desolation of the country has, however, been 
overstated. The hills are covered with scrub 
of mastic, laurustinus, dwarf oak, and styrax, 
with other plants; and the drier chalk, w T ith 
thyme, mint, and other shrubs. The various 
woodlands have been already noticed. The oak 
grows freely, and the pine on higher ground, 
while cedars still flourish on Lebanon, in spite 
of the general disforesting by natives and by 
their herds of goats. The terebinth and the carob 
also appear, in groups or as single trees of good 
size. The fauna of the country differs only in 
two respects from that of the Bible. The lion, 
which is mentioned by an Egyptian traveler in 
Lebanon, about 1350 B.C., is now extinct, and 
the wild bull {reem), which was hunted in 1120 
i;.c. by Tiglatu Pileser I. in Lebanon, is also 
extinct, though its bones have been found in 
bone caves; this is the "unicorn" of the A. V., 
Which follows a mistranslation of the LXX. 
The roebuck (Deut. 14: 5; I. Ki. 4: 23) was dis- 
covered still to exist on Carmel in 1872, and is 
found also in Gilead and Lebanon. The fallow 
deer (now called rim. perhaps the "hart" of 
the Bible) also inhabits the oak glades of Tabor; 
and the wild goal (ibex) occurs in droves in the 
desert of Judah. The ostrich (Job. 39: 13, etc.) 
is not quite extinct in the eastern desert, where 
also the wild ass (Job 39: 5-8) is yet found. The 

bear is found on Hermon, and the leopard (He- 
brew, namer) in the Jordan valley. The pro- 
ductions of the country are still the same as of 
old; corn (mainly barley), wine and oil from rich 
vineyards and large olive groves, figs, potnegran- 
ates, and the various vegetables noticed in the 
Bible are still grown. The j)alm, which is killed 
by frost, is found only in the plains or lower 
hills. The grapes, which are swelled by the 
mists on the mountains, flourish not only on 
the Lebanon and Hermon, but in all parts, as 
far south as Hebron. There are, however, no 
known mines or traces of former mines in Pales- 
tine (Deut. 8: 9); but the Egyptians obtained cop- 
per in the Sinaitic mines (Job 28: 1-11) as early 
as 2500 B.C., and their shafts remain. The Pheni- 
cians also found metals in Lebanon, though not 
as plentifully as in Cyprus and other islands. 
The finest views of Palestine are obtained from 
Nebo (Num. 32: 3, etc.), embracing all the water- 
shed from Hebron to Tabor; from Jebel Osha, 
which has an even wider prospect; from Geri- 
zim, over Lower Galilee, and Sharon ; from Car- 
mel and Tabor, which present a panorama of 
Lower Galilee; and above all, from Hermon 
(Cant. 4:8), where the transfiguration appears 
to be intended to be understood as occurring 
(see Matt. 16: 13; 17 : 1), and whence a magnificent 
prospect of Bashan, Galilee, Phenicia, and Leba- 
non is spread out at the spectator's feet. 

Divisions of the Holy Land.— Syria and Pales- 
tine were early occupied by Canaanite tribes 
(Gen. 10: 15-19), which were of the same stock 
with the early inhabitants of Mesopotamia (vs. 
6-12) and not of the Semitic race to which Assyr- 
ians, Hebrews, Phenicians, and Arabs belonged. 
The invasion of Syria, about 2500 B.C., by the 
Akkadian prince, Gudea, as found recorded at 
Tell Loh, agrees with the biblical account. He 
cut cedars in the northern Lebanon, and even 
brought diorite for statues from Sinai. The 
Canaanite tribes were probably related to the 
Akkadians, and included in the north the Hit- 
tites, a powerful race, ruling from Carchemish 
on the Euphrates to Hermon (Josh. 1: 4), to 
which stock belonged probably the six divisions 
of Arkites (at Area, near Tripoli), Sinites (at 
Sinna, of Strabo), Arvadites (on the island of 
Arvad, 30 miles north of Tripoli), Zemarites 
(inland of Arvad), Hivites, and Hamathites (in 
Harnath, on the Orontes). The early inhabit- 
ants of Sidon and of the Phenician coast ap- 
pear to have been related to the Canaanites. In 
Palestine itself the Canaanites proper, or people 
of the " lowlands" (as the word is used geo- 
graphically on Phenician coins), w r ere found in 
the plains of Gaza and in the Jordan valley 
(Gen. 10:19; Josh. 11:3). The Amorites were a 
tribe who are represented on Egyptian monu- 
ments as civilized inhabitants of the Hebron 
mountains, where also a Hittite tribe dwelt 
(Gen. 23: 5), the Perizzites (cf. Caphrath Perazi, 
I. Sam. 6 : 18), who were "rustics" in the center 
of Palestine (Gen. 34: 30) and in Lower Galilee 
(Josh. 17: 15). Hivites also lived in the hills 
north of Jerusalem, and as far as Shechem (Gen. 
34: 2; Josh. 9: 17), as well as in Lebanon (Judg. 
3: 3)* the Jeousites inhabited Jerusalem, and 
the Girgashites some region unknown. Of the 
early aborigines, Rephaim,Zuzim,Zamzummim, 
and Eiiiim (Deut. 2: 11), and the Anakim in the 
southern mountains (II. Sam. 21: 16), nothing is 
known save the names. They were attacked by 
Chaldean conquerors at an early period (Gen. 14: 
1), probably by the Akkadians above mentioned. 
The Horim, or " cave men," were early aborigines 
of Edom (Deut. 2: 12), and the AVim dwelt in u en- 
closures" (Deut. 2: 26), and were conquered by 
the Philistines, who, as we are expressly told 
(Gen. 10: 14), were a tribe of Mizraimite or Egyp- 
tian origin. The Amalekites inhabited the Sina- 
itic deserts (Gen. 14: 7). These tribes appear to 
have been all of distinct race and ki language " 
(Gen. 10: 20) from the Semitic, peoples. 



That the appearance of Semitic tribes in Syria 
occurred before 1600 B.C. is proved by the names 
of about 119 cities conquered by Thothmes III. 
in 1600 B.C.: many of these are the same men- 
tioned in the book of Joshua. The Phenicians 
were a Semitic race, whose traditions (Strabo, xvi., 
3, 4) derived them from the Persian Gulf, and 
whose civilization was similar to that of the Bab- 
ylonians, and their language very close to the 
Hebrew. They probably migrated to the Syrian 
coast about the same time with the Hebrews, 
whose ancestors finally settled in the plains of 
Beersheba (Gen. 21: 14, etc.); about the same 
time also the kindred Moabites and Ammonites 
(Gen. 19: 37) began to spread over Moab and 
Gilead, and the Ishrnaelites (Gen. 25: 18) over 
the Sinaitic desert, and the region east of the 
Gulf of Akabah. A half-Hebrew, half-Hittite 
race then conquered the aborigines of Edom 
(Gen. 36: 1-43), and to the same stock perhaps 
belonged the Kenites (Gen. 15: 19), who may 
have been named from Cain, "the nest of the 
Kenite" (Num. 24: 21; Josh. 15: 57), and who 
remained in the same region south of Hebron 
in David's time (I. Sam. 30: 29), but from whom 
the family of Hobab (cf. Judg. 1: 16) separated 
to dwell on the plains of Tabor (Judg. 4: 11). 
The Kenizzites (see Gen. 15: 19) were also probably 
Semitic, with the Kadmonites, or "southerners," 
who also dwelt in the south (Gen. 15: 19; cf. I. 
Sam. 30: 29). The language of the whole of 
Palestine appears, from the recently discovered 
letters from Tell Amarna (1500-1450 B.C.), to have 
been similar to that of Assyria, during the 
period immediately preceding and following 
the exodus. 

The first division of the country into districts 
appears to have occurred on the division of the 
land among the victorious Hebrew tribes (Josh. 
12: 1-19: 51). It can be traced by the aid of mod- 
ern exploration, and, as described in the topo- 
graphical chapters of the book of Joshua, with 
great exactitude; and the density of population 
(see Num. 26) appears to accord very closely with 
the comparative fertility of the various regions 
so assigned; it ranges from sixty souls per 
square mile in the desert regions to 700 souls per 
square mile in the fertile lowlands and plains, 
not including the surviving Canaanite popula- 
tion. The mean is thus smaller than that of 
Great Britain. The lot of Simeon (Josh. 19: 1-9) 
included the Beersheba deserts from Gaza to 
Arad (Tell Arad) as the northern limit. Judah, 
Benjamin, and Joseph appear, according to one 
passage (Josh. 16: 1-3) to have held all central 
and southern Palestine, but in the subsequent 
arrangement the lot of l)an is taken out of this 
territory. The border of Dan is not described, 
but the towns lay in the low hills west of 
Ephraim and Benjamin, as far as Joppa, Rak- 
kon ( Tell er Rekkeit), and Mi ha Jarkon. The lot 
of Ephraim is also not described in detail, but it 
marched with Manasseh, to which tribe She- 
chem belonged (Josh. 17 : 2), while it seems to have 
included Carmel (Josh. 17 : 18). Issachar is known 
by its towns, which lay in the Plain of Esdraelon 
and the hills to the south and east. The south 
border of Zebulon is given in detail. Some sup- 
pose the seashore to have belonged to Asher, iden- 
tifying Dor (Josh. 17 : 11) with Tanturah, south of 
Carmel, and laying stress on the words (Josh 19: 
26) "to Carmel westwards." In the blessing of 
Jacob, however (Gen. 49: 13), Zebulon is con- 
nected with a haven of the seacoast. The terri- 
tory of Naphtali included Upper Galilee, the 
plains of Tabor, and the Sea of Galilee, as clearly 
shown by the identification of fourteen towns. 
The western border, by the same evidence, seems 
to have run from Dabbasheth northwards along 
the crests of the hills, leaving the lower hills 
and the coast, as far as Tyre and the Leontes, in 
the lot of Asher, as shown by the names of seven 
towns, all now known. East of Jordan the bor- 
ders are less particularly described. Reuben pos- 

sessed the Moabite plateau to Elealah (el Al), 
north of Heshbon ; and Gad appears to have held 
all Gilead and the Jordan valley to the Sea of Gal- 
ilee, leaving to the half tribe of Manasseh the 
plains of Bashan and Golan toHermon (see Josh. 
13 : 29-31). The six cities of refuge, three east and 
three west of Jordan, were (Josh. 20: 7-9) Bezer 
(el Buseirah) near the Anion, Ramoth Gilead 
(Heimun), north of the Jabbok, and Golan (Sa- 
hem el Jaulan), east of the Sea of Galilee, with 
Hebron, Shechem, and Kadesh Naphtali, or 
Kades, in Upper Galilee. 

The kingdom, which in Saul's time embraced 
only the hills of Hebron and of central Pales- 
tine, as far, perhaps, asGilboa (I. Sam. 31: 1), was 
extended by David to include all the Holy Land, 
with Edom on. the south, and Bashan on the 
northeast. The border, with the Hittite princes 
of Kadesh (Eretz ha Khetvm Kadesh, as read by 
the LXX. for Eretz Tahtim Hodshi, II. Sam. 24: 6), 
was perhaps at Baal-Gad, north of Hermon 
(Josh. 11: 17; 12: 7; 13: 5), now el Jedeideh, at the 
south end of the plain of Ccele-Syria. Phenicia 
was also independent (I. Ki. 9: 11-14), and had a 
friendly population. Solomon's kingdom is, 
however, stated (I. Ki. 9: 26) to have reached 
from Ezion-geber (Ain Ghudian), near the Gulf 
of Akabah, even to the Euphrates, according to 
the books of Chronicles and Kings alike (I. Ki. 
4: 24; II. Chr. 9: 26), including the Hittite city of 
Hamath. The same king established the trading 
city of Tadmor, as the name is correctly given, 
for the native name of Palmyra was still Tad- 
mor in the first century a.d., as shown by Pal- 
myrene texts; and the reading Tamar (R.V., I. 
Ki. 9: 18; II. Chr. 8: 4) in one passage is probably 
less correct than Tadmor in the other. This 
famous depot, by the stream of an oasis in the 
desert east of the Anti-Lebanon, was the half- 
way station on the caravan route, from Damas- 
cus to Tiphsah on the Euphrates, the limit of 
Solomon's kingdom. Gezer (Tell Jezer), with 
the lands adjacent, was the dowry of Solomon's 
Egyptian wife (I. Ki. 9: 16); but it appears that 
the kingdom included the Philistine plain to 
Gaza even earlier (I. Ki. 4: 24). The Holy Land 
was divided into twelve provinces, which cor- 
responded closely with the twelve lots of the 
tribes above described, except that the capital of 
the sixth province was at Ramoth Gilead, so that 
the northern half of Gad appears to have been 
joined with the territory of Manasseh in Bashan. 
The total extent of Solomon's kingdom was 
about 30,000 square miles, including the tribu- 
tary regions (II. Chr. 8: 7). 

On the division of the kingdom the border be- 
tween Judah and Israel was in the territory of 
Benjamin and Dan. It differed under various 
kings (II. Ki. 23: 8; Zech. 14: 10; II. Chr. 16: 1-6). 
Under Abijah, according to the book of Chron- 
icles, the whole of Benjamin belonged to Judah 
(II. Chr. 13: 19); but under Baasha of Israel, and 
later under Josiah of Judah, the Michmash 
valley in the center of the lot of Benjamin was 
the border. Ezion-geber, the southern port of 
Judah, was finally lost by Ahaz (II. Chr. 26:2; 
cf. II. Ki. 16: 6), and in the same reign the incur- 
sions of Philistines and Edomites reduced the 
kingdom of Judah to an area of 300 square 
miles. Sennacherib claims (Taylor cylinder) to 
have "diminished" Hezekiah's kingdom and 
made Moab and Philistia independent, but the 
destruction of Samaria increased the power of 
the kings of Judah west of Jordan, under Josiah. 
The next period of independence, under the 
Hasmoneans, developed a kingdom which ex- 
tended over the whole of the Holy Land, in the 
time of John Hyrcanus and Alexander Jannaeus ; 
and the rule of Herod the Great extended over 
the whole area. Herod's sons ( Josephus, Antiq., 
xvii., 11, 4) ruled separate provinces. Arche- 
laus had Idumea, Judea, and Samaria; Galilee 
was ruled by Antipas, with Persea, or Moab, and 
Gilead; Philip ruled over the Bashan plains and 



Abilene, or the region north of Herinon— the 
three provinces being thus a bout of equal area. 
The borders of these provinces can be traced on 

tiie map by aid of ancient rabbinic accounts of 
the second and third centuries a.d., the various 
towns mentioned having been now discovered. 

The border between Judea and Samaria fol- 
lowed ( he .Viueli River to Antipatris [Has elAin), 
and ran up the valley to Beth Rima and Le- 
honali, Borceos, and Acrabi. It included Sartaba, 
east of Shechem in Judea, and followed the 
line of the waters of ^Enon (Wady Furah) to 
Jordan. The north border of Samaria ran along 
the west side of the Plain of Esdraelon to Ginnea 
{./ruin) and along Gilboa to Scythopolis (Beisan). 
Samaria appears to have extended to the sea on 
the west, since Csesarea, Caphar Saba, and other 
places in the plain were not reckoned as in the 
Holy Land. Philistia was also excluded south 
of Ascalon, but Bashan, Perrea, and Galilee were 
included. The border between Galilee and Phe- 
niciaran from south of Ecdippa (Ez Zib), on the 
seacoastl, by Gatin (Jathun), Beth Zanita (Zuei- 
niia). Melloth (Media), Gelil (Jelil), to near Kanah 
I A '■ma), and thence along the center of the coun- 
try northwards to the Leontes, and sotoBanias. 

Bashan was at this time divided into five dis- 
tricts, which are still distinguishable: Itursea 
(Jedur), near Herinon; Gaulanitis (the Jaukin, 
volcanic plateau east of Jordan); Auranitis 
(the Hauran, corn plains); Trachonitis (the vol- 
canic desert of the Lejja) ; and Batanaea, appar- 
ently the present region El Butein, in northern 
Gilead. The Decapolis, or "ten city" region 
(Matt. 4: 25; Mark 5: 20; Pliny, H. Nat., v., 18), was 
a sort of confederation of cities, similar to those 
which existed in other parts of the Roman em- 
pire, and including Bethshean (Beisan), Gadara 
( Umm Am), Gerasa (Jerash), Canatha(Aanam)fZ), 
Abila (AMI), Raphana, Susitha (Susieh), Dion 
(Adun), Capitolias (probably Beit er Has), all sit- 
uated in Bashan and Bathania, except the first, 
in the Jordan valley west of the river. That a 
Greek population dwelt in this region is shown 
by the Greek texts of the temple, in honor of 
Herod the Great, still standing in ruins at Siah 
in Bashan. 

Jerusalem.— Though ill-supplied with water, 
Jerusalem was the natural capital for a Hebrew 
kingdom. The Jerusalem hills were always the 
most difficult part of Palestine for an invader to 
attack (even down to the thirteenth century 
a.d.), and the capital was nevertheless nearer 
than other cities to the seaport of Joppa. Jerusa- 
lem, therefore (which had before existed as a 
fortress of the Jebusites), appears in history on 
the consolidation of the kingdom under David. 
The original fortress, or "castle of Zion" (II. 
Sam. 5i 7-0), defended by a ditch, appears to 
have occupied the flat hill now partly covered 
by the southwest quarter of the city. It was 
defended by steep slopes and cliffs, and deep 
valleys on all sides, except the northwest; and 
the walls were strengthened, or rebuilt, by David 
and Solomon (Josephus, Wars, v., 4, 1). Remains 
of the fortifications, consisting of a rocky scarp, 
with projecting rock buttresses with stairs, 
forming the base of the towers now destroyed, 
still exist at what was the southwest corner of 
the town. There was, however, even in David's 
I Line, a suburb to the north, where, beyond the 
broad and deep valley called afterwards Tyro- 
pceon, a small knoll rose from the flat ground, 
close to where the present OhurCh of the Holy 
Sepulcher was built in 335 A.n. This appears to 
have been called Millo (II. < !hr. 32: 5), annformed 
part of the "city of David," or Jerusalem, as it 
existed in David's time. East of this site a 
valley, gradually deepening, ran south and 
joined the Tyropoeon, running east. It passed 
under the eastern cliffs of the upper city, or 
"castle of Zion," and enclosed between itself 
and the Kidron (which was nearly parallel 
further east) a shelving spur, Which was after- 

wards the temple hill. The south part of the 
spur was called Ophel, and is narrower and 
lower than the small natural plateau on the 
spur, which formed the temple court. From 
the west side of the upper city another valley— 
that of Ben Hinnom— ran round to the south 
limit of the original fortress, and joined the 
before-mentioned valleys at Siioam, whence the 
united course extended from Tophet towards 
the desert of Judah. These valleys are all from 
100 to o00 feet deep, forming natural fortifica- 
tions. North of the temple the eastern spur 
expands into a plateau higher than the temple 
site. This was afterwards the site of a later 
suburb, called Bezetha, so called from the "cut- 
ting," or rock-cut fosse, across the ridge, which 
w T as made to defend the temple on the north, at 
the citadel of Antonia. The only known natural 
supply of water for the ancient city was the 
pool of En Rogel, or Gihon, in the Kidron south 
of the temple, which has already been noticed; 
but other ancient cities (such as Shiloh) are 
often more distant than was the fort of Jebus 
from any spring, and it is possible that the 
rock-cut pool north of the upper city (called 
later Amygdalon, or the "tower pool") may be 
as old as David's time. The temple which Solo- 
mon built was outside the city of David (I. Ki. 
8: 1), but Millo (which the LXX. renders Akra) 
was early surrounded by a wall (II. Sam. 5:9; cf. I. 
Ki. 9: 24; II: 27), or, according to another trans- 
lation, Millo itself means "the rampart." Some- 
what later we find notice of steps in the valley, 
leading down from Beth Millo towards Siloani 
(II. Ki. 12: 20; I. Chr. 2G: 16; Neh. 3: 16), but the 
Hebrew word sillah means only "a way" or 
" ascent "—perhaps a road. 

The foundation of the temple naturally led to 
an easterly extension of the city, and Ophel be- 
came the quarter of the priests; on its lower 
slopes were royal gardens (Neh. 3: 15; Zech. 14: 
10) in which some of the later kings of Judah 
were buried (II. Ki. 21: 26: II. Chr. 20: 23; Jer. 39: 
4), though the tombs of David and Solomon 
were in the city of David. It therefore became 
necessary to extend the circuit of the walls, to 
embrace the temple hill, and to defend Ophel 
and the royal palace south of the temple which 
Solomon built (I. Ki. 9: 24; II. Chr. 8: 11; Neh. 
3: 25). The erection of these new walls is men- 
tioned in the second book of Chronicles (26: 9; 
32: 3; 33: 14), beginning a century and a half after 
Solomon, and being completed a century later 
yet. A very remarkable change in the water 
supply was also effected by Hezekiah (II. Chr. 
82: 30), who stopped the "outlet" of Gihon, and 
brought it " by an underground way, westwards 
to the city of David " (cf. II. Chr. 32: 4; II. Ki. 20: 
20; Isa. 22: 11). The "conduit of the upper pool," 
by the " fuller's field " (Isa. 7:3; 36: 2), was prob- 
ably the western pool (Amygdalon), with its 
rock-cut aqueduct, which still brings water into 
the city; for Rabshakeh, coming from Lachish, 
would naturally arrive on the northwest side of 
Jerusalem, where the "camp of the Assyrians" 
is mentioned later by Josephus [Wars, v., 12, 2). 
It appears, therefore, that originally the Gihon 
spring flowed out into the Kidron, but that Hez- 
ekiah made the aqueduct still existing, and 
brought down the waters to the Siioam pool, 
where a new reservoir was made to replace an 
older reservoir, still traceable, called "Solo- 
mon's " or the " old " pool (Josephus, \\ T ars, v., 4, 
2; Isa. 22: 11). In this aqueduct a Hebrew text 
which, from the forms' of the letters, was writ- 
ten about 700 b.c., was accidentally discovered 
in 1SS0, and copied by the present writer. It 
has now been broken and removed, but de- 
scribed the "method of excavation " from either 
end of the tunnel, the workmen meeting in the 
midst, at a point which was determined also by 
1 he writer's exploration in 1881. This unique in- 
scription confirms the Hebrew account of Hez- 
ekiah's work. 



The city, as it existed in Hezekiab's time, re- 
mained unchanged to the time when Nehemiah 
restored the old walls, without altering their 
course. It occupied about 200 acres of ground, 
covering the three spars of the upper city, 
Akra, and Moriah, and is described as "large" 
for its later population (Neh. 4: 19). The walls 
which then existed remained also unchanged 
till after the Christian era. Josephus describes 
three northern fortifications on the weaker side 
of the town, which, though the first two were 
strengthened by the Herodians, were on the old 
sites, except the third, which was added to in- 
clude new northern suburbs. The north face 
of the first wall represented the north fortress 
wall of David's time. The second wall, which 
started near the northwest angle of the first, 
was on the line that had existed since Uzziah's 
time, and the Ophel wall was that of Jotham. 
In the time of the crucifixion, suburbs no doubt 
existed on the north, beyond the walls, since 
they were enclosed a generation later; but these 
seem to have been less crowded and interspersed 
with gardens. 

Nehemiali's wall began on the east side of the 
temple hill, on the line afterwards occupied by 
the east cloister of Herod's temple (see Neh. 3: 1- 
32), and Hananeel, the northeast corner tower 
(cf. Neh. 3: 1; Zech. 14: 10), appears to have been 
on the site of the later Antonia. Thence the 
wall curved round to enclose Akra and the 
"upper pool"— the site of the Old Gate being 
perhaps where an ancient rock-cut roadway has 
quite recently been discovered, and the Fish 
Gate further east on the line of the present 
north road to Bethhoron. The Valley Gate 
was opposite the Dragon Spring (Neh. 2: 13), ap- 
parently Birket Mamilla, at the head of the 
Ben Hinnom Valley — called later the Gehennah 
or Gennath Gate; and 1,000 cubits further south, 
on the west wall, was the Dung Gate. The wall 
ran along the south slope of the upper city, 
eastwards to the Gate of the Fountain, by the 
valley so called (Josephus, Wars, v., 12, 2), where 
were the "stairs to the city of David"; and leav- 
ing Siloam apparently outside of the fortress, but 
within bowshot, the wall skirted the east side of 
the Ophel spur, by the Water Gate (above Gihon), 
where a gallery led down to the cave of the 
spring, which could be entered from within the 
city. North of this gate was the "projecting 
tower" on Ophel, and here at the Horse Gate 
the circuit closed. The remains of this ancient 
rampart were quite recently disclosed, west of 
the upper or Amygdalon pool; and the founda- 
tions of the Ophel wall and outlying tower 
were excavated by Sir C. Warren, who found 
them not to stand on the rock, but on red earth, 
and to be composed of rough masonry. The 
course of the third wall— that of Agrippa (Jose- 
phus. Wars, v., 4, 3), has no bearing on this 
question, except as showing how far north Je- 
rusalem extended only a generation later, or, 
indeed, only ten years later, considering when 
this fortification was begun. This wall started 
from the Royal Towers, at the northwest cor- 
ner of the first wall, by Herod's palace, and. ex- 
tended to high ground further northwest, where 
the tower Psephinus commanded a view to 
Edom. Thence it ran east to within three fur- 
longs of the monument of Helena of Adiebene 
(now called the " Tombs of the Kings "), where it 
turned south and joined the line now occupied 
by the modern wall, which here stands on an- 
cient rock scarps. Running eastwards over the 
Royal Caverns (the great quarries under the 
northeast part of the present city), it occupied 
the same line as the present fortifications 
throughout its further extent. 

The public buildings of Jerusalem, in the time 
of Christ, included, in addition to the temple 
and to Herod's palace on the west, the preto- 
rium of the Roman governor— apparently in 
Antonia; the palace of the Hasmoneans— near 

the great bridge to the temple, on the east brow 
of the upper city hill; also, a theater in an un- 
known position, and a gymnasium under the 
west wall of the temple, an archive house in 
the lower city, and a palace of the kings of 
Adiebene, near Siloam. The tomb of David 
(Acts 2: 29), was still known about 30 a.d.— per- 
haps the ancient Jewish tomb now enclosed in 
the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, and called 
the " Tomb of Nicodemus." 

The probable site of Calvary was first pointed 
out by the present author in 1879, in consequence 
of the survival of a Jewish tradition as to the 
"place of stoning" (Mishna, Sanhed 6: 1) or of 
public execution. It is a remarkable knoll, out- 
side the third wall, on the north of the city, and 
certainly never included within the limits of 
Jerusalem. It is now commonly known as El 
Heidhemiyeh, or by Christians called " Jeremiah's 
Grotto"— a fit spot for a public spectacle, with a 
natural amphitheater of slopes around it, and 
in full view of the temple and the second wall. 
Near to this, on the west, is a single Jewish 
tomb, in a knoll of rock which afterwards 
formed the base of the Women's Towers of 
the third wall. This site has become generally 
accepted as the true site of Golgotha, that is, 

The Temple. — No remains exist which can 
be safely supposed to be as old as the time of 
Solomon's building of the temple. Certain 
masons' marks, at the base of the temple walls, 
have been called " Phenician," but belong — when 
they are letters at all — to the later alphabet of 
Herod's time. Josephus informs us that Herod 
"took away the old foundations, and laid oth- 
ers" (Aniiq., xv., 2, 3); and it appears probable 
that the single court of Solomon's smaller fane 
(1= Ki. 6: 36) occupied a smaller area than the 
three courts of Herod's temple, especially if the 
royal palace of Solomon stood where the royal 
cloister of Herod was built. We cannot, there- 
fore, learn more than is told in the book of 
Kings concerning the first temple. We have no 
means of ascertaining the character of the 
masonry of "hewn stones" (I. Ki. 6: 36); but the 
account of the ornamentation of the house, with 
cedar, gold, and bronze, agrees exactly with mon- 
umental accounts of the later temples of Phe- 
nicia and of Babylon. It is only of the third 
temple, that which was standing in the time of 
Christ, that any definite description is possible. 
The remains of the outer walls, of huge ma- 
sonry finished in the Greek style, with a drafted 
margin, just like that of the palace of Hyrcanus 
in Gilead (173 B.C.) or of the Baalbek temple 
(second century a.d.), cannot well be attributed 
to any other age than that of Herod the Great. 
The rock of Antonia still occupies the old posi- 
tion on the northwest of the temple court, and 
the ruins of the ancient bridge, on the south- 
west, were excavated by Sir C. Warren. The dis- 
covery of the Ophel wall proves that the present 
southeast corner of the Haram, or "Sanctuary," 
coincides with the southeast corner of Herod's 
outer wall, since the city wall joined the "east 
cloister of the temple " (Josephus, Wars,, v., 4, 1), 
and only on the northeast is the limit of the 
enclosure now uncertain. The lengths of the 
walls are, however, in reality even greater than 
Josephus (writing in Italy twenty years after the 
destruction of the temple) calculated them to be; 
and the size of the stones and of the existing 
pillar in the substructures is quite equal to his 
description. As regards the position of the holy 
house itself, Josephus states that it was on the 
"topmost plateau" of the hill (Wars, v., 5, 2; cf. 
Antiq., viii.,o, 9); and the only position in which 
it can be placed, so as to make the levels of the 
various courts agree with those of the rock as 
now determined, is such that the floor of the 
holy of holies should be located on the Sakhrah 
rock, now visible in the beautiful Arab Dome 
of the Rock (668 a.d.); which rock appears to be 



the "stone of foundation" in tlio holy of 
holies mentioned in the Mishna ( Yama 5: 2), 
and tlie "pierced stone," which the Jews used 
to anoint in tlie fourth century a.i>. {Bordeau 
rilgrim, p. 22, ed. 1887), before any mosque had 
been built, and while Hadrian's statues were 
still visible on the site of the house of Jehovah, 
of which not one stone is now left upon another. 
The area of the outer Enceinte, measuring 
roughly 1,000 feet either way, contained nearly 
twenty-four English acres, not including An- 
tonia. On the north, east, and west was a 
double cloister roofed with cedar. On the south 
the Royal Cloister had three walks, and pil- 
lars about six feet in diameter. In the open 
court of the Gentiles was a stone balustrade 500 
cubits by 500 (or about 250 yards square), with a 
< J reek inscription on the piers (which has been 
recovered) warning the non-Jew to keep with- 
out the sacred area. The holy house was 100 
cubits long, and its facade on the east 100 cubits 
broad and high, with a lofty gate with double 
veils, and a golden vine attached to the stone- 
work. The interior included the holy place, and 
the holy of holies on the west (twenty cubits 
square), with three stories of small surrounding 
chambers. The priests' court, surrounding this. 
was widest on the east, where stood the great 
altar (of rubble and cement work), and tables 
for the skinning of sacrifices, together with the 
great ewer or reservoir for washing the priests' 
hands and feet. On each side of this court was 
a single cloister and six gates (three to north 
and three to south), with side chambers. The 
largest of them— Moked, on the north— had an 
underground gallery, leading out to Tadi, the 
north entrance to the temple, and communicat- 
ing with a rock-cut bath-house and lavatories. 
This passage and the bath-house still exist, 
under the present platform, which occupies the 
site of the inner courts. East of the priests' 
court was a narrow cloister, or platform, for the 
" standing men," or representative congrega- 
tion, and a pulpit for reading the Law. Here 
the gate Nicanor communicated, by a flight of 
fifteen semicircular stairs, with the square 
court of Israel (generally called "Women's 
Court"), which was 135 cubits square, having 
cloisters, and a gallery for women on the east. 
Outside of this again twelve steps led down to 
the outer level. The steps were all half a cubit 
high. The cubit, as described by Maimonides, 
measured sixteen inches, and many of the di- 
mensions of the existing Haram masonry, and 
of the Galilean synagogues, are multiples oi this 
unit (see the account in the Mishna tract Micl- 
doth, which was written in the second century 
a.d., and is much fuller than that of Josephus). 
These indications of level agree exactly with 
those of the actual rock surface, if the temple is 

? laced on the "topmost part of the plateau." 
he temple was supplied with water by huge 
rock-cut tanks and caves (see Tacitus,///^., v., 12), 
and by the aqueduct of Pontius Pilate (Josephus, 
Antiq., xviii., 3, 2), which came from Etham, 
south of Bethlehem, and entered the enclosure 
by the northern bridge. Antonia, on the north- 
east, occupied a scarped rock, where are now 
the barracks, rising fifty feet above the inner 
court, and protected on the north by the great 
fosse already mentioned, which was forty feet 
deep, and which divided the citadel from the 
suburb of Bczetha. It is possible that the 
aqueduct leading to Antonia from this fosse is 
of very great antiquity. 

Cities of Palestine.— About 600 places are men- 
tioned in the Bible. More than 400 of these are 
now known, of which some 140 were fixed by 
the present author during the survey of tlie 
country. Grouping the leading towns, 1 southern 
and western Palestine includes Hebron, Engedi, 

iThese cities and towns are all described with 
greater or less fullness in the Word Book. 

B@ersh.eba, Debir, Gaza, Lachish, Eglon, Ash- 
dod, Ascalon, Ekron, Jamnia, Joppa, Lydda, 
Antipatris, and Gath. Further north, near the 
center, are Bethlehem, Jericho, Mizpah, Bethel, 
Ai, the two Bethhorons, Geba or Gibeah, Shiloh, 
and Timnath Heres. Continuing toward the 
north are Shechem, Sychar, Samaria, Tirzah, 
Cajsarea, Dothan, Engannim, and Mcgiddo. 
Still farther north are Jezreel, Nazareth, Tibe- 
rias, and Cana. East of the Jordan are Gadara, 
Jabesh Gilead, Ramoth Gilead, Mahanaim, the 
Wood of Ephraiin, Rabbath Amnion, Dibon, and 

Among the important towns of Phenicia and 
the north were Accho, Tyre, Sidon, and Cassarea 
Philippi. In Syria were Damascus, Baalbek, 
Kadesh,Haniath, Aleppo, Antioch, and Seleucia. 

Palestine Ruins.— The oldest are Hebrew 
tombs and rock cuttings, similar to those of 
Phenicia, and about the Christian era to Greek 
tombs. The oldest inscriptions known are the 
Siloam text and the Moabite stone. There are 
also a good many Jewish funerary texts (first 
century B.C. to third century a.d.); but the 
Greek and Palmyrene texts of Palmyra, and the 
early Arab texts of Bashan, are much more 
numerous. The first great building epoch was 
the peaceful time of the Antonines (140-180 A.D.), 
when all Syria was covered with towns, like 
those above described, and of which period 
there are numerous Greek and some Latin 
inscriptions— the latter mainly on the roads, 
then made and marked with milestones. The 
ruins of the Byzantine age (fourth to seventh 
century a.d.) are the most numerous in Pales- 
tine, with monasteries, churches, fortresses, and 
many inscriptions, especially in Bashan and in 
Syria. The buildings of the Arab khalifs are 
less numerous, but the crusaders (1100 to 1290 
a.d.) filled the country with castles, walled 
towns, and numerous beautiful churches; the 
later Saracens added many mosques and min- 
arets. The really ancient ruins in Palestine 
are few compared with those of the later epochs. 


The Garden of Eden (or "delight") is gener- 
ally placed (Gen. 2: 14) at the sources of the Ti- 
gris and of the Euphrates, in the healthy uplands 
of Armenia, near Mt. Ararat (Gen. 8 : 4), but the 
course of the other rivers is matter of contro- 
versy. The geography of Gen. 10 includes all 
western Asia. The sons of Japheth ("the fair") 
—perhaps early Aryans, since Aryans appear to 
have been known to the Egyptians in Asia 
Minor in the fourteenth century B.C.— include 
well-known tribes of Armenia, and further west, 
such as Gomer (Cimmerians), Riphath (Riphoe- 
ans), Togarmah (Armenians), Madai (Medes), 
Javan (Ionians), Elishah, the Alasiya of the Tell 
Amarna letters, perhaps in Lycia (cf. Ezek. 27: 
7, where it appears as a "shore land," as we 
know Alasiya to have been), Tarshish ( Tarsus). 
Kittim (Cyprus), Dodanim (Rodanim, LXX. and 
Samaritan versions of I. Chr. 1: 7), the people of 
Rhodes, Tubal (the Tuplai of the monuments of 
Assyria), and Mesech (the Moschi of the same 
monuments). The sons of Ham ("the black") 
included Cush (the Cosseans or Kassites), with 
other tribes near the Persian Gulf, Mizrairn (or 
Egypt), including Libyans, Philistines, and 
others, Phut (apparently in Asia), and the Ca- 
naanites already detailed. The sons of Shem 
("the dark") included Elam (Persians), Asshur 
(Assyrians), Lud (either Lydia or Luden, that is, 
Syria), and Aram, the " highlands " of Syria and 
Assyria, with Joktan, under whose name are 
enumerated tribes of Yemen, including such 
well-known names as Sheba (the Sabeans), 
Ophir, and ilazarmaveth (Hadramaut in south- 
east Arabia). The children of Keturah (Gen. 25: 
1-0) include Arab tribes of the country east of 
the Gulf of Akabah, and further south. The 



Ishmaelites (Gen. 25: 13-15) give names which 
have been identified in some cases in the same 
region. The early Chaldeans are reckoned (Gen. 
10: 8) not as sons of Sheni, but of Cush (Kassites 
or Cosseans), who were thus apparently related 
to the Akkadians by language. As early as 1500 
B.C. the states of Babylon and Nineveh existed, 
as shown by the Tell Amarna letters, with a 
boundary dividing them; their antagonism 
lasted till the fall of Nineveh, in the seventh 
century B.C. To the west of Assyria, in Com- 
magene, lived at this time the Minyans in Mit- 
ani, a race apparently akin to the Hittites (Jer. 
51 : 27), from whose name that of Armenia is by 
some said to be derived (see Josephus, Antiq., i., 3, 
6). They are often mentioned on monuments. 
The topography of the exodus has been eluci- 
dated by the discovery of inscriptions at Suc- 
coth (Tell Maskhutah) and the identification of 
Zoan (San), which render it clear that Goshen 
was the country east of the main Nile mouths; 
and it is now generally believed that the route 
of the exodus led to the old head of the Red 
Sea, near the modern Ismailieh, and thence 
to Sinai. Few places in the Sinaitic peninsula 
nave, however, been identified, the most cer- 
tain, perhaps, being Hazeroth (Num. 11: 35), 
placed by Burckhardt at Ain Hudeirah. The 
" Sinaitic inscriptions "are Christian texts of the 
fourth century. In one case a Greek bilingual 
occurs. The site of Kadesh-Barnea is still dis- 
puted, though near Edom (Num. 20: 16; cf. v. 23.) 

[Dr. H. Clay Trumbull, of Philadelphia, has 
identified Kadesh-Barnea with " Ain Qadees," a 
stronghold about forty-five miles west of the 
foot of Mount Seir. The account of the discov- 
ery and the strong reasons for believing this to 
be the true site are presented in his Kadesh- 
Barnea. Dr. Trumbull's position is now gen- 
erally accepted.— American Editor.] 

Note.— Tarshish, Opliir, Sinim, Tarsus, and other im- 
portant places are treated in the Word Book accom- 
panying. In the New Testament period many of the 
cities and lands of western Asia, Macedonia, Greece, 
and Italy were more or less prominent. These, too, are 
considered in the Word Book. 

Books of Reference: Publications of the Pales- 
tine Exploration Fund (1866-1891), especially the Survey 
Memoirs; Conder's Handbook to the Bible, Palestine, 
and Tent Work in Palestine; E. Robinson's Biblical 
Researches in Palestine and Physical Geography of 
Palestine; Smith's Historical Geography of Palestine; 
Barrows' Sacred Geography and Antiquities; Thom- 
son's Land and the Book; Geikie's Holy Land and the 
Bible; Hott's Journey inqs in the Old World; Schaff's 
Through Bible Lands; Otts' The Fifth Gospel; Whit- 
ney's Handbook of Bible Geography ; Hurlbut's Bib- 
lical Geography ; Bartlett's From Fgypt to Palestine; 
Stanley's Sinai and Palestine; Trumbull's Kadesh- 
Barnea; Merrill's Fast of the Jordan; Recovery of 
Jerusalem, by Wilson and others; Palmer's Sinai. 

Consult also books under The Bible and the 
Ancient Monuments and The Ethnology of the 


By THEOPHILUS G. PINCHES, M.E.A.S., Department of Assyrian and Egyptian 

Antiquities, British Museum. 

1. Introductory.— It is difficult to overesti- 
mate the importance of the ethnological infor- 
mation given in the Bible, and its bearing on 
the history of our race and civilization. The 
knowledge displayed by the various sacred 
writers is considerable. Great light has been 
thrown on the ethnology of the Bible by the 
decipherment of the inscriptions of Assyria and 
Egypt; more light will undoubtedly be thrown 
as time goes on, and much will probably be 
modified. The ethnology of a book or series of 
books of such antiquity as the Bible is a difficult 
subject, and great caution is needed in coming 
to a conclusion concerning those nations or 
tribes of which only the name is known. 

2. The Tenth Chapter of Genesis (the So-Called 
' ' Ethnographical Table ' ' ) .—The tenth chapter of 
Genesis, which gives a summary of the ethno- 
graphical knowledge of the Hebrews at the time 
it was written, is regarded as referring more to 
political history and civilization than to ethnog- 
raphy and geography. The children of (or na- 
tions descended from) Japheth, Ham, and Shem 
are all treated of in the order named, and the 
territory passed under review embraces Media 
and Elam on the east, Greece and Tarshish on 
the west, Gomer and Caucasus on the north, 
and Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia on the south. 
The districts in which the descendants of the 
three sons of Noah mainly settled are as fol- 
lows : Shem (compared by some with the Assyr- 
ian sdmu, "dark-colored") inhabits the middle 

Eortion of western Asia; Ham ("the black one ") 
as Egypt, Ethiopia, and some portions of west- 
ern Asia; and Japheth (Hebrew, Yepheth, "the 
wide extended," or, according to some, "the 
fair ") occupies Asia Minor and Europe. That the 
ethnographical nature of the chapter is uncer- 
tain may be gathered from the fact that scholars 
are not by any means unanimous whether 
Canaan be really Semitic (the Canaanites spoke 
a Semitic language) or Hamitic. As, however, 
among the descendants of Canaan Heth and 

" the Hamathite "—nations of undoubted Ham- 
itic origin— are given, it may be regarded as 
fairly certain that the biblical description is in 
the main correct, and the physical difference 
between the dark-skinned Egyptians and Ethio- 
pians, with their medium stature, straight or 
flat nose, thick lips, and scanty beard, and the 
Canaanites, with their olive complexion, lofty 
stature, prominent aquiline nose, and full beard, 
may be merely the result of a different climate 
and intermarriage with other races. 

3. The Original Home of the Semites.— There 
is much discussion as to the whereabouts of the 
cradle of the Semitic race. Some place it in 
Mesopotamia, others in Arabia, and yet others 
in Africa. The majority is probably in favor of 
the second of these hypotheses, though, if the 
Semites came from Africa, Arabia may still be 
the center from which they spread. Adopting 
for the nonce Schrader's theory of the Arabian 
locality, it may be supposed that the northern 
Semites (the Arameans, Babylonians, and Ca- 
naanites) parted in a body from their kinsmen 
of the south and settled in Babylonia, where 
they lived for a long period. The first to sepa- 
rate from the main body would be the Arame- 
ans, much later the Canaanites, last of all the 
Assyrians. At the same time an emigration 
would be taking place in a southerly direction. 
Leaving the northern Arabs in central Arabia, 
these wanderers possibly settled on the southern 
coast of the peninsula, whence a band of them 
afterwards crossed the Red Sea into Abyssinia, 
becoming the Ethiopians, or Geez, of later times. 
That the Arabian theory is the most probable 
may be inferred from the fact that, as Professor 
Sayce points out, the Phenicians believed them- 
selves to have come from the neighborhood of 
the Persian Gulf. Like Abraham, they migrated 
from here to the lowlands of Canaan, where 
some settled, intermarrying with the aborigines, 
and others passed on into Egypt, eventually 
founding the dynasty of the Shepherd kings. 



Those on the south and east led a nomadic life, 
constantly attacking their more civilized kins- 
men on the north and west. Anions these tribes 
may be classed (for a time) the descendants 
of Terah, namely, the Moabites, Ammonites, 
EMomites, and Israelites, which last, after their 
sojourn in Egypt, also established themselves 
in Palestine, extirpating, as far as possible, both 
the aborigines and the later Semitic settlers. 
This extirpation, however^ was far from com- 
plete, for it has been shown, and is pretty gen- 
erally recognized, that the present peasantry 
of Canaan (fclldhin) are the descendants of the 
ancient Oanaanites, and are partly of Semitic 
and partly of non-Semitic blood. 

4. Syria, North of Palestine.— In the tract north 
of Palestine, known as Syria, Semites also set- 
tled and founded kingdoms. These were Da- 
mascus, Aram-Zobah, Maachah, etc., founded by 
Arameans. descendants of Nahor and Shem 
(Gen. 22: 21; 10: 22), and, from the difference of 
language, seem to have separated from their 
kinsfolk in Babylonia at an early date— before 
the Semitic migrations to the extreme west — 
though it is doubtful whether they preceded 
the Phenicians of the seacoast or not. There 
were also Arameans in Lebanon, and smaller 
Aramaic states in Hermon. In addition to these 
were the two non-Semitic kingdoms of the Hit- 
tites and the Hamathites (the former the Khatti 
of the Assyrians, and the Kheta of the Egyp- 
tians). The Hittites were divided into numer- 
ous small kingdoms (I. Ki. 10: 29), and it is 
probably for that reason that the Assyrians 
called the whole district, including Palestine, 
mat Khatti, or "the land of Hit." Their chief 
cities were Carchemish (a great trading center), 
on the Euphrates (now Jerablus), and Kadesh 
(on the lake of Homs or Lake Kadas), between 
Hamath and Damascus. A portion of this peo- 
ple had, in the time of Abraham, located itself 
in and around Hebron (Gen. 23), and in Moses' 
time with the Amorites and Jebusites on the 
mountains (Deut. 20: 17; Josh. 11: 3) of Palestine 
west of the Jordan. 

5. Palestine.— Patriarchal Period.— During the 
Patriarchal period Palestine was occupied by 
Semitic and other tribes, the former speaking 
dialects more or less akin to Hebrew and Phe- 
nician, the "language of Canaan" (i.e., of the 
lowlands). The non-Semitic race or races which 
the Hebrews found there, and which were prob- 
ably very powerful when they entered it, possi- 
bly spoke a language akin to that of MUdnni, a 
powerful tribe on the northeast. Whether the 
Giants mentioned from time to time were relics 
of this ancient race, we have no means of de- 
termining, nor do we know what their exact 
character may have been. To these "giants" 
belonged the Rephaim (probably the oldest peo- 
ple in Palestine, called by the Edomites Emim, 
and by the Ammonites Zamzummim. The 
Kephaim lived in the Ha uran (supposed to mean 
'♦cave-land"). The people of this race, known 
to the Hebrews as Znzim or Zamzummim, dwelt 
between Bashan and Moab, the Anakim in and 
around Hebron, the Emim on the plain of 
Kiriath west of the Dead Sea, the Avim in the 
neighborhood of Gaza* the llorites, or "cave 
dwellers*" in the mountainous regions of Scir 
(den. 11: 5, (i; Deut. 2: 11, 12, 20-23). The Anakim 
were driven out by Joshua (or, rather, Caleb), 
and the llorites, whose dwellings still exist, 
were exterminated by the Edomites (Deut. 2: 12, 
22). The Amorites (Hebrew, Enwriy "Highland- 
ers") dwelt in the southwest of Palest inc. thei r 
capitals being Hebron ami Hazezon -Tamar. 
They possessed part of the country afterwards 
peoupied by the bribe of Judah. The Amorites 
were regarded as belonging to the Hephaiin— 
Sihon, king of 1 lesh b< »n, and ( >g, king of Jiashan. 
being reckoned among the remnants of that 
tribe or race (Deut. 3: in; Josh, H: 10). Other 
hill-tribes, however, on the south and east, seem 

also to have been included in the term Amor- 
ites, and this without reference to race or lan- 
guage, the term being probably a descriptive 
title, " highlander,"likeCanaanite, "lowlander," 
etc., and it is most likely for that reason that 
we find that the Hivites ("villagers") are called 
Amorites (ef . Josh. 11:19 with II. Sam. 21 : 2). The 
Amorites were ( he most powerful of the eleven 
tribes into which the Canaanites were divided. 
The Hivites (Hebrew, Ha-Khvwivi) (see Gen. 10: 
17) dwelt first in mid-Canaan, in Shechem (Gen. 
34: 2), in Gibeon (Josh. 0: 3-7; 11: 19), and later in 
the northern parts of Lebanon and even as far 
as Hamath (Josh, li: 3; Judg. 3: 3; II. Sam. 24: 7). 
The Jebusites, though a small tribe, was one of 
importance, for they occupied the mountains 
of Jerusalem and the neighborhood. Whether 
they were Semites or not is uncertain, the vari- 
ant spellings of the name Araunah (Aranyah, 
Ornah, and Oman), from its non-Semitic ap- 
pearance, indicating that they were not, and 
the names Melchizedek and Adoni-zedek (Josh. 
10: 3) indicating the contrary. The Jebusites are 
classed with the Amorites in Josh. 10: 5, 6 (Heb. 
text), but nothing can be inferred from this as 
to their affinities, the term Amorite including 
both Semitic and non-Semitic tribes. The Gir- 
gashites west of the Jordan, the Arkites of Leb- 
anon, who built the city of Arka, the Sinites in 
the same neighborhood, the Arvadites and the 
Zemarites of Aradus and Simyra, and the Ha- 
mathites on the ©pontes w r ere all descendants 
of Canaan, and therefore non -Semitic. More 
important than these, however, were the Amal- 
ekites, an ancient people ("the first of the 
nations," Num.24: 20) of Edomite descent, who, 
according to Kautzsch, occupied the southern 
portion of Canaan and a large part of the pen- 
insula of Sinai. The Kenites were a branch of the 
Midianites (cf. Judg. 4: 11 with Num. 10: 29), and 
dwelt among the Amalekites (Num. 24: 20, 21; I. 
Sam. 15: 6). A portion of them followed the 
Israelites on their entrance into Canaan (Judg. 
1: 16; 4: 11). The Kenizzites ("hunters"), who 
lived to the south of Palestine, as descendants 
of " duke Kenaz " (Gen. 30 : 15, 42), were among the 
descendants of Esau. In the southwest corner of 
Palestine lived the Philistines, who are said to 
have come from Caphtor (Amos 9: 7; Jer. 47: 4; 
Deut. 2: 23; Gen. 10: in, 14— in this last the names 
seem to be transposed), and are apparently de- 
scribed as the descendants of Mizraim. Caphtor 
has been identified with Cyprus and Crete. 
Edom, with the country to the south of the 
Philistines, was known also to the Hebrews as 
Teman, "the south," a district supposed to be 
so named as lying to the "south" of Palestine, 
but probably a name of a man (from Teman, 
son of Eliphaz, son of Esau, Gen. 36: 11, 15). 

6. Palestine.— The Jews.— The entrance of the 
Israelites into Palestine disturbed the ancient 
races considerably, and some portions were an- 
nihilated altogether. The result was, of course, 
to complete more thoroughly the Sensitization 
of the whole tract, though remains of the various 
ancient races, Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, 
Hivites, and Jebusites. continued to dwell in 
the country and paid tribute (1. Ki. 9:20, 21). 
Aram (of which David was overlord) was, in 
the times of the kings, divided into several 
small states— Aram of Damascus (II. Sam. 8: 5, 6), 
Aram-Zobah (II. Sam. 10:6, S), Aram of the 
house of Rehob (Beth-Rehob, 11. Sam. 10:6), 
A ram of JNIaachah £A* V., Syria-Maachah, I. Chr. 
19: (j), and the little principality of Geshur 
(Dint. 3:14, etc.). As Aram of Damascus in- 
creased in importance it gradually absorbed the 
smaller powers, notwithstanding that Aram- 
Zobah extended its boundaries considerably in 
the time of Hadadezer. Hamath still formed a 
separate kingdom, but the Hittite sphere of in- 
fluence had been pushed towards the northeast, 
and Caivhcmish, their capital. 

The Jews, the descendants of a migratory 



race originally from Mesopotamia, differed con- 
siderably from their Semitic kinsmen of the 
Euphrates valley. They seem to have been 
mostly of the type so well known at the present 
day, with black hair and beard, and a longish, 
hooked nose. Those around Lachish seem to 
have differed from the inhabitants of other 
parts of Israel, and had a rounder head and 
woolly hair and beard— a rare type now. The 
reproduction here given shows Israelites of the 
time of Jehu. 

7. Tarshish, Greece, "the Isles of the Gen- 
tiles," Chittim.— By intercourse with Tyre the 
Israelites became acquainted with other races. 
Tarshish, with which Solomon's ships traded, 
is generally regarded as the Spanish Tartessus. 
It was regarded as the farthest point to which 

8. Ophir.— Ophir is regarded by some as be- 
ing on the Arabian coast, by others as on the 
coast of Somaliland, and by others again as 
part of India, namely, Abhira, at the mouth of 
the Indus, the Hebrew tukkiyyim, "peacocks," 
which came from Ophir, being compared with 
the Tamil togei. The use of Indian words does 
not, however, form a conclusive proof that 
Ophir lay in that direction, and as Ophir is 
mentioned in Gen. 10:29, between Sheba and 
Havilah, as one of the sons of Joktan, the first 
two assumptions may be regarded as not im- 

9. Tubal, Mesech, Gomer, Gog and Magog, Lud, 
Armenia.— Tubal (Greek, Tibarenoi) and Mesech 
(Greek, Moschoi) are both mentioned in Gen. 
10 : 2, but it was probably not until a much later 

Jewish Tribute-Bearers, from the Black Obelisk of Shaimaneser II. 
Found at Nimroud (Calah). British Museum. 

the Phenicians sailed. Javan is the land of 
the Ionians, applied by the Hebrews to all 
Greeks, with whom the Phenicians had long 
traded. The Greeks were known by this name 
throughout the East. The Isles (Isa. 41: 1,5), or 
"isles of the Gentiles " (Gen. 10: 5), and "the isles 
of Elishah " (Ezek. 27 : 7) are apparently the is- 
lands of the Greek Sea, Elishah being regarded 
by some as Hellas, and by others as possibly 
Elis (the northwest province of Peloponnesus), 
and Aioleis (iKolians). The identification of 
Elishah as some part of Greece is confirmed by 
the fact that in Gen. 10: 4 he is stated to be a son 
of Javan, along with Tarshish, Kittim, and 
Dodanirn or Roclanim. With Cyprus the He- 
brews had long been acquainted. The people of 
the island were known as Chittim, i. <?., inhabit- 
ants of Kition (Latin, Oitium), as early as the 
date of the compilation of Genesis (see 10: 4), 
and this presupposes an extremely early date 
for the foundation of the city. It became a 
Phenician colony, like Rhodes (generally re- 
garded as the Dodanirn, or better, Kodanim, of 
Gen. 10: 4 and I, Chr. 1: 7, 

date that the Jews came into contact with 
them (see Ezek. 27 : 13). The Assyrian king, Tig- 
lath-Pileser I. came into conflict with the 
people of Mesech (called Muskaya) about 1120 
B.C., and Shaimaneser II. received tribute from 
Tubal (called mdt Tabali), which was governed 
then by no less than twenty -four kings, about 
the year 850 B.C., and both countries are men- 
tioned in later inscriptions. Their territories 
extended from the Black Sea to the Taurus, and 
their near neighbors were Kummukhu or 
Comagene, and Khilakku or Cilicia. Tubal and 
Mesech are counted in Gen. 10 : 2 among the de- 
scendants of Japheth, and may, therefore, have 
been Aryan, The Gomer of the Bible is identi- 
fied with the Kimmeria of the Greeks. The 
Kimmerians originally had their home north- 
ward of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azof, and 
it is supposed that the name is preserved in the 
present Crimea. They were driven out by the 
Scyths, and fell on the Lydians of Asia Minor, 
shortly before the first unsuccessful siege of 
Nineveh by Cyaxeres. About the year 667 B.C. 
Esarhaddon fought with and defeated Teuspa, 



the king of the Kimmcrians, who are called 
"barbarians" {umman manda), a name applied 
to the Medes by Nabonidus. After sacking 
Sinope they overran Lydia, whose king, Gugu 
or Gyges, defeated them and captured two of 
their chiefs, whom he sent to Nineveh as a 
present to Assur-bani-apli. The precise identi- 
fication of Magog, the land ruled over by Gog, 
who had Tubal, Mesech, Gomer, and Beth-To- 
ga rmah subject to him, is uncertain. Gog is 
regarded as the same as Gyges by some, in 
which case Magog would be Lydia J whilst 
others are in favor of identifying him with 
(rdgi, ruler of a country called Sakht. By the 
land of Lud (or Ludim) is generally understood 
Lydiaj 1bo Luddu of Assyrian literature, whose 
inhabitants were probably Aryans, and this 
country is therefore not to be identified with 
the Lud of Gen. 10:22, who was a son of Shem. 
The three sons of Gomer, Ashkenaz, Riphath, 
and Togarmah (Gen. 10:3), seem to have inhab- 
ited the west of Armenia, and are regarded as 
having belonged to either the Aryan or Alaro- 
dian stock. The Sepharad of Obad. 20 is appar- 
ently the Saparda of the late-Babylonian in- 
scriptions and the omen texts of Esarhaddon, 
and seems to be another name for Lydia, though 
it may designate a small independent state. The 

Srincipal state of Armenia was that of the 
lannaa (people of Ararat or Van), Avho have 
left a number of inscriptions, and whose lan- 
guage seems to have been Alarodian. Before 
the arrival of the present Aryan inhabitants of 
Armenia, which took place in the seventh cen- 
tury B.C., the country was divided into the two 
principal kingdoms of Minni (Mannda) and 
Ararat ( Urartu or Urtu) (northwest and northeast 
of Lake Van respectively). Both countries are 
often mentioned in the Assyrian inscriptions, 
and were often overrun by. them. With Ararat 
and Minni, Jeremiah (51:27) associates Ash- 
kenaz (see above), one of the sons of Gomer, 
thus giving an indication of the position and 
relationship of the latter province. 

10. Assyrians, Babylonians, and Akkadians.— 
The Mesopotainian plain and Babylonia w r ere 
peopled originally, it would seem, by Semites, 
the Babylonians (for that is probably meant by 

ments, and their first great chief is called, in the 
Bible, Nimrorl. Apparently these people were 
more civilized than the Semitic tribes among 
whom they settled, and they brought with 
them the wedge-formed characters which had 
originated among them before they entered 
Babylonia. Their religion was polytheistic, 
and they made extensive use of charms and 
incantations. Besides Babylonia, another tribe 
of this race settled in Elam, and attained to 
such power that it even gave kings to portions 
of Babylonia, Chedorlaomer (Kudur-Lagamar) 
being one of them, as was probably also Arioch 
(Eri-Aku) of Ellasar (supposed to be Larsa, now 
Senkereh). Notwithstanding this great influx of 
non-Semites, however, they speedily became 
absorbed into the original Semitic inhabitants, 
and the Akkadian language, which had become 
the speech of the people in those states where 
Akkadians predominated, gave way entirely to 
Semitic Babylonian, and probably died out 
about 1800 B.C. Akkadian, however, remained a 
kind of classic tongue, which every educated 
Babylonian and Assyrian was obliged to know. 
It was probably the non-Semitic element of the 
population which gave to the Assyrians and 
Babylonians their superiority. The Semitic 
element of the population of Babylonia is 
called Casdim, "Chaldeans," in the Old Testa- 
ment, but this is simply an extension of the 
name, which was properly applied only to the 
Chaldean tribes, also Semites, around Babylon. 
Both in language and race the Babylonians and 
Assyrians were more closely allied to the He- 
brews and Phenicians than any other people 
of the Semitic stock. The tract called Mesopo- 
tamia was known to the Hebrews as Aram-Na- 
haraim, "Aram of the two rivers" (i. e., the 
Tigris and the Euphrates), and was also called 
Padan-Aram. It was inhabited by several non- 
Semitic tribes, supposed by some to be Turanian, 
by others Alarodian, and possibly akin to the 

11. Medes, Persians, and Elamites.— The Medes 
are mentioned in Gen. 10: 2 under the name of 
Madai, and their name often occurs afterwards. 
The Assyrian king, Sargon, transplanted a por- 
tion of the ten tribes to Media. The Assyrians 

Head from a statue from Tel-Loh (Lagas), showing 
early Akkadian type. Louvre. 

Arpakshad) in the south, the Assyrians in the 
north. At an exceedingly early period, how- 
ever, large bodies of an entirely different race— 
of Mongolian or Tartar origin — took possession 
of Babylonia, and founded there a number of 
small kingdoms. These people were the Su- 
merians (inhabitants of Sbinar) and Akkad- 
ians of the Assyrian and Babylonian monu- 

Elamite soldiers and an official in a cart, coming to 
pay homage to Umman-igas, the prince set on the 
throne by Assur-bani-apli, king of Assyria. From 
a has -relief from Kouyunjik {Nineveh). British 

seem first to have become acquainted with the 
Medes as a distinct non-Aryan population at 
the end of the ninth century B.C. Two hundred 
years later Cyaxares formed a Median empire, 
and joined in (he overthrow of Assyria. The 
Persians, probably a branch of the Aryan Medes, 
occupied the district to the southeast of Elam 
about the eighth century B.C. The ancient 
kingdom of Elam, or Susiana, whose people 



were allied in race to the Akkadians, and whose 
kings at one time ruled portions of Babylonia, 
had been ravaged by the armies of Assur-bani- 
apli, or Sardanapalos, 640 B.C., and numbers of 
the people killed or driven away. On the inva- 
sion of the Persians this tract became thor- 
oughly Aryan, and Shushan (Susa), its chief 
city, became the capital of the Persian empire 
(Esth. 1: 2). The Elamites are represented with 
short but generally straight noses, and with 
their hair and beard cut rather short. They 
seem not to have been of such a strong build 
as the Assyrians. 

12. Arabia.— Arabia was inhabited by the 
Arabs and the descendants of Ishmael, and the 
sons of Abraham by Keturah (Gen. 25: 1-4). The 
principal tribe was the Midianites, who inhab- 
ited the northwestern portion of Arabia, extend- 
ing into the peninsula of Sinai and the coast of 
the Red Sea. They shared the desert region on 
the south of Judah with the Amalekites. Many 
a time they came into contact with the Israelites, 
even before the entry of the latter into the Holy 
Land. In the Old Testament the tribes of Arabia 
Petraea are often called "the men " or " children 
of the East" (Gen. 29: 1; I. Ki. 4: SO; Ezek. 25: 4, 
10; Job 1: 3), with whom the Kadmonites are 
perhaps identical. South of the Midianites 
were the Ishmaelites, descendants of Abraham, 
though their language (Arabic) belongs to the 
southern Semitic branch (i.e., that to which 
Himyaritic belongs). This change from the lan- 
guage of Abraham is probably due to their hav- 
ing settled in central Arabia. To this branch 
belonged the Nabatheans (descendants of the 
eldest of Ishmael's twelve sons), who lived to 
the southeast of Palestine. The western coast of 
the Arabian peninsula, called Put in the Bible, 
was looked on with veneration by the ancients. 
The southern part of Arabia was occupied by the 
Joktanitesof Saba(Sheba) and Himyar— indeed, 
all the thirteen sons of Joktan (Gen. 10: 26-30) 
settled in south Arabia. The Joktanites were 
Semites. A portion of them crossed, at a late 
date, into Abyssinia, and, under the name of 
Ghe'ez (as they called themsel